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1.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 13(1): 161, 2022 04 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883538

ABSTRACT

The global burden of pulmonary disease highlights an overwhelming need in improving our understanding of lung development, disease, and treatment. It also calls for further advances in our ability to engineer the pulmonary system at cellular and tissue levels. The discovery of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) offsets the relative inaccessibility of human lungs for studying developmental programs and disease mechanisms, all the while offering a potential source of cells and tissue for regenerative interventions. This review offers a perspective on where the lung stem cell field stands in terms of accomplishing these ambitious goals. We will trace the known stages and pathways involved in in vivo lung development and how they inspire the directed differentiation of stem and progenitor cells in vitro. We will also recap the efforts made to date to recapitulate the lung stem cell niche in vitro via engineered cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions.


Subject(s)
Pluripotent Stem Cells , Cell Differentiation , Extracellular Matrix/metabolism , Humans , Lung , Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Stem Cell Niche
2.
J Mol Biol ; 434(3): 167386, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851577

ABSTRACT

Developmental brain diseases encompass a group of conditions resulting from genetic or environmental perturbations during early development. Despite the increased research attention in recent years following recognition of the prevalence of these diseases, there is still a significant lack of knowledge of their etiology and treatment options. The genetic and clinical heterogeneity of these diseases, in addition to the limitations of experimental animal models, contribute to this difficulty. In this regard, the advent of brain organoid technology has provided a new means to study the cause and progression of developmental brain diseases in vitro. Derived from human pluripotent stem cells, brain organoids have been shown to recapitulate key developmental milestones of the early human brain. Combined with technological advancements in genome editing, tissue engineering, electrophysiology, and multi-omics analysis, brain organoids have expanded the frontiers of human neurobiology, providing valuable insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of normal and pathological brain development. This review will summarize the current progress of applying brain organoids to model human developmental brain diseases and discuss the challenges that need to be overcome to further advance their utility.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , Brain , Organoids , Pluripotent Stem Cells , Brain/abnormalities , Brain Diseases/embryology , Cell Culture Techniques , Humans , Organoids/abnormalities
3.
Cell Stem Cell ; 29(5): 810-825.e8, 2022 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819607

ABSTRACT

Trophoblast organoids derived from placental villi provide a 3D model system of human placental development, but access to first-trimester tissues is limited. Here, we report that trophoblast stem cells isolated from naive human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) can efficiently self-organize into 3D stem-cell-derived trophoblast organoids (SC-TOs) with a villous architecture similar to primary trophoblast organoids. Single-cell transcriptome analysis reveals the presence of distinct cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast clusters and a small cluster of extravillous trophoblasts, which closely correspond to trophoblast identities in the post-implantation embryo. These organoid cultures display clonal X chromosome inactivation patterns previously described in the human placenta. We further demonstrate that SC-TOs exhibit selective vulnerability to emerging pathogens (SARS-CoV-2 and Zika virus), which correlates with expression levels of their respective entry factors. The generation of trophoblast organoids from naive hPSCs provides an accessible 3D model system of the developing placenta and its susceptibility to emerging pathogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pluripotent Stem Cells , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Cell Differentiation , Female , Humans , Organoids , Placenta/metabolism , Placentation , Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Trophoblasts/metabolism , Zika Virus Infection/metabolism
4.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2028, 2022 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805608

ABSTRACT

Dysfunctional immune responses contribute critically to the progression of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19), with macrophages as one of the main cell types involved. It is urgent to understand the interactions among permissive cells, macrophages, and the SARS-CoV-2 virus, thereby offering important insights into effective therapeutic strategies. Here, we establish a lung and macrophage co-culture system derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), modeling the host-pathogen interaction in SARS-CoV-2 infection. We find that both classically polarized macrophages (M1) and alternatively polarized macrophages (M2) have inhibitory effects on SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, M1 and non-activated (M0) macrophages, but not M2 macrophages, significantly up-regulate inflammatory factors upon viral infection. Moreover, M1 macrophages suppress the growth and enhance apoptosis of lung cells. Inhibition of viral entry using an ACE2 blocking antibody substantially enhances the activity of M2 macrophages. Our studies indicate differential immune response patterns in distinct macrophage phenotypes, which could lead to a range of COVID-19 disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pluripotent Stem Cells , Humans , Lung , Macrophages , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Nat Methods ; 19(4): 418-428, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784012

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is one of the deadliest pandemics in history. SARS-CoV-2 not only infects the respiratory tract, but also causes damage to many organs. Organoids, which can self-renew and recapitulate the various physiology of different organs, serve as powerful platforms to model COVID-19. In this Perspective, we overview the current effort to apply both human pluripotent stem cell-derived organoids and adult organoids to study SARS-CoV-2 tropism, host response and immune cell-mediated host damage, and perform drug discovery and vaccine development. We summarize the technologies used in organoid-based COVID-19 research, discuss the remaining challenges and provide future perspectives in the application of organoid models to study SARS-CoV-2 and future emerging viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pluripotent Stem Cells , Adult , Humans , Organoids , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Stem Cell Reports ; 17(4): 711-714, 2022 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756288

ABSTRACT

The manipulation of human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) and immune modulatory factors in "universal" human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) holds promise for immunological tolerance without HLA matching. This paradigm raises concerns should "universal" grafts become virally infected. Furthermore, immunological manipulation might functionally impair certain progeny, such as hematopoietic stem cells. We discuss the risks and benefits of hypoimmunogenic PSCs, and the need to further advance HLA matching and autologous strategies.


Subject(s)
Pandemics , Pluripotent Stem Cells , HLA Antigens , Humans , Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects
7.
Eur Respir Rev ; 30(161)2021 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736334

ABSTRACT

Respiratory diseases are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, representing a major unmet medical need. New chemical entities rarely make it into the clinic to treat respiratory diseases, which is partially due to a lack of adequate predictive disease models and the limited availability of human lung tissues to model respiratory disease. Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) may help fill this gap by serving as a scalable human in vitro model. In addition, human in vitro models of rare genetic mutations can be generated using hPSCs. hPSC-derived epithelial cells and organoids have already shown great potential for the understanding of disease mechanisms, for finding new potential targets by using high-throughput screening platforms, and for personalised treatments. These potentials can also be applied to other hPSC-derived lung cell types in the future. In this review, we will discuss how hPSCs have brought, and may continue to bring, major changes to the field of respiratory diseases by understanding the molecular mechanisms of the pathology and by finding efficient therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Pluripotent Stem Cells , Cell Differentiation , Epithelial Cells , Humans , Lung , Organoids
8.
Stem Cell Reports ; 17(3): 522-537, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692862

ABSTRACT

Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) commonly have manifestations of heart disease. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genome encodes 27 proteins. Currently, SARS-CoV-2 gene-induced abnormalities of human heart muscle cells remain elusive. Here, we comprehensively characterized the detrimental effects of a SARS-CoV-2 gene, Orf9c, on human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) by preforming multi-omic analyses. Transcriptomic analyses of hPSC-CMs infected by SARS-CoV-2 with Orf9c overexpression (Orf9cOE) identified concordantly up-regulated genes enriched into stress-related apoptosis and inflammation signaling pathways, and down-regulated CM functional genes. Proteomic analysis revealed enhanced expressions of apoptotic factors, whereas reduced protein factors for ATP synthesis by Orf9cOE. Orf9cOE significantly reduced cellular ATP level, induced apoptosis, and caused electrical dysfunctions of hPSC-CMs. Finally, drugs approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, namely, ivermectin and meclizine, restored ATP levels and ameliorated CM death and functional abnormalities of Orf9cOE hPSC-CMs. Overall, we defined the molecular mechanisms underlying the detrimental impacts of Orf9c on hPSC-CMs and explored potentially therapeutic approaches to ameliorate Orf9c-induced cardiac injury and abnormalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Action Potentials/drug effects , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Apoptosis/drug effects , Apoptosis/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Down-Regulation , Humans , Ivermectin/pharmacology , Meclizine/pharmacology , Myocytes, Cardiac/cytology , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Protein Interaction Maps/genetics , RNA, Messenger/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Signal Transduction/genetics , Transcriptome/drug effects , Up-Regulation
9.
Stem Cell Reports ; 17(3): 538-555, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692861

ABSTRACT

To date, the direct causative mechanism of SARS-CoV-2-induced endotheliitis remains unclear. Here, we report that human ECs barely express surface ACE2, and ECs express less intracellular ACE2 than non-ECs of the lungs. We ectopically expressed ACE2 in hESC-ECs to model SARS-CoV-2 infection. ACE2-deficient ECs are resistant to the infection but are more activated than ACE2-expressing ones. The virus directly induces endothelial activation by increasing monocyte adhesion, NO production, and enhanced phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-associated protein kinase (MAPK), NF-κB, and eNOS in ACE2-expressing and -deficient ECs. ACE2-deficient ECs respond to SARS-CoV-2 through TLR4 as treatment with its antagonist inhibits p38 MAPK/NF-κB/ interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) activation after viral exposure. Genome-wide, single-cell RNA-seq analyses further confirm activation of the TLR4/MAPK14/RELA/IL-1ß axis in circulating ECs of mild and severe COVID-19 patients. Circulating ECs could serve as biomarkers for indicating patients with endotheliitis. Together, our findings support a direct role for SARS-CoV-2 in mediating endothelial inflammation in an ACE2-dependent or -independent manner.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Models, Biological , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Endothelial Cells/cytology , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Humans , Interleukin-1beta/genetics , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , NF-kappa B/antagonists & inhibitors , NF-kappa B/genetics , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Single-Cell Analysis , Toll-Like Receptor 4/antagonists & inhibitors , Toll-Like Receptor 4/genetics , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/genetics , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism
10.
Cells ; 11(3)2022 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690348

ABSTRACT

Advances in human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) technology allow one to deconstruct the human body into specific disease-relevant cell types or create functional units representing various organs. hPSC-based models present a unique opportunity for the study of co-occurring disorders where "cause and effect" can be addressed. Poor neurodevelopmental outcomes have been reported in children with congenital heart diseases (CHD). Intuitively, abnormal cardiac function or surgical intervention may stunt the developing brain, leading to neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD). However, recent work has uncovered several genetic variants within genes associated with the development of both the heart and brain that could also explain this co-occurrence. Given the scalability of hPSCs, straightforward genetic modification, and established differentiation strategies, it is now possible to investigate both CHD and NDD as independent events. We will first overview the potential for shared genetics in both heart and brain development. We will then summarize methods to differentiate both cardiac & neural cells and organoids from hPSCs that represent the developmental process of the heart and forebrain. Finally, we will highlight strategies to rapidly screen several genetic variants together to uncover potential phenotypes and how therapeutic advances could be achieved by hPSC-based models.


Subject(s)
Heart Defects, Congenital , Neurodevelopmental Disorders , Pluripotent Stem Cells , Cell Differentiation/genetics , Heart Defects, Congenital/genetics , Heart Defects, Congenital/metabolism , Humans , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/genetics , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/metabolism , Organoids/metabolism , Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism
12.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 322(3): L462-L478, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622104

ABSTRACT

There is an urgent need to understand how SARS-CoV-2 infects the airway epithelium and in a subset of individuals leads to severe illness or death. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provide a near limitless supply of human cells that can be differentiated into cell types of interest, including airway epithelium, for disease modeling. We present a human iPSC-derived airway epithelial platform, composed of the major airway epithelial cell types, that is permissive to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Subsets of iPSC-airway cells express the SARS-CoV-2 entry factors angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2). Multiciliated cells are the primary initial target of SARS-CoV-2 infection. On infection with SARS-CoV-2, iPSC-airway cells generate robust interferon and inflammatory responses, and treatment with remdesivir or camostat mesylate causes a decrease in viral propagation and entry, respectively. In conclusion, iPSC-derived airway cells provide a physiologically relevant in vitro model system to interrogate the pathogenesis of, and develop treatment strategies for, COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Pluripotent Stem Cells , Epithelial Cells , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597826

ABSTRACT

Organoids are tiny, self-organized, three-dimensional tissue cultures that are derived from the differentiation of stem cells. The growing interest in the use of organoids arises from their ability to mimic the biology and physiology of specific tissue structures in vitro. Organoids indeed represent promising systems for the in vitro modeling of tissue morphogenesis and organogenesis, regenerative medicine and tissue engineering, drug therapy testing, toxicology screening, and disease modeling. Although 2D cell cultures have been used for more than 50 years, even for their simplicity and low-cost maintenance, recent years have witnessed a steep rise in the availability of organoid model systems. Exploiting the ability of cells to re-aggregate and reconstruct the original architecture of an organ makes it possible to overcome many limitations of 2D cell culture systems. In vitro replication of the cellular micro-environment of a specific tissue leads to reproducing the molecular, biochemical, and biomechanical mechanisms that directly influence cell behavior and fate within that specific tissue. Lineage-specific self-organizing organoids have now been generated for many organs. Currently, growing cardiac organoid (cardioids) from pluripotent stem cells and cardiac stem/progenitor cells remains an open challenge due to the complexity of the spreading, differentiation, and migration of cardiac muscle and vascular layers. Here, we summarize the evolution of biological model systems from the generation of 2D spheroids to 3D organoids by focusing on the generation of cardioids based on the currently available laboratory technologies and outline their high potential for cardiovascular research.


Subject(s)
Adult Stem Cells/cytology , Organ Culture Techniques/methods , Organoids/cytology , Cell Differentiation , Heart/physiology , Humans , Models, Biological , Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Regeneration , Spheroids, Cellular/cytology
14.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572666

ABSTRACT

Gene therapy is currently in the public spotlight. Several gene therapy products, including oncolytic virus (OV), which predominantly replicates in and kills cancer cells, and COVID-19 vaccines have recently been commercialized. Recombinant adenoviruses, including replication-defective adenoviral vector and conditionally replicating adenovirus (CRA; oncolytic adenovirus), have been extensively studied and used in clinical trials for cancer and vaccines. Here, we review the biology of wild-type adenoviruses, the methodological principle for constructing recombinant adenoviruses, therapeutic applications of recombinant adenoviruses, and new technologies in pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-based regenerative medicine. Moreover, this article describes the technology platform for efficient construction of diverse "CRAs that can specifically target tumors with multiple factors" (m-CRAs). This technology allows for modification of four parts in the adenoviral E1 region and the subsequent insertion of a therapeutic gene and promoter to enhance cancer-specific viral replication (i.e., safety) as well as therapeutic effects. The screening study using the m-CRA technology successfully identified survivin-responsive m-CRA (Surv.m-CRA) as among the best m-CRAs, and clinical trials of Surv.m-CRA are underway for patients with cancer. This article also describes new recombinant adenovirus-based technologies for solving issues in PSC-based regenerative medicine.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae Infections/virology , Adenoviridae/genetics , Adenoviridae/physiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Genetic Therapy , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cell Line, Tumor , Gene Expression , Genetic Vectors , Humans , Immunotherapy , Oncolytic Viruses/genetics , Pluripotent Stem Cells , Promoter Regions, Genetic , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivin , Virus Replication
15.
Cell Rep ; 37(6): 109920, 2021 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530684

ABSTRACT

It is urgent to develop disease models to dissect mechanisms regulating severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Here, we derive airway organoids from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC-AOs). The hPSC-AOs, particularly ciliated-like cells, are permissive to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Using this platform, we perform a high content screen and identify GW6471, which blocks SARS-CoV-2 infection. GW6471 can also block infection of the B.1.351 SARS-CoV-2 variant. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis suggests that GW6471 blocks SARS-CoV-2 infection at least in part by inhibiting hypoxia inducible factor 1 subunit alpha (HIF1α), which is further validated by chemical inhibitor and genetic perturbation targeting HIF1α. Metabolic profiling identifies decreased rates of glycolysis upon GW6471 treatment, consistent with transcriptome profiling. Finally, xanthohumol, 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid, and ND-646, three compounds that suppress fatty acid biosynthesis, also block SARS-CoV-2 infection. Together, a high content screen coupled with transcriptome and metabolic profiling reveals a key role of the HIF1α-glycolysis axis in mediating SARS-CoV-2 infection of human airway epithelium.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Glycolysis/physiology , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Organoids/metabolism , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Transcriptome/physiology , Vero Cells
16.
Cells ; 10(11)2021 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512137

ABSTRACT

Personalized regenerative medicine and biomedical research have been galvanized and revolutionized by human pluripotent stem cells in combination with recent advances in genomics, artificial intelligence, and genome engineering. More recently, we have witnessed the unprecedented breakthrough life-saving translation of mRNA-based vaccines for COVID-19 to contain the global pandemic and the investment in billions of US dollars in space exploration projects and the blooming space-tourism industry fueled by the latest reusable space vessels. Now, it is time to examine where the translation of pluripotent stem cell research stands currently, which has been touted for more than the last two decades to cure and treat millions of patients with severe debilitating degenerative diseases and tissue injuries. This review attempts to highlight the accomplishments of pluripotent stem cell research together with cutting-edge genomics and genome editing tools and, also, the promises that have still not been transformed into clinical applications, with cardiovascular research as a case example. This review also brings to our attention the scientific and socioeconomic challenges that need to be effectively addressed to see the full potential of pluripotent stem cells at the clinical bedside.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Genomics , Pluripotent Stem Cells/transplantation , Artificial Intelligence , Cardiovascular Diseases/genetics , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Cardiovascular System/cytology , Cardiovascular System/growth & development , Cell Differentiation , Drug Discovery , Gene Editing , Humans , Models, Biological , Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Precision Medicine , Regenerative Medicine , Safety
17.
Nat Immunol ; 22(11): 1416-1427, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475314

ABSTRACT

Ubiquitin-like protein ISG15 (interferon-stimulated gene 15) (ISG15) is a ubiquitin-like modifier induced during infections and involved in host defense mechanisms. Not surprisingly, many viruses encode deISGylating activities to antagonize its effect. Here we show that infection by Zika, SARS-CoV-2 and influenza viruses induce ISG15-modifying enzymes. While influenza and Zika viruses induce ISGylation, SARS-CoV-2 triggers deISGylation instead to generate free ISG15. The ratio of free versus conjugated ISG15 driven by the papain-like protease (PLpro) enzyme of SARS-CoV-2 correlates with macrophage polarization toward a pro-inflammatory phenotype and attenuated antigen presentation. In vitro characterization of purified wild-type and mutant PLpro revealed its strong deISGylating over deubiquitylating activity. Quantitative proteomic analyses of PLpro substrates and secretome from SARS-CoV-2-infected macrophages revealed several glycolytic enzymes previously implicated in the expression of inflammatory genes and pro-inflammatory cytokines, respectively. Collectively, our results indicate that altered free versus conjugated ISG15 dysregulates macrophage responses and probably contributes to the cytokine storms triggered by SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Inflammation/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Ubiquitins/metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Cytokines/genetics , Gene Knockdown Techniques , HeLa Cells , Humans , Immune Evasion , Immunity, Innate , Influenza A virus/physiology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Ubiquitination , Ubiquitins/genetics , Zika Virus/physiology , Zika Virus Infection/immunology
19.
Stem Cell Reports ; 16(9): 2274-2288, 2021 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360129

ABSTRACT

Heart injury has been reported in up to 20% of COVID-19 patients, yet the cause of myocardial histopathology remains unknown. Here, using an established in vivo hamster model, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 can be detected in cardiomyocytes of infected animals. Furthermore, we found damaged cardiomyocytes in hamsters and COVID-19 autopsy samples. To explore the mechanism, we show that both human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-derived CMs) and adult cardiomyocytes (CMs) can be productively infected by SARS-CoV-2, leading to secretion of the monocyte chemoattractant cytokine CCL2 and subsequent monocyte recruitment. Increased CCL2 expression and monocyte infiltration was also observed in the hearts of infected hamsters. Although infected CMs suffer damage, we find that the presence of macrophages significantly reduces SARS-CoV-2-infected CMs. Overall, our study provides direct evidence that SARS-CoV-2 infects CMs in vivo and suggests a mechanism of immune cell infiltration and histopathology in heart tissues of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Chemokine CCL2/metabolism , Heart Injuries/virology , Monocytes/immunology , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Animals , Cell Communication/physiology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Macrophages/immunology , Male , Myocytes, Cardiac/virology , Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Vero Cells
20.
Stem Cell Rev Rep ; 17(6): 2107-2119, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345193

ABSTRACT

The virus responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has infected over 190 million people to date, causing a global pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 relies on binding of its spike glycoprotein to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) for infection. In addition to fever, cough, and shortness of breath, severe cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection may result in the rapid overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This overactive immune response is known as a cytokine storm, which leads to several serious clinical manifestations such as acute respiratory distress syndrome and myocardial injury. Cardiovascular disorders such as acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and heart failure not only enhance disease progression at the onset of infection, but also arise in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Tissue-specific differentiated cells and organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) serve as an excellent model to address how SARS-CoV-2 damages the lungs and the heart. In this review, we summarize the molecular basis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the current clinical perspectives of the bidirectional relationship between the cardiovascular system and viral progression. Furthermore, we also address the utility of hPSCs as a dynamic model for SARS-CoV-2 research and clinical translation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular System/virology , Pluripotent Stem Cells/virology , COVID-19/immunology , Cardiovascular Diseases/immunology , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Cardiovascular System/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Humans , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pluripotent Stem Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
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