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1.
Vaccine ; 40(15): 2274-2281, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937280

ABSTRACT

We evaluated compliance to the ACIP pneumococcal vaccination recommendations issued in 2014 for adults aged ≥ 65 years and in 2012 for adults with high-risk (HR) conditions. The MarketScan® Commercial and Medicare Supplemental databases (January 2007-June 2019) were used to identify the cohorts of interest. Analyses for adults aged ≥ 65 years were adjusted to account for missing vaccination history. Two HR cohorts were identified. The HR1 cohort included patients with immunocompromising conditions, functional or anatomic asplenia, cerebrospinal fluid leak, or cochlear implant. The HR2 cohort included patients with chronic heart, lung, or liver disease; diabetes mellitus; alcoholism; cirrhosis; or cigarette smoking. Full compliance for those aged ≥ 65 years or in the HR1 cohort was defined as receipt of PCV13 and PPSV23, and partial compliance was defined as receipt of PCV13 or PPSV23. For those in the HR2 cohort, full compliance was defined as receipt of PPSV23. Annual compliance rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Among those aged ≥ 65 years, partial compliance at 4 years post index was 53% and full compliance was 17% in adjusted analyses. In subjects ≥ 65 years receiving the first vaccination, 42% received the second vaccination by year 4. For the HR1 cohort, partial compliance was 19% and full compliance was 5% at 6 years post index date. For the HR2 cohort, full compliance was 20% at 6 years, with the highest rate in patients with diabetes (27%) and the lowest rate in patients with alcoholism (8%). Additional efforts are needed to maximize compliance to the ACIP pneumococcal vaccine recommendations among adults ≥ 65 years of age and adults with HR conditions including streamlined recommendations and single-dose vaccines. These efforts may subsequently reduce the incidence and burden of pneumococcal disease.


Subject(s)
Advisory Committees , Pneumococcal Infections , Aged , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Medicare , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Vaccines , United States , Vaccination , Vaccines, Conjugate
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(6): e2218959, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1905759

ABSTRACT

Importance: An association between pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) has been previously established. However, it is unclear whether the decrease in IPD incidence observed after implementation of nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) during the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with concomitant changes in pneumococcal carriage and respiratory viral infections. Objective: To assess changes in IPD incidence after the implementation of NPIs during the COVID-19 pandemic and examine their temporal association with changes in pneumococcal carriage rate and respiratory viral infections (specifically respiratory syncytial virus [RSV] and influenza cases) among children in France. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used interrupted time series analysis of data from ambulatory and hospital-based national continuous surveillance systems of pneumococcal carriage, RSV and influenza-related diseases, and IPD between January 1, 2007, and March 31, 2021. Participants included 11 944 children younger than 15 years in France. Exposures: Implementation of NPIs during the COVID-19 pandemic. Main Outcomes and Measures: The estimated fraction of IPD change after implementation of NPIs and the association of this change with concomitant changes in pneumococcal carriage rate and RSV and influenza cases among children younger than 15 years. The estimated fraction of change was analyzed using a quasi-Poisson regression model. Results: During the study period, 5113 children (median [IQR] age, 1.0 [0.6-4.0] years; 2959 boys [57.9%]) had IPD, and 6831 healthy children (median [IQR] age, 1.5 [0.9-3.9] years; 3534 boys [51.7%]) received a swab test. Data on race and ethnicity were not collected. After NPI implementation, IPD incidence decreased by 63% (95% CI, -82% to -43%; P < .001) and was similar for non-13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine serotypes with both high disease potential (-63%; 95% CI, -77% to -48%; P < .001) and low disease potential (-53%; 95% CI, -70% to -35%; P < .001). The overall pneumococcal carriage rate did not significantly change after NPI implementation (-12%; 95% CI, -37% to 12%; P = .32), nor did the carriage rate for non-PCV13 serotypes with high disease potential (-26%; 95% CI, -100% to 52%; P = .50) or low disease potential (-7%; 95% CI, -34% to 20%; P = .61). After NPI implementation, the estimated number of influenza cases decreased by 91% (95% CI, -74% to -97%; P < .001), and the estimated number of RSV cases decreased by 74% (95% CI, -55% to -85%; P < .001). Overall, the decrease in influenza and RSV cases accounted for 53% (95% CI, -28% to -78%; P < .001) and 40% (95% CI, -15% to -65%; P = .002) of the decrease in IPD incidence during the NPI period, respectively. The decrease in IPD incidence was not associated with pneumococcal carriage, with carriage accounting for only 4% (95% CI, -7% to 15%; P = .49) of the decrease. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of data from multiple national continuous surveillance systems, a decrease in pediatric IPD incidence occurred after the implementation of NPIs in France; this decrease was associated with a decrease in viral infection cases rather than pneumococcal carriage rate. The association between pneumococcal carriage and IPD was potentially modified by changes in the number of RSV and influenza cases, suggesting that interventions targeting respiratory viruses, such as immunoprophylaxis or vaccines for RSV and influenza, may be able to prevent a large proportion of pediatric IPD cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Pneumococcal Infections , Viruses , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cohort Studies , Humans , Infant , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Male , Pandemics , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Streptococcus pneumoniae
5.
PLoS Med ; 19(5): e1004016, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902608

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infants are at highest risk of pneumococcal disease. Their added protection through herd effects is a key part in the considerations on optimal pneumococcal vaccination strategies. Yet, little is currently known about the main transmission pathways to this vulnerable age group. Hence, this study investigates pneumococcal transmission routes to infants in the coastal city of Nha Trang, Vietnam. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In October 2018, we conducted a nested cross-sectional contact and pneumococcal carriage survey in randomly selected 4- to 11-month-old infants across all 27 communes of Nha Trang. Bayesian logistic regression models were used to estimate age specific carriage prevalence in the population, a proxy for the probability that a contact of a given age could lead to pneumococcal exposure for the infant. We used another Bayesian logistic regression model to estimate the correlation between infant carriage and the probability that at least one of their reported contacts carried pneumococci, controlling for age and locality. In total, 1,583 infants between 4 and 13 months old participated, with 7,428 contacts reported. Few infants (5%, or 86 infants) attended day care, and carriage prevalence was 22% (353 infants). Most infants (61%, or 966 infants) had less than a 25% probability to have had close contact with a pneumococcal carrier on the surveyed day. Pneumococcal infection risk and contact behaviour were highly correlated: If adjusted for age and locality, the odds of an infant's carriage increased by 22% (95% confidence interval (CI): 15 to 29) per 10 percentage points increase in the probability to have had close contact with at least 1 pneumococcal carrier. Moreover, 2- to 6-year-old children contributed 51% (95% CI: 39 to 63) to the total direct pneumococcal exposure risks to infants in this setting. The main limitation of this study is that exposure risk was assessed indirectly by the age-dependent propensity for carriage of a contact and not by assessing carriage of such contacts directly. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed that cross-sectional contact and infection studies could help identify pneumococcal transmission routes and that preschool-age children may be the largest reservoir for pneumococcal transmission to infants in Nha Trang, Vietnam.


Subject(s)
Carrier State , Pneumococcal Infections , Bayes Theorem , Carrier State/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Infant , Nasopharynx , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Vietnam/epidemiology
6.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 56(5): 659-667, 2022 May 06.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875840

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has spread all over the world. Streptococcus pneumoniae as a common pathogen of community-acquired pneumonia shares similar high-risk susceptible populations with COVID-19. Streptococcus pneumoniae co-infection is a key risk factor for severe COVID-19 and death. Pneumococcal vaccination has a beneficial impact on reducing the incidence and mortality of COVID-19. The vaccination rate of streptococcus pneumoniae is still low in China. Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccination may be one of effective strategies in the management of COVID-19 for high-risk population such as the elderly and those who have underlying chronic diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Pneumococcal Infections , Aged , Humans , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Vaccination
7.
Infection ; 50(3): 767-770, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872772

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The impact of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on other pathogens is largely unknown. We aimed to compare the prevalence of vaccine-preventable invasive bacterial infections before and during the pandemic in Piedmont (Italy). METHODS: We defined the monthly incidence of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and N. meningitides-invasive diseases from January 2010 to June 2021. Then, we compared the mean monthly cases during the previous 5 years (2015-2019) and the monthly cases in 2020 or 2021. RESULTS: We found significant reductions for invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs) in adults and H. influenzae-invasive diseases in 2020 and 2021 in comparison to the previous years, but not for invasive meningococcal diseases and IPDs in children. CONCLUSIONS: Further data are needed to confirm these findings and define possible post-pandemic evolutions in the epidemiology of vaccine-preventable invasive bacterial diseases.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Pneumococcal Infections , Vaccines , Adult , Bacteria , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Haemophilus influenzae , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Streptococcus pneumoniae
8.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 866186, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865449

ABSTRACT

Streptococcus pneumoniae upper respiratory infections and pneumonia are often treated with macrolides, but recently macrolide resistance is becoming an increasingly important problem. The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was introduced in the National Immunization Program of Peru in 2015. This study aimed to evaluate the temporal evolution of macrolide resistance in S. pneumoniae isolates collected in five cross-sectional studies conducted before and after this vaccine introduction, from 2006 to 2019 in Lima, Peru. A total of 521 and 242 S. pneumoniae isolates recovered from nasopharyngeal swabs from healthy carrier children < 2 years old (2 carriage studies) and samples from normally sterile body areas from pediatric patients with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) (3 IPD studies), respectively, were included in this study. Phenotypic macrolide resistance was detected using the Kirby-Bauer method and/or MIC test. We found a significant increase in macrolide resistance over time, from 33.5% to 50.0% in carriage studies, and from 24.8% to 37.5% and 70.8% in IPD studies. Macrolide resistance genes [erm(B) and mef(A/E)] were screened using PCR. In carriage studies, we detected a significant decrease in the frequency of mef(A/E) genes among macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae strains (from 66.7% to 50.0%) after introduction of PCV13. The most common mechanism of macrolide-resistant among IPD strains was the presence of erm(B) (96.0%, 95.2% and 85.1% in the 3 IPD studies respectively). Macrolide resistance was more common in serotype 19A strains (80% and 90% among carriage and IPD strains, respectively) vs. non-serotype 19A (35.5% and 34.4% among carriage and IPD strains, respectively). In conclusion, S. pneumoniae macrolide resistance rates are very high among Peruvian children. Future studies are needed in order to evaluate macrolide resistance trends among pneumococcal strains, especially now after the COVID-19 pandemic, since azithromycin was vastly used as empiric treatment of COVID-19 in Peru.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumococcal Infections , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Infant , Macrolides/pharmacology , Pandemics , Peru/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Serogroup , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Vaccines, Conjugate
9.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(5)2022 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861603

ABSTRACT

Invasive pneumococcal disease occurs in high-risk patient population which includes patients with asplenia and primary hypocomplementaemia. Pneumococcal sepsis can rarely cause disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and intravascular thrombosis of small and medium sized vessels called purpura fulminans which is associated with a high mortality rate. We present the case of an immunocompetent woman in her 50s with an intact spleen who presented with septic shock from Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteraemia. Her hospital course rapidly progressed to multiorgan dysfunction, DIC and purpura fulminans. She was treated aggressively with broad spectrum antibiotics, coagulation factor replacement, multiple vasopressor support, renal replacement therapy and mechanical ventilator support. Despite aggressive measures, she succumbed to the multiorgan failure.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation , Immune System Diseases , Pneumococcal Infections , Purpura Fulminans , Adult , Bacteremia/complications , Dacarbazine , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Female , Humans , Pneumococcal Infections/complications , Pneumococcal Infections/therapy , Purpura Fulminans/complications , Streptococcus pneumoniae
11.
BMJ Open ; 12(3): e056706, 2022 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794496

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the causes of lobar pneumonia in rural Gambia. DESIGN AND SETTING: Population-based pneumonia surveillance at seven peripheral health facilities and two regional hospitals in rural Gambia. 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced routinely in August 2009 and replaced by PCV13 from May 2011. METHODS: Prospective pneumonia surveillance was undertaken among all ages with referral of suspected pneumonia cases to the regional hospitals. Blood culture and chest radiographs were performed routinely while lung or pleural aspirates were collected from selected, clinically stable patients with pleural effusion on radiograph and/or large, dense, peripheral consolidation. We used conventional microbiology, and from 8 April 2011 to 17 July 2012, used a multiplex PCR assay on lung and pleural aspirates. We calculated proportions with pathogens, associations between coinfecting pathogens and PCV effectiveness. PARTICIPANTS: 2550 patients were admitted with clinical pneumonia; 741 with lobar pneumonia or pleural effusion. We performed 181 lung or pleural aspirates and multiplex PCR on 156 lung and 4 pleural aspirates. RESULTS: Pathogens were detected in 116/160 specimens, the most common being Streptococcus pneumoniae(n=68), Staphylococcus aureus (n=26) and Haemophilus influenzae type b (n=11). Bacteria (n=97) were more common than viruses (n=49). Common viruses were bocavirus (n=11) and influenza (n=11). Coinfections were frequent (n=55). Moraxella catarrhalis was detected in eight patients and in every case there was coinfection with S. pneumoniae. The odds ratio of vaccine-type pneumococcal pneumonia in patients with two or three compared with zero doses of PCV was 0.17 (95% CI 0.06 to 0.51). CONCLUSIONS: Lobar pneumonia in rural Gambia was caused primarily by bacteria, particularly S. pneumoniae and S. aureus. Coinfection was common and M. catarrhalis always coinfected with S. pneumoniae. PCV was highly efficacious against vaccine-type pneumococcal pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Coinfection , Pleural Effusion , Pneumococcal Infections , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal , Viruses , Coinfection/epidemiology , Gambia/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Lung , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Vaccines/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genetics
12.
J Thromb Haemost ; 20(6): 1412-1420, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752627

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection is associated with an increased incidence of thrombosis. OBJECTIVES: By studying the fibrin network structure of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, we aimed to unravel pathophysiological mechanisms that contribute to this increased risk of thrombosis. This may contribute to optimal prevention and treatment of COVID-19 related thrombosis. PATIENTS/METHODS: In this case-control study, we collected plasma samples from intensive care unit (ICU) patients with COVID-19, with and without confirmed thrombosis, between April and December 2020. Additionally, we collected plasma from COVID-19 patients admitted to general wards without thrombosis, from ICU patients with pneumococcal infection, and from healthy controls. Fibrin fiber diameters and fibrin network density were quantified in plasma clots imaged with stimulated emission depletion microscopy and confocal microscopy. Finally, we determined the sensitivity to fibrinolysis. RESULTS: COVID-19 ICU patients (n = 37) and ICU patients with pneumococcal disease (n = 7) showed significantly higher fibrin densities and longer plasma clot lysis times than healthy controls (n = 7). No differences were observed between COVID-19 ICU patients with and without thrombosis, or ICU patients with pneumococcal infection. At a second time point, after diagnosis of thrombosis or at a similar time point in patients without thrombosis, we observed thicker fibers and longer lysis times in COVID-19 ICU patients with thrombosis (n = 19) than in COVID-19 ICU patients without thrombosis (n = 18). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that severe COVID-19 is associated with a changed fibrin network structure and decreased susceptibility to fibrinolysis. Because these changes were not exclusive to COVID-19 patients, they may not explain the increased thrombosis risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumococcal Infections , Thrombosis , Case-Control Studies , Fibrin , Fibrin Clot Lysis Time , Fibrinolysis/physiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pneumococcal Infections/complications
13.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 825427, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690458

ABSTRACT

Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important and frequently carried respiratory pathogen that has the potential to cause serious invasive diseases, such as pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis. Young children and older adults are among the most vulnerable to developing serious disease. With the arrival of the COVID-19 pandemic and the concomitant restrictive measures, invasive disease cases caused by respiratory bacterial species, including pneumococci, decreased substantially. Notably, the stringency of the containment measures as well as the visible reduction in the movement of people appeared to coincide with the drop in invasive disease cases. One could argue that wearing protective masks and adhering to social distancing guidelines to halt the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, also led to a reduction in the person-to-person transmission of respiratory bacterial species. Although plausible, this conjecture is challenged by novel data obtained from our nasopharyngeal carriage study which is performed yearly in healthy daycare center attending children. A sustained and high pneumococcal carriage rate was observed amid periods of stringent restrictive measures. This finding prompts us to revisit the connection between nasopharyngeal colonization and invasion and invites us to look closer at the nasopharyngeal microbiome as a whole.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumococcal Infections , Aged , Belgium , Carrier State/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Nasopharynx , Pandemics , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Streptococcus pneumoniae
14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(2): 335-338, 2022 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662116

ABSTRACT

Compared with other countries, a more substantial decrease in the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease was observed in Hong Kong, which is most likely attributable to the proactive mass adoption of face masks by the public. Human behavioral changes, particularly mask wearing, should be considered as an additional preventive strategy against invasive pneumococcal disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumococcal Infections , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 44(8): 587-598, 2021 Oct.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626213

ABSTRACT

Patients with certain immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), have an increased risk of severe infectious diseases than the general population, which are mainly associated with the immunosuppressive treatments that they receive. These treatments act on the immune system through different mechanisms, causing different degrees of immunosuppression and a variable risk depending on whether the pathogen is a virus, bacteria or fungus. This article reviews the most relevant literature on the subject, which was selected and discussed by a panel of experts. The aim of this article is to review the risk of infections in patients with IBD and RA, and the potential preventive measures.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid/therapy , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Biological Therapy/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/therapy , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/immunology , COVID-19/etiology , Hepatitis A/prevention & control , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Herpes Zoster/prevention & control , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/immunology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Risk Factors , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/prevention & control , Vaccination Coverage , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage
16.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262660, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1627803

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had a great impact on global health, but with relatively few confirmed cases in Taiwan. People in Taiwan showed excellent cooperation with the government for disease prevention and faced social and behavioral changes during this period. This study aimed to investigate people's knowledge of COVID-19, attitudes and practices regarding vaccinations for influenza, pneumococcus and COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a community-based, cross-sectional questionnaire survey from September 2020 to October 2020 among adults in northern Taiwan. The four-part questionnaire included questions on sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude, and practice toward COVID-19. RESULTS: Among a total of 410 respondents, 58.5% were categorized as having "good knowledge" responding to COVID-19. Among the total respondents, 86.6% were willing to receive influenza or pneumococcal vaccines, and 76% of them acted to receive COVID-19 immunization once the vaccine became available. Compared with the respondents with poor knowledge of COVID-19, those with good knowledge had a more positive attitude toward receiving influenza or pneumococcal immunization (OR 3.26, 95% CI = 1.74-6.12). CONCLUSIONS: Participants with good knowledge of COVID-19 had greater intent to receive immunization for influenza or pneumococcal vaccine. The promotion of correct knowledge of both COVID-19 and immunization preparations is necessary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Influenza Vaccines , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunization , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Vaccines/therapeutic use , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taiwan/epidemiology , Vaccination Refusal
17.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1590034

ABSTRACT

Disease tolerance has emerged as an alternative way, in addition to host resistance, to survive viral-bacterial co-infections. Disease tolerance plays an important role not in reducing pathogen burden, but in maintaining tissue integrity and controlling organ damage. A common co-infection is the synergy observed between influenza virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae that results in superinfection and lethality. Several host cytokines and cells have shown promise in promoting tissue protection and damage control while others induce severe immunopathology leading to high levels of morbidity and mortality. The focus of this review is to describe the host cytokines and innate immune cells that mediate disease tolerance and lead to a return to host homeostasis and ultimately, survival during viral-bacterial co-infection.


Subject(s)
Immunity, Innate , Influenza, Human/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae/immunology , Pneumococcal Infections/immunology , Streptococcus pneumoniae/immunology , Coinfection , Cytokines/immunology , Homeostasis , Humans , Influenza, Human/microbiology , Influenza, Human/virology , Pneumococcal Infections/microbiology , Superinfection
18.
J Infect Dis ; 224(4): 643-647, 2021 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545949

ABSTRACT

Influenza is associated with primary viral and secondary bacterial pneumonias; however, the dynamics of this relationship in populations with varied levels of pneumococcal vaccination remain unclear. We conducted nested matched case-control studies in 2 prospective cohorts of Nicaraguan children aged 2-14 years: 1 before pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction (2008-2010) and 1 following introduction and near universal adoption (2011-2018). The association between influenza and pneumonia was similar in both cohorts. Participants with influenza (across types/subtypes) had higher odds of developing pneumonia in the month following influenza infection. These findings underscore the importance of considering influenza in interventions to reduce global pneumonia burden.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human , Pneumococcal Infections , Pneumococcal Vaccines/administration & dosage , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Nicaragua , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , Vaccines, Conjugate
19.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 44: 102183, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1473503

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several outbreaks of pneumococcal pneumonia among shipyard workers have been described. In this study, following a previous report of grouped cases, we aimed to elucidate the features of disease onset. METHODS: We compared the population characteristics of shipyard workers with a confirmed diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia (N = 38) to those of workers without pneumonia (N = 53). We compared nine S. pneumoniae strains isolated from patients with pneumonia by capsular serotyping, multi-locus sequence typing, and whole genome sequencing. RESULTS: Shipyard workers with Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia were more frequently from Italy (P = 0.016), had at least one underlying condition (P = 0.024), lived on-board the ship (P = 0.009). None of these factors was independent by multivariate analysis. While capsular serotyping enabled us to identify four different serotypes: 4 (n = 5), 8 (n = 2), 9 N (n = 1), and 3 (n = 1), by sequence typing, we distinguished five sequence types (STs): ST801 (n = 4), ST205 (n = 2), ST1220 (n = 1), ST1280 (n = 1), and ST66 (n = 1). Whole genome sequencing confirmed the results obtained by MLST. Genomes of isolates of the same sequence type were similar with ≤80 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed that the onset of pneumococcal infection among shipyard workers was attributable to both a person-to-person spread of single strains of S. pneumoniae and a shift of different strains from commensal to pathogen under favourable conditions (professional exposure, viral infections). Control measures should therefore be implemented by taking into account these features.


Subject(s)
Pneumococcal Infections , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal , Humans , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/epidemiology , Serogroup , Serotyping , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genetics
20.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 2202-2204, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488140

ABSTRACT

Incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) has been low during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, we found that the IPD numbers again increased in Switzerland during the first six months of 2021 and that this coincides with the loosening of COVID-19 measures. Vaccine pneumococcal serotypes have continued to decrease and non-vaccine type serotype 23B has emerged (8% of the isolates in 2021). Worryingly, serotype 23B is associated with reduced susceptibility to penicillin.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Streptococcus pneumoniae/classification , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Pneumococcal Infections/microbiology , Pneumococcal Vaccines/immunology , Serotyping , Streptococcus pneumoniae/drug effects , Switzerland/epidemiology
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