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J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 55(2): 215-224, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274336


BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Streptococcus pneumoniae causes pneumonia and other invasive diseases, and is a leading cause of mortality in the elderly population. The present study aimed to provide current antimicrobial resistance and epidemiological profiles of S. pneumoniae infections in Taiwan. METHODS: A total of 252 nonduplicate S. pneumoniae isolates were collected from patients admitted to 16 hospitals in Taiwan between January 2017 and December 2019, and were analyzed. The minimum inhibitory concentration of antibiotics was determined using the Vitek 2 automated system for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Furthermore, epidemiological profiles of S. pneumoniae infections were analyzed. RESULTS: Among the strains analyzed, 88% were recognized as invasive pneumococcal strains. According to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute criteria for non-meningitis, the prevalence of penicillin-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae demonstrated a declining trend from 43.6% in 2017 to 17.2% in 2019. However, the rate of penicillin-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae was 85.7% based on the criteria for meningitis. Furthermore, the prevalence of ceftriaxone-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae was 62.7% based on the criteria for meningitis. Isolates demonstrated higher susceptibility toward doripenem and ertapenem than toward meropenem and imipenem. An increased rate of non-susceptibility toward levofloxacin was observed in southern Taiwan (15.1%) and elderly patients (≥65 years; 11.4%). Most isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid. CONCLUSION: Empirical treatment with ceftriaxone monotherapy for pneumococcal meningitis should be carefully monitored owing to its high non-susceptibility rate. The susceptibility rates of most isolates to penicillin (used for treating non-meningitis pneumococcal diseases), carbapenems (ertapenem and doripenem), respiratory quinolones (moxifloxacin and levofloxacin), vancomycin, and linezolid suggested the potential of these antibiotics in treating pneumococcal diseases in Taiwan.

Meningitis, Pneumococcal , Pneumococcal Infections , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Ceftriaxone/pharmacology , Doripenem/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Ertapenem/therapeutic use , Humans , Levofloxacin/therapeutic use , Linezolid/therapeutic use , Meningitis, Pneumococcal/drug therapy , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Penicillins/pharmacology , Penicillins/therapeutic use , Pneumococcal Infections/drug therapy , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Taiwan/epidemiology , Vancomycin/pharmacology
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 710, 2021 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242036


Saliva omics has immense potential for non-invasive diagnostics, including monitoring very young or elderly populations, or individuals in remote locations. In this study, multiple saliva omics from an individual were monitored over three periods (100 timepoints) involving: (1) hourly sampling over 24 h without intervention, (2) hourly sampling over 24 h including immune system activation using the standard 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, (3) daily sampling for 33 days profiling the post-vaccination response. At each timepoint total saliva transcriptome and proteome, and small RNA from salivary extracellular vesicles were profiled, including mRNA, miRNA, piRNA and bacterial RNA. The two 24-h periods were used in a paired analysis to remove daily variation and reveal vaccination responses. Over 18,000 omics longitudinal series had statistically significant temporal trends compared to a healthy baseline. Various immune response and regulation pathways were activated following vaccination, including interferon and cytokine signaling, and MHC antigen presentation. Immune response timeframes were concordant with innate and adaptive immunity development, and coincided with vaccination and reported fever. Overall, mRNA results appeared more specific and sensitive (timewise) to vaccination compared to other omics. The results suggest saliva omics can be consistently assessed for non-invasive personalized monitoring and immune response diagnostics.

Pneumococcal Infections/immunology , Pneumococcal Vaccines/administration & dosage , Proteome/drug effects , Saliva/metabolism , Sinusitis/immunology , Streptococcus pneumoniae/immunology , Transcriptome/drug effects , Adult , Humans , Immunity , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Pneumococcal Infections/drug therapy , Pneumococcal Infections/microbiology , Saliva/drug effects , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Sinusitis/microbiology , Time Factors , Vaccination