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1.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(1): 2025007, 2022 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692311

ABSTRACT

Since 2018, Spanish National Immunization Guidelines include vaccination recommendations for adults ≥65 years. To determine whether health-care professionals and the ≥65 years target group value the need for these recommendations, a cross-sectional study was conducted to capture and describe their knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors about vaccination. Online surveys were administered to representative groups of general practitioners (GPs), primary care nurses and adults ≥65 years from six major cities (and surrounding rural areas) in Spain. Main topics were attitudes and awareness of vaccines, perceptions about vaccination in adults ≥65 years, and impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on vaccination uptake. A total of 286 health-care professionals (185 GPs, 101 nurses) and 400 adults aged ≥65 years participated in the survey. GP and nurse groups agreed strongly about the importance of influenza and pneumococcal vaccination in the target population. Longer patient visit times were identified as a key factor toward promoting vaccination. The ≥65 years sample group, especially those ≥75+ years and/or with chronic diseases, was reasonably positive about the effectiveness and benefits of vaccines. Lower vaccination rates for the pneumococcal than influenza vaccine (29% vs. 80%) in the ≥65 years sample group suggest that efforts are needed to improve pneumococcal vaccine uptake. Aligning with other published works, GPs have a key role in promoting vaccination in the target population. The COVID-19 pandemic appears to have heightened awareness about the importance of vaccination among health-care professionals and adults ≥65 years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Spain , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination
2.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 825427, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690458

ABSTRACT

Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important and frequently carried respiratory pathogen that has the potential to cause serious invasive diseases, such as pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis. Young children and older adults are among the most vulnerable to developing serious disease. With the arrival of the COVID-19 pandemic and the concomitant restrictive measures, invasive disease cases caused by respiratory bacterial species, including pneumococci, decreased substantially. Notably, the stringency of the containment measures as well as the visible reduction in the movement of people appeared to coincide with the drop in invasive disease cases. One could argue that wearing protective masks and adhering to social distancing guidelines to halt the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, also led to a reduction in the person-to-person transmission of respiratory bacterial species. Although plausible, this conjecture is challenged by novel data obtained from our nasopharyngeal carriage study which is performed yearly in healthy daycare center attending children. A sustained and high pneumococcal carriage rate was observed amid periods of stringent restrictive measures. This finding prompts us to revisit the connection between nasopharyngeal colonization and invasion and invites us to look closer at the nasopharyngeal microbiome as a whole.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumococcal Infections , Aged , Belgium , Carrier State/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Nasopharynx , Pandemics , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Streptococcus pneumoniae
3.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262660, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1627803

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had a great impact on global health, but with relatively few confirmed cases in Taiwan. People in Taiwan showed excellent cooperation with the government for disease prevention and faced social and behavioral changes during this period. This study aimed to investigate people's knowledge of COVID-19, attitudes and practices regarding vaccinations for influenza, pneumococcus and COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a community-based, cross-sectional questionnaire survey from September 2020 to October 2020 among adults in northern Taiwan. The four-part questionnaire included questions on sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude, and practice toward COVID-19. RESULTS: Among a total of 410 respondents, 58.5% were categorized as having "good knowledge" responding to COVID-19. Among the total respondents, 86.6% were willing to receive influenza or pneumococcal vaccines, and 76% of them acted to receive COVID-19 immunization once the vaccine became available. Compared with the respondents with poor knowledge of COVID-19, those with good knowledge had a more positive attitude toward receiving influenza or pneumococcal immunization (OR 3.26, 95% CI = 1.74-6.12). CONCLUSIONS: Participants with good knowledge of COVID-19 had greater intent to receive immunization for influenza or pneumococcal vaccine. The promotion of correct knowledge of both COVID-19 and immunization preparations is necessary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Influenza Vaccines , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunization , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Vaccines/therapeutic use , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taiwan/epidemiology , Vaccination Refusal
4.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 57(4): 871-877, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611335

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the differences in attitudes and views towards influenza and pneumococcal vaccines in parents of children with asthma during the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Asthmatic children in the 6-18 age group who were admitted to the pediatric allergy clinic of our hospital between October 1, 2020 and February 31, 2021 were included in the study. The parents were given a questionnaire asking about their demographics and medical history. Their attitudes and thoughts towards these two vaccines, both before and during the pandemic, and their COVID-19 stories were questioned. RESULTS: A total of 78 patients diagnosed with asthma were included in this study. While the rate of influenza vaccination before the pandemic was 29.5%, the rate of those who received or wanted to receive influenza vaccine during the pandemic was 71.8% (p = 0.001). It was observed that the rate of influenza vaccination during the pandemic increased with the regular use of asthma medication, the presence of atopy, and a history of COVID-19 infection in the family/close environment. In total, 69.2% of the parents stated that their child's pneumococcal vaccination was incomplete or they were unaware of their child's vaccination status. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that there was an increase in the rate and willingness of parents of asthmatic children to have their children vaccinated against influenza during the COVID-19 pandemic. As for the pneumococcal vaccine, the majority of the parents did not have enough information or they were unaware of the vaccination status of their children.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Asthma/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Parents , Pneumococcal Vaccines/therapeutic use
5.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 12: 21501319211060986, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556083

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the ready availability of pneumococcal vaccines and recommendation of vaccination by Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the immunization rates among adults less than 65 years of age with chronic and immunocompromised conditions remain low. METHODS: This interventional (cohort) study aimed to improve the pneumococcal vaccination rate for patients with an increased risk of pneumococcal disease by utilizing a three-pronged approach. This included: (1) clinician education webinar, (2) pre-visit counseling performed by registered nurses, targeted toward patients with upcoming appointments, to address vaccination status, and (3) modified pre-visit interdisciplinary team huddle with clinicians and registered nurses to review which patients are amenable to vaccination at the time of visit and those who may benefit from re-engagement and further motivational interviewing. After the completion of the 10-week intervention, study organizers reviewed the percent of patients with completed pneumococcal vaccinations. RESULTS: In this 10-week rapid cycle initiative, a total of 482 patients were eligible for vaccination. During the intervention phase, 370 patients were contacted and of these 38% of patients were amenable to receiving a vaccine during the pre-visit counseling, 5% were previously vaccinated, 18% were not amenable, and 38% were unreachable prior to visit. This initiative resulted in a 43% increase in the vaccination rate in this cohort. CONCLUSIONS: The significant increase in vaccination rate supports the utilization of a framework in the multidisciplinary approach to pre-visit planning in non-primary care specialties and other vaccination efforts, especially emerging diseases such as COVID-19. Future directions of study include the efficacy of telemedicine counseling with a same-day appointment for vaccination, co-location of registered nurses within the practice sites, as well as the use of other ancillary staff (such as medical office assistants) to engage patients in pre-visit planning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Immunization , Pneumococcal Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
6.
J Infect Dis ; 224(4): 643-647, 2021 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545949

ABSTRACT

Influenza is associated with primary viral and secondary bacterial pneumonias; however, the dynamics of this relationship in populations with varied levels of pneumococcal vaccination remain unclear. We conducted nested matched case-control studies in 2 prospective cohorts of Nicaraguan children aged 2-14 years: 1 before pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction (2008-2010) and 1 following introduction and near universal adoption (2011-2018). The association between influenza and pneumonia was similar in both cohorts. Participants with influenza (across types/subtypes) had higher odds of developing pneumonia in the month following influenza infection. These findings underscore the importance of considering influenza in interventions to reduce global pneumonia burden.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human , Pneumococcal Infections , Pneumococcal Vaccines/administration & dosage , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Nicaragua , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , Vaccines, Conjugate
7.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 2202-2204, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488140

ABSTRACT

Incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) has been low during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, we found that the IPD numbers again increased in Switzerland during the first six months of 2021 and that this coincides with the loosening of COVID-19 measures. Vaccine pneumococcal serotypes have continued to decrease and non-vaccine type serotype 23B has emerged (8% of the isolates in 2021). Worryingly, serotype 23B is associated with reduced susceptibility to penicillin.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Streptococcus pneumoniae/classification , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Pneumococcal Infections/microbiology , Pneumococcal Vaccines/immunology , Serotyping , Streptococcus pneumoniae/drug effects , Switzerland/epidemiology
8.
Respir Med ; 190: 106674, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487957

ABSTRACT

Influenza and pneumococcal disease represent a well-known burden on healthcare systems worldwide, as well as they still have an attributed morbidity and mortality, especially in elderly individuals and vulnerable populations. In the context of the ongoing pandemic of COVID-19, a series of considerations in favor of extensive influenza and pneumococcal vaccination campaign are emerging, including a possible reduction of hospital extra burden and saving of sanitary resources. In addition, recent studies have suggested that prior vaccinations towards non SARS-CoV-2 pathogens might confer some protection against COVID-19. In this paper the authors consider all factors in support of these hypotheses and provide a consensus statement to encourage influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations in targeted populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Promotion , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Pulmonary Medicine/organization & administration , Societies, Medical/organization & administration , Vaccination , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Health Services Needs and Demand , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumococcal Infections/microbiology , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Young Adult
9.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 20(10): 1311-1325, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486404

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The burden of pneumococcal disease in older UK adults remains substantial. Higher valency pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are currently in development with adult formulations for two of these anticipated to become available in 2022. This article collates and reviews relevant candidate data now available that may be used to support cost effectiveness assessments of vaccinating immunocompetent UK adults aged ≥65-years with PCVs. AREAS COVERED: This article uses published data from surveillance systems, randomized controlled trials and observational studies. It focuses on local data from the UK but where these are either limited or not available relevant global data are considered. EXPERT OPINION: The body of relevant data now available suggests the UK is well placed to assess the cost effectiveness of vaccinating immunocompetent ≥65-year olds with new generation higher valency PCVs. Recent contemporary data provide important new and robust insights into the epidemiology of pneumococcal disease in older UK adults and help to address much of the uncertainty and data gaps associated with previous analyses. Using these data to make informed decisions about use of new higher valency PCVs for routine use in older adults will be important for public health in the UK.


Subject(s)
Pneumococcal Infections , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Aged , Humans , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Uncertainty , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Vaccination , Vaccines, Conjugate
10.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e055575, 2021 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462978

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To compare the incidence and severity of invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs), pneumococcal pneumonia and all-cause pneumonia during the COVID-19 pandemic period with universal masking and social distancing with that of previous 5 years. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study on incidence of IPDs, pneumococcal pneumonia and all-cause pneumonia between January 2015-December 2019 and March 2020-March 2021. January-February 2020 was excluded from analysis as it was treated as a transitional period between normal time and pandemic. SETTING: Episode-based data by retrieval of hospitalisation records from the Hospital Authority's territory-wide electronic medical record database in Hong Kong. PARTICIPANTS: Hospitalised patients with IPD (n=742), pneumococcal pneumonia (n=2163) and all-cause pneumonia (including COVID-19 pneumonia, n=453 999) aged 18 years or above. Control diagnoses were included to assess confounding from health-seeking behaviours. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES: Primary outcome is the incidence of diseases between two periods. Secondary outcomes include disease severity surrogated by length of stay and mortality. RESULTS: Monthly average number of IPD, pneumococcal pneumonia and all-cause pneumonia hospitalisation significantly decreased by 88.9% (95% CI 79.8% to 98.0%, p<0.0005), 72.5% (95% CI 65.9% to 79.1%, p<0.0005) and 17.5% (95% CI 16.8% to 18.2%, p<0.0005), respectively. Changes in trend from January 2015-December 2019 to March 2020-March 2021 were -70% (95% CI -87% to -35%, p=0.0025), -43% (95% CI -59% to -19%, p=0.0014) and -11% (95% CI -13% to -10%, p<0.0005), respectively. Length of stay for IPD and pneumococcal pneumonia episodes were insignificantly different in the two periods. No reductions in hospitalisations for control diagnoses were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Incidence of IPD, pneumococcal pneumonia and all-cause pneumonia decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic. This was observed with universal masking and social distancing. We postulated this is related to reduced transmission of respiratory viruses and bacteria.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumococcal Infections , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Vaccine ; 39(42): 6189-6194, 2021 10 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1414779

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal vaccines have been developed to protect infants and young children from pneumococcal diseases. Vaccination coverage studies are important in determining a population's vaccination status and strategically adjusting national immunization programs (NIP). In this paper, we aim to describe the coverage of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) immunization for birth cohorts from 2012 to 2020 and discussed the factors influencing the coverage. METHODS: Vaccination data were collected via the vaccination information database in Shanghai, China, for children born from 2012 to 2020. The population data used in this study were collected from each community from 2012 to 2020. The coverage of initial immunization (1st dose), basic immunization (three doses) and full immunization (3 + 1 doses) for PCVs was calculated according to the number of doses received. As vaccination coverage was assessed each year, Annual Growth Rate (AGR) was used to describe the variation trend of vaccination coverage. Immunization time and completeness of different PCVs were also analyzed. RESULTS: The total number of births from 2012 to 2020 was 38,268 in Huangpu District, Shanghai, China. The initial immunization coverage of PCVs increased from 12.26% in 2012 to 49.65% in 2020, and the highest coverage was 50.61% in 2019. The cumulative vaccination coverage of PCVs was 19.4% for initial immunization and 16.8% for basic immunization from 2012 to 2020. And cumulative full immunization coverage of PCVs was 12.3% from 2012 to 2019. The PCVs coverage of most vaccination statuses showed an obvious upward trend from 2017 to 2020. CONCLUSIONS: Despite an upward trend in vaccination coverage of PCVs, the vaccination coverage of initial, basic and full immunization among children is still low. And given the heavy burden of Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) among children in China and the fact that the current vaccination coverage cannot effectively protect children, it is recommended that the government include PCVs into the NIP as soon as possible.


Subject(s)
Pneumococcal Infections , Vaccination Coverage , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Humans , Infant , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Vaccination , Vaccines, Conjugate
12.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e045380, 2021 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443589

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In January 2020, the UK moved to a 1+1 schedule for the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) with a single priming dose at 3-month and a 12-month booster. We modelled the impact on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) out to 2030/2031 of reductions in PCV13 coverage and population mixing associated with restrictions on non-essential healthcare visits and social distancing measures introduced in 2020/2021 to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission. DESIGN: Using an existing model of pneumococcal transmission in England and Wales, we simulated the impact of a 40% reduction in coverage and a 40% reduction in mixing between and within age groups during two lockdowns in spring 2020 and autumn/winter 2020/2021. More and less extreme reductions in coverage and mixing were explored in a sensitivity analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Predicted annual numbers of IPD cases under different coverage and mixing reduction scenarios with uncertainty intervals (UIs) generated from minimum and maximum values of the model predictions using 500 parameter sets. RESULTS: The model predicted that any increase in IPD cases resulting from a reduction in PCV13 coverage would be more than offset by a reduction in pneumococcal transmission due to social distancing measures and that overall reductions in IPD cases will persist for a few years after resumption of normal mixing. The net reduction in cumulative IPD cases over the five epidemiological years from July 2019 was predicted to be 13 494 (UI 12 211, 14 676) all ages. Similar results were obtained in the sensitivity analysis. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 lockdowns are predicted to have had a profound effect on pneumococcal transmission resulting in a reduction in pneumococcal carriage prevalence and IPD incidence for up to 5 years after the end of the lockdown period. Carriage studies will be informative in confirming the predicted impact of the lockdown measures after they have been lifted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumococcal Infections , Communicable Disease Control , England/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Physical Distancing , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Wales/epidemiology
13.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 50, 2021 Feb 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388766

ABSTRACT

The importance of vaccinations for COPD patients has been previously described. However, there is still a gap between guideline recommendations and the implementation of preventive care delivery for these patients. Specially, the rise of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has made the significance of vaccination adherence more critical to address. Our study showed that referral to pulmonary clinic is associated with increased odds of receiving influenza (OR = 1.97, [95% CI 1.07, 3.65]) and pneumococcal vaccinations (PCV13 OR = 3.55, [1.47, 8.54]; PPSV23 OR = 4.92, [1.51, 16.02]). These data suggest that partnerships between primary care physicians and pulmonologists can potentially improve the vaccination rates for patients with COPD.


Subject(s)
Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Primary Health Care , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Pulmonary Medicine , Referral and Consultation , Vaccination , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Guideline Adherence , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumococcal Vaccines/therapeutic use , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies
14.
Int J Infect Dis ; 111: 196-203, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1375970

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading bacterial pathogen causing respiratory infections. Since the COVID-19 pandemic emerged, less invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) was identified by surveillance systems worldwide. Measures to prevent transmission of SARS-CoV-2 also reduce transmission of pneumococci, but this would gradually lead to lower disease rates. DESIGN: Here, we explore additional factors contributing to the instant drop in pneumococcal disease cases captured in surveillance. RESULTS: Our observations on referral practices and other impediments to diagnostic testing indicate that residual IPD has likely occurred but remained undetected by conventional hospital-based surveillance. CONCLUSIONS: Depending on the setting, we discuss alternative monitoring strategies that could improve understanding of pneumococcal disease dynamics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumococcal Infections , Adult , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Netherlands/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(11): 4673-4674, 2021 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345698

ABSTRACT

Although routine vaccinations in children decreased during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, pneumococcal vaccine coverage in older adults has remained unknown. This study was performed to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on pneumococcal vaccination in Japan. The numbers of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines (PPV23) shipped was obtained from an office memorandum released by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. The results showed that the COVID-19 pandemic increased the need for pneumococcal vaccination, causing shipping restrictions of pneumococcal vaccines. Regular vaccination is still important because there may be a shortage of vaccines during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumococcal Infections , Aged , Child , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
16.
Semergen ; 47(6): 411-425, 2021 Sep.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1336932

ABSTRACT

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) continues to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in adults. The aim of this study is to update the practical prevention guide for CAP through vaccination in Spain developed in 2016 and updated in 2018, based on available vaccines and evidence through bibliographic review and expert opinion. The arrival of COVID-19 as a new cause of CAP and the recent availability of safe and effective vaccines constitutes the most significant change. Vaccines against pneumococcus, influenza, pertussis and COVID-19 can help to reduce the burden of disease from CAP and its associated complications. The available evidence supports the priority indications established in this guide, and it would be advisable to try to achieve a widespread dissemination and implementation of these recommendations in routine clinical practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal , Adult , Community-Acquired Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
17.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 110(6): 1537-1546, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1326762

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to systematically investigate if any of the available drugs in the electronic health record (EHR) can be repurposed as potential treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Based on a retrospective cohort analysis of EHR data, drug-wide association studies (DrugWAS) were performed on 9,748 patients with COVID-19 at Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC). For each drug study, multivariable logistic regression with overlap weighting using propensity score was applied to estimate the effect of drug exposure on COVID-19 disease outcomes. Patient exposure to a drug between 3-months prior to the pandemic and the COVID-19 diagnosis was chosen as the exposure of interest. All-cause of death was selected as the primary outcome. Hospitalization, admission to the intensive care unit, and need for mechanical ventilation were identified as secondary outcomes. Overall, 17 drugs were significantly associated with decreased COVID-19 severity. Previous exposure to two types of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, PCV13 (odds ratio (OR), 0.31, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.12-0.81 and OR, 0.33, 95% CI, 0.15-0.73), diphtheria toxoid and tetanus toxoid vaccine (OR, 0.38, 95% CI, 0.15-0.93) were significantly associated with a decreased risk of death (primary outcome). Secondary analyses identified several other significant associations showing lower risk for COVID-19 outcomes: acellular pertussis vaccine, 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23), flaxseed extract, ethinyl estradiol, estradiol, turmeric extract, ubidecarenone, azelastine, pseudoephedrine, dextromethorphan, omega-3 fatty acids, fluticasone, and ibuprofen. In conclusion, this cohort study leveraged EHR data to identify a list of drugs that could be repurposed to improve COVID-19 outcomes. Further randomized clinical trials are needed to investigate the efficacy of the proposed drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning/methods , Pneumococcal Vaccines/administration & dosage , Product Surveillance, Postmarketing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Humans , Retrospective Studies
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(15)2021 07 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325663

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has globally overwhelmed all sectors of life. The fast development of vaccines against COVID-19 has had a significant impact on the course of the pandemic. METHODS: Global data from Google Trends was analyzed for vaccines against flu, BCG, HPV, pneumococcal disease, polio, and COVID-19. The time frame includes the last five-year period starting from 17 April 2016. Multiple training of time series models with back testing, including Holt-Winters forecasting, Exponential Smoothing State Space, Linear model with trend and seasonal components (tlsm), and ARIMA was conducted. Forecasting according to the best fitting model was performed. RESULTS: Correlation analysis did not reveal a decrease in interest in vaccines during the analyzed period. The prediction models provided a short-term forecast of the dynamics of interest for flu, HPV, pneumococcal and polio vaccines with 5-10% growth in interest for the first quarter of 2022 when compared to the same quarter of 2021. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the huge interest in the COVID-19 vaccine, there has not been a detectable decline in the overall interest in the five analyzed vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Pneumococcal Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Search Engine
20.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD013706, 2021 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317491

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases are a major cause of illness and death among older adults. Vaccines can prevent infectious diseases, including against seasonal influenza, pneumococcal diseases, herpes zoster and COVID-19. However, the uptake of vaccination among older adults varies across settings and groups. Communication with healthcare workers can play an important role in older people's decisions to vaccinate. To support an informed decision about vaccination, healthcare workers should be able to identify the older person's knowledge gaps, needs and concerns. They should also be able to share and discuss information about the person's disease risk and disease severity; the vaccine's effectiveness and safety; and practical information about how the person can access vaccines. Therefore, healthcare workers need good communication skills and to actively keep up-to-date with the latest evidence. An understanding of their perceptions and experiences of this communication can help us train and support healthcare workers and design good communication strategies. OBJECTIVES: To explore healthcare workers' perceptions and experiences of communicating with older adults about vaccination. SEARCH METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL and Scopus on 21 March 2020. We also searched Epistemonikos for related reviews, searched grey literature sources, and carried out reference checking and citation searching to identify additional studies. We searched for studies in any language. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included qualitative studies and mixed-methods studies with an identifiable qualitative component. We included studies that explored the perceptions and experiences of healthcare workers and other health system staff towards communication with adults over the age of 50 years or their informal caregivers about vaccination. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We extracted data using a data extraction form designed for this review. We assessed methodological limitations using a list of predefined criteria. We extracted and assessed data regarding study authors' motivations for carrying out their study. We used a thematic synthesis approach to analyse and synthesise the evidence. We used the GRADE-CERQual (Confidence in the Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative research) approach to assess our confidence in each finding. We examined each review finding to identify factors that may influence intervention implementation and we developed implications for practice. MAIN RESULTS: We included 11 studies in our review. Most studies explored healthcare workers' views and experiences about vaccination of older adults more broadly but also mentioned communication issues specifically. All studies were from high-income countries. The studies focused on doctors, nurses, pharmacists and others working in hospitals, clinics, pharmacies and nursing homes. These healthcare workers discussed different types of vaccines, including influenza, pneumococcal and herpes zoster vaccines. The review was carried out before COVID-19 vaccines were available. We downgraded our confidence in several of the findings from high confidence to moderate, low or very low confidence. One reason for this was that some findings were based on only small amounts of data. Another reason was that the findings were based on studies from only a few countries, making us unsure about the relevance of these findings to other settings. Healthcare workers reported that older adults asked about vaccination to different extents, ranging from not asking about vaccines at all, to great demand for information (high confidence finding). When the topic of vaccination was discussed, healthcare workers described a lack of information, and presence of misinformation, fears and concerns about vaccines among older adults (moderate confidence). The ways in which healthcare workers discussed vaccines with older adults appeared to be linked to what they saw as the aim of vaccination communication. Healthcare workers differed among themselves in their perceptions of this aim and about their own roles and the roles of older adults in vaccine decisions. Some healthcare workers thought it was important to provide information but emphasised the right and responsibility of older adults to decide for themselves. Others used information to persuade and convince older adults to vaccinate in order to increase 'compliance' and 'improve' vaccination rates, and in some cases to gain financial benefits. Other healthcare workers tailored their approach to what they believed the older adult needed or wanted (moderate confidence). Healthcare workers believed that older adults' decisions could be influenced by several factors, including the nature of the healthcare worker-patient relationship, the healthcare worker's status, and the extent to which healthcare workers led by example (low confidence). Our review also identified factors that are likely to influence how communication between healthcare workers and older adults take place. These included issues tied to healthcare workers' views and experiences regarding the diseases in question and the vaccines; as well as their views and experiences of the organisational and practical implementation of vaccine services. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is little research focusing specifically on healthcare workers' perceptions and experiences of communication with older adults about vaccination. The studies we identified suggest that healthcare workers differed among themselves in their perceptions about the aim of this communication and about the role of older adults in vaccine decisions. Based on these findings and the other findings in our review, we have developed a set of questions or prompts that may help health system planners or programme managers when planning or implementing strategies for vaccination communication between healthcare workers and older adults.


Subject(s)
Communication , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel/psychology , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Age Factors , Aged , Caregivers , Decision Making , Herpes Zoster Vaccine/administration & dosage , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Middle Aged , Persuasive Communication , Pneumococcal Vaccines/administration & dosage , Professional-Family Relations , Qualitative Research , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
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