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1.
J Infect Dis ; 224(4): 643-647, 2021 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545949

ABSTRACT

Influenza is associated with primary viral and secondary bacterial pneumonias; however, the dynamics of this relationship in populations with varied levels of pneumococcal vaccination remain unclear. We conducted nested matched case-control studies in 2 prospective cohorts of Nicaraguan children aged 2-14 years: 1 before pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction (2008-2010) and 1 following introduction and near universal adoption (2011-2018). The association between influenza and pneumonia was similar in both cohorts. Participants with influenza (across types/subtypes) had higher odds of developing pneumonia in the month following influenza infection. These findings underscore the importance of considering influenza in interventions to reduce global pneumonia burden.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human , Pneumococcal Infections , Pneumococcal Vaccines/administration & dosage , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Nicaragua , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , Vaccines, Conjugate
2.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 110(6): 1537-1546, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1326762

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to systematically investigate if any of the available drugs in the electronic health record (EHR) can be repurposed as potential treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Based on a retrospective cohort analysis of EHR data, drug-wide association studies (DrugWAS) were performed on 9,748 patients with COVID-19 at Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC). For each drug study, multivariable logistic regression with overlap weighting using propensity score was applied to estimate the effect of drug exposure on COVID-19 disease outcomes. Patient exposure to a drug between 3-months prior to the pandemic and the COVID-19 diagnosis was chosen as the exposure of interest. All-cause of death was selected as the primary outcome. Hospitalization, admission to the intensive care unit, and need for mechanical ventilation were identified as secondary outcomes. Overall, 17 drugs were significantly associated with decreased COVID-19 severity. Previous exposure to two types of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, PCV13 (odds ratio (OR), 0.31, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.12-0.81 and OR, 0.33, 95% CI, 0.15-0.73), diphtheria toxoid and tetanus toxoid vaccine (OR, 0.38, 95% CI, 0.15-0.93) were significantly associated with a decreased risk of death (primary outcome). Secondary analyses identified several other significant associations showing lower risk for COVID-19 outcomes: acellular pertussis vaccine, 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23), flaxseed extract, ethinyl estradiol, estradiol, turmeric extract, ubidecarenone, azelastine, pseudoephedrine, dextromethorphan, omega-3 fatty acids, fluticasone, and ibuprofen. In conclusion, this cohort study leveraged EHR data to identify a list of drugs that could be repurposed to improve COVID-19 outcomes. Further randomized clinical trials are needed to investigate the efficacy of the proposed drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning/methods , Pneumococcal Vaccines/administration & dosage , Product Surveillance, Postmarketing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Humans , Retrospective Studies
3.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD013706, 2021 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317491

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases are a major cause of illness and death among older adults. Vaccines can prevent infectious diseases, including against seasonal influenza, pneumococcal diseases, herpes zoster and COVID-19. However, the uptake of vaccination among older adults varies across settings and groups. Communication with healthcare workers can play an important role in older people's decisions to vaccinate. To support an informed decision about vaccination, healthcare workers should be able to identify the older person's knowledge gaps, needs and concerns. They should also be able to share and discuss information about the person's disease risk and disease severity; the vaccine's effectiveness and safety; and practical information about how the person can access vaccines. Therefore, healthcare workers need good communication skills and to actively keep up-to-date with the latest evidence. An understanding of their perceptions and experiences of this communication can help us train and support healthcare workers and design good communication strategies. OBJECTIVES: To explore healthcare workers' perceptions and experiences of communicating with older adults about vaccination. SEARCH METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL and Scopus on 21 March 2020. We also searched Epistemonikos for related reviews, searched grey literature sources, and carried out reference checking and citation searching to identify additional studies. We searched for studies in any language. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included qualitative studies and mixed-methods studies with an identifiable qualitative component. We included studies that explored the perceptions and experiences of healthcare workers and other health system staff towards communication with adults over the age of 50 years or their informal caregivers about vaccination. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We extracted data using a data extraction form designed for this review. We assessed methodological limitations using a list of predefined criteria. We extracted and assessed data regarding study authors' motivations for carrying out their study. We used a thematic synthesis approach to analyse and synthesise the evidence. We used the GRADE-CERQual (Confidence in the Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative research) approach to assess our confidence in each finding. We examined each review finding to identify factors that may influence intervention implementation and we developed implications for practice. MAIN RESULTS: We included 11 studies in our review. Most studies explored healthcare workers' views and experiences about vaccination of older adults more broadly but also mentioned communication issues specifically. All studies were from high-income countries. The studies focused on doctors, nurses, pharmacists and others working in hospitals, clinics, pharmacies and nursing homes. These healthcare workers discussed different types of vaccines, including influenza, pneumococcal and herpes zoster vaccines. The review was carried out before COVID-19 vaccines were available. We downgraded our confidence in several of the findings from high confidence to moderate, low or very low confidence. One reason for this was that some findings were based on only small amounts of data. Another reason was that the findings were based on studies from only a few countries, making us unsure about the relevance of these findings to other settings. Healthcare workers reported that older adults asked about vaccination to different extents, ranging from not asking about vaccines at all, to great demand for information (high confidence finding). When the topic of vaccination was discussed, healthcare workers described a lack of information, and presence of misinformation, fears and concerns about vaccines among older adults (moderate confidence). The ways in which healthcare workers discussed vaccines with older adults appeared to be linked to what they saw as the aim of vaccination communication. Healthcare workers differed among themselves in their perceptions of this aim and about their own roles and the roles of older adults in vaccine decisions. Some healthcare workers thought it was important to provide information but emphasised the right and responsibility of older adults to decide for themselves. Others used information to persuade and convince older adults to vaccinate in order to increase 'compliance' and 'improve' vaccination rates, and in some cases to gain financial benefits. Other healthcare workers tailored their approach to what they believed the older adult needed or wanted (moderate confidence). Healthcare workers believed that older adults' decisions could be influenced by several factors, including the nature of the healthcare worker-patient relationship, the healthcare worker's status, and the extent to which healthcare workers led by example (low confidence). Our review also identified factors that are likely to influence how communication between healthcare workers and older adults take place. These included issues tied to healthcare workers' views and experiences regarding the diseases in question and the vaccines; as well as their views and experiences of the organisational and practical implementation of vaccine services. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is little research focusing specifically on healthcare workers' perceptions and experiences of communication with older adults about vaccination. The studies we identified suggest that healthcare workers differed among themselves in their perceptions about the aim of this communication and about the role of older adults in vaccine decisions. Based on these findings and the other findings in our review, we have developed a set of questions or prompts that may help health system planners or programme managers when planning or implementing strategies for vaccination communication between healthcare workers and older adults.


Subject(s)
Communication , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel/psychology , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Age Factors , Aged , Caregivers , Decision Making , Herpes Zoster Vaccine/administration & dosage , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Middle Aged , Persuasive Communication , Pneumococcal Vaccines/administration & dosage , Professional-Family Relations , Qualitative Research , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 710, 2021 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242036

ABSTRACT

Saliva omics has immense potential for non-invasive diagnostics, including monitoring very young or elderly populations, or individuals in remote locations. In this study, multiple saliva omics from an individual were monitored over three periods (100 timepoints) involving: (1) hourly sampling over 24 h without intervention, (2) hourly sampling over 24 h including immune system activation using the standard 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, (3) daily sampling for 33 days profiling the post-vaccination response. At each timepoint total saliva transcriptome and proteome, and small RNA from salivary extracellular vesicles were profiled, including mRNA, miRNA, piRNA and bacterial RNA. The two 24-h periods were used in a paired analysis to remove daily variation and reveal vaccination responses. Over 18,000 omics longitudinal series had statistically significant temporal trends compared to a healthy baseline. Various immune response and regulation pathways were activated following vaccination, including interferon and cytokine signaling, and MHC antigen presentation. Immune response timeframes were concordant with innate and adaptive immunity development, and coincided with vaccination and reported fever. Overall, mRNA results appeared more specific and sensitive (timewise) to vaccination compared to other omics. The results suggest saliva omics can be consistently assessed for non-invasive personalized monitoring and immune response diagnostics.


Subject(s)
Pneumococcal Infections/immunology , Pneumococcal Vaccines/administration & dosage , Proteome/drug effects , Saliva/metabolism , Sinusitis/immunology , Streptococcus pneumoniae/immunology , Transcriptome/drug effects , Adult , Humans , Immunity , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Pneumococcal Infections/drug therapy , Pneumococcal Infections/microbiology , Saliva/drug effects , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Sinusitis/microbiology , Time Factors , Vaccination
6.
mBio ; 12(1)2021 01 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066816

ABSTRACT

In December 2019 a new coronavirus (CoV) emerged as a human pathogen, SARS-CoV-2. There are few data on human coronavirus infections among individuals living with HIV. In this study we probed the role of pneumococcal coinfections with seasonal CoVs among children living with and without HIV hospitalized for pneumonia. We also described the prevalence and clinical manifestations of these infections. A total of 39,836 children who participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial on the efficacy of a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV9) were followed for lower respiratory tract infection hospitalizations until 2 years of age. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected at the time of hospitalization and were screened by PCR for four seasonal CoVs. The frequency of CoV-associated pneumonia was higher in children living with HIV (19.9%) than in those without HIV (7.6%, P < 0.001). Serial CoV infections were detected in children living with HIV. The case fatality risk among children with CoV-associated pneumonia was higher in those living with HIV (30.4%) than without HIV (2.9%, P = 0.001). C-reactive protein and procalcitonin levels were elevated in 36.8% (≥40 mg/liter) and 64.7% (≥0.5 ng/ml), respectively, of the fatal cases living with HIV. Among children without HIV, there was a 64.0% (95% CI: 22.9% to 83.2%) lower incidence of CoV-associated pneumonia hospitalizations among PCV9 recipients compared to placebo recipients. These data suggest that Streptococcus pneumoniae infections might have a role in the development of pneumonia associated with endemic CoVs, that PCV may prevent pediatric CoV-associated hospitalization, and that children living with HIV with CoV infections develop more severe outcomes.IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2 may cause severe hospitalization, but little is known about the role of secondary bacterial infection in these severe cases, beyond the observation of high levels of reported inflammatory markers, associated with bacterial infection, such as procalcitonin. We did a secondary analysis of a double-blind randomized trial of PCV to examine its impact on human CoV infections before the pandemic. We found that both children living with and without HIV randomized to receive PCV had evidence of less hospitalization due to seasonal CoV, suggesting that pneumococcal coinfection may play a role in severe hospitalized CoV infections.


Subject(s)
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Vaccines/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Streptococcus pneumoniae/immunology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/pathology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/microbiology , Coinfection/prevention & control , Coinfection/virology , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prevalence , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
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