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3.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(6): 826-833, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1046303

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe coronavirus 2019 disease (CoViD-19) may lead to respiratory failure and mechanical ventilation. Therefore, ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) may complicate the course of the disease. The aim of the current article was to investigate possible predictive factors for bacterial VAP on a retrospective manner, in a cohort of mechanically ventilated CoViD-19 patients. Additionally, determinant factors of lethality were analyzed. METHODS: Medical records of patients hospitalized in the intensive care units (ICU) at the university hospital UZ Brussel during the epidemic were reviewed. VAP was defined following the National Healthcare Safety Network 2017 criteria. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions analyses were performed. RESULTS: Among the 39 patients included in the study, 54% were diagnosed with bacterial VAP. Case fatality rate was 44%, but 59% of the deceased patients had a do-not-resuscitate status. Multivariate logistic regression for prediction of VAP showed significant differences in duration of ICU hospitalization and in minimal lung compliance. Additional analyses were performed on CoViD-19 patients who were affected by bacterial respiratory superinfection. The responsible pathogens correspond to the commonly found bacteria in VAP. However, 71% of the isolated germs were multi-drug resistant and bacteraemia was reported in 38%. Multivariate analyses for prediction of lethality found significant difference in SOFA score. CONCLUSIONS: Mechanically ventilated CoViD-19 patients might frequently develop VAP. Longer ICU hospitalization was associated with pulmonary superinfection in the current cohort. Moreover, decreased minimal lung compliance was correlated to VAP and higher SOFA score at VAP diagnosis was associated with lethality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia, Bacterial , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Bacterial/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Bacterial/mortality , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/microbiology , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/mortality , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Ventilators, Mechanical
4.
J Glob Health ; 10(2): 020504, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895675

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We are communicating the results of investigating statistics on SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonias in Russia: percentage, mortality, cases with other viral agents, cases accompanied by secondary bacterial pneumonias, age breakdown, clinical course and outcome. METHODS: We studied two sampling sets (Set 1 and Set 2). Set 1 consisted of results of testing 3382 assays of out-patients and hospital patients (5-88 years old) with community-acquired and hospital-acquired pneumonia of yet undetermined aetiology. Set 2 contained results of 1204 assays of hospital patients (12-94 years old) with pneumonia and COVID-19 already diagnosed by molecular biological techniques in test laboratories. The results were collected in twelve Russian cities/provinces in time range 2 March - 5 May 2020. Assays were analysed for 10 bacterial, 15 viral, 2 fungal and 2 parasitic aetiological agents. RESULTS: In Set 1, 4.35% of total pneumonia cases were related to SARS-CoV-2, with substantially larger proportion (18.75%) of deaths of pneumonia with COVID-19 diagnosed. However, studying Set 2, we revealed that 52.82% patients in it were also positive for different typical and atypical aetiological agents usually causing pneumonia. 433 COVID-19 patients (35.96%) were tested positive for various bacterial aetiological agents, with Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Haemophilus influenzae infections accounting for the majority of secondary pneumonia cases. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2, a low-pathogenic virus itself, becomes exceptionally dangerous if secondary bacterial pneumonia attacks a COVID-19 patient as a complication. An essential part of the severest complications and mortality associated with COVID-19 in Russia in March-May 2020, may be attributed to secondary bacterial pneumonia and to a much less extent viral co-infections. The problem of hospital-acquired bacterial infection is exceptionally urgent in treating SARS-CoV-2 patients. The risk of secondary bacterial pneumonia and its further complications, should be given very serious attention in combating SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coinfection/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia/mortality , Pneumonia, Bacterial/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Virus Diseases/mortality , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coinfection/microbiology , Coronavirus Infections/microbiology , Female , Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia/microbiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Bacterial/microbiology , Pneumonia, Viral/microbiology , Russia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/microbiology , Young Adult
5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239573, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-793642

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus2 has caused a global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). High-density lipoproteins (HDLs), particles chiefly known for their reverse cholesterol transport function, also display pleiotropic properties, including anti-inflammatory or antioxidant functions. HDLs and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) can neutralize lipopolysaccharides and increase bacterial clearance. HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) decrease during bacterial sepsis, and an association has been reported between low lipoprotein levels and poor patient outcomes. The goal of this study was to characterize the lipoprotein profiles of severe ICU patients hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia and to assess their changes during bacterial ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) superinfection. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in a university hospital ICU. All consecutive patients admitted for COVID-19 pneumonia were included. Lipoprotein levels were assessed at admission and daily thereafter. The assessed outcomes were survival at 28 days and the incidence of VAP. RESULTS: A total of 48 patients were included. Upon admission, lipoprotein concentrations were low, typically under the reference values ([HDL-C] = 0.7[0.5-0.9] mmol/L; [LDL-C] = 1.8[1.3-2.3] mmol/L). A statistically significant increase in HDL-C and LDL-C over time during the ICU stay was found. There was no relationship between HDL-C and LDL-C concentrations and mortality on day 28 (log-rank p = 0.554 and p = 0.083, respectively). A comparison of alive and dead patients on day 28 did not reveal any differences in HDL-C and LDL-C concentrations over time. Bacterial VAP was frequent (64%). An association was observed between HDL-C and LDL-C concentrations on the day of the first VAP diagnosis and mortality ([HDL-C] = 0.6[0.5-0.9] mmol/L in survivors vs. [HDL-C] = 0.5[0.3-0.6] mmol/L in nonsurvivors, p = 0.036; [LDL-C] = 2.2[1.9-3.0] mmol/L in survivors vs. [LDL-C] = 1.3[0.9-2.0] mmol/L in nonsurvivors, p = 0.006). CONCLUSION: HDL-C and LDL-C concentrations upon ICU admission are low in severe COVID-19 pneumonia patients but are not associated with poor outcomes. However, low lipoprotein concentrations in the case of bacterial superinfection during ICU hospitalization are associated with mortality, which reinforces the potential role of these particles during bacterial sepsis.


Subject(s)
Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Pneumonia, Bacterial/blood , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Superinfection/blood , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , France , Hospitals, University , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Bacterial/mortality , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 10: 322, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-623310

ABSTRACT

Background: Corona virus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious respiratory disease that has spread rapidly across the world. Many studies have already evaluated the clinical features of COVID-19, but how it compares with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-negative community-acquired pneumonia (SN-CAP) is still unclear. Moreover, COVID-19 mortality is correlated with disease severity, but indicators for severity grading have not been specified. We aimed to analyze the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in comparison with SN-CAP and find indicators for disease severity in COVID-19. Methods: Patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and SN-CAP were enrolled. Clinical, radiological, and laboratory data were analyzed. Results: The numbers of COVID-19 and SN-CAP patients enrolled were 304 and 138, respectively. The age of the patients was not significantly different between the groups. Compared with SN-CAP, COVID-19 patients had more symptoms of fever and dyspnea; and showed significant difference in blood count results. Computed tomography (CT) imaging of COVID-19 patients showed patchy ground-glass opacities that correlated with disease severity, whereas the CT imaging of SN-CAP patients showed patchy high-density shadows. COVID-19 patients were classified into moderate, severe, and critically severe groups. The severe and critically severe groups had elevated levels of white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils, platelets, C-reaction protein (CRP), lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), troponin-I, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). However, they had decreased levels of lymphocytes, lymphocyte ratio, and albumin. Compared with the younger patients, the older COVID-19 individuals had more chronic diseases and significantly elevated levels of WBC, neutrophil, and CRP levels. Conclusion: SN-CAP showed more inflammatory reaction than COVID-19. Old people with chronic diseases are more susceptible to COVID-19 and have a high likelihood of developing severe and critically severe infection. Levels of WBC, lymphocytes, neutrophils, CRP, NLR, PLR, troponin-I, creatinine, and BUN are important indicators for severity grading in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Bacterial/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Bacterial/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Betacoronavirus , Blood Chemical Analysis , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections/mortality , Community-Acquired Infections/pathology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/cytology , Pandemics , Platelet Count , Pneumonia, Bacterial/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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