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1.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 854505, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847155

ABSTRACT

Objective: Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) is an important pathogen of community acquired pneumonia. With the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the prevalence of some infectious respiratory diseases has varied. Epidemiological features of M. pneumoniae in children from Beijing (China) before and during the COVID-19 pandemic were investigated. Methods: Between June 2016 and May 2021, a total of 569,887 children with respiratory infections from Children's Hospital Affiliated to Capital Institute of Pediatrics (Beijing, China) were included in this study. M. pneumoniae specific-IgM antibody in serum specimens of these patients was tested by a rapid immunochromatographic assay kit. The relevant clinical data of M. pneumoniae-positive cases were also collected, and analyzed by RStudio software. Results: The results showed that 13.08% of collected samples were positive for M. pneumoniae specific-IgM antibody. The highest annual positive rate was 17.59% in 2019, followed by 12.48% in 2018, 12.31% in 2017, and 11.73% in 2016, while the rate dropped to 8.9% in 2020 and 4.95% in 2021, with significant difference. Among the six years, the positive rates in summer and winter seasons were significantly higher than those in spring and autumn seasons (p < 0.001). The positive rate was the highest in school-age children (22.20%), and lowest in the infant group (8.76%, p < 0.001). The positive rate in boys (11.69%) was lower than that in girls (14.80%, p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in different seasons, age groups, or genders before and during the COVID-19 pandemic (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Our study demonstrated that an M. pneumoniae outbreak started from the summer of 2019 in Beijing. After the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak in the end of 2019, the M. pneumoniae positive rates dropped dramatically. This may be due to the restrictive measures of the COVID-19 pandemic, which effectively controlled the transmission of M. pneumoniae. The relationships between M. pneumoniae positive rates and season, age, and gender were not statistically significant before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Beijing/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin M , Infant , Male , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/epidemiology , Prevalence
2.
Euro Surveill ; 27(19)2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847113

ABSTRACT

BackgroundMycoplasma pneumoniae respiratory infections are transmitted by aerosol and droplets in close contact.AimWe investigated global M. pneumoniae incidence after implementation of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) against COVID-19 in March 2020.MethodsWe surveyed M. pneumoniae detections from laboratories and surveillance systems (national or regional) across the world from 1 April 2020 to 31 March 2021 and compared them with cases from corresponding months between 2017 and 2020. Macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae (MRMp) data were collected from 1 April 2017 to 31 March 2021.ResultsThirty-seven sites from 21 countries in Europe, Asia, America and Oceania submitted valid datasets (631,104 tests). Among the 30,617 M. pneumoniae detections, 62.39% were based on direct test methods (predominantly PCR), 34.24% on a combination of PCR and serology (no distinction between methods) and 3.37% on serology alone (only IgM considered). In all countries, M. pneumoniae incidence by direct test methods declined significantly after implementation of NPIs with a mean of 1.69% (SD ± 3.30) compared with 8.61% (SD ± 10.62) in previous years (p < 0.01). Detection rates decreased with direct but not with indirect test methods (serology) (-93.51% vs + 18.08%; p < 0.01). Direct detections remained low worldwide throughout April 2020 to March 2021 despite widely differing lockdown or school closure periods. Seven sites (Europe, Asia and America) reported MRMp detections in one of 22 investigated cases in April 2020 to March 2021 and 176 of 762 (23.10%) in previous years (p = 0.04).ConclusionsThis comprehensive collection of M. pneumoniae detections worldwide shows correlation between COVID-19 NPIs and significantly reduced detection numbers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Macrolides , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/genetics , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/epidemiology
3.
Respir Med Res ; 81: 100892, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805072

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chest computed tomography (CT) was reported to improve the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) as compared to chest X-ray (CXR). The aim of this study is to describe the CT-patterns of CAP in a large population visiting the emergency department and to see if some of them are more frequently missed on CXR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is an ancillary analysis of the prospective multicenter ESCAPED study including 319 patients. We selected the 163 definite or probable CAP based on adjudication committee classification; 147 available chest CT scans were reinterpreted by 3 chest radiologists to identify CAP patterns. These CT-patterns were correlated to epidemiological, biological and microbiological data, and compared between false negative and true positive CXR CAP. RESULTS: Six patterns were identified: lobar pneumonia (51/147, 35%), including 35 with plurifocal involvement; lobular pneumonia (43/147, 29%); unilobar infra-segmental consolidation (24/147, 16%); bronchiolitis (16/147, 11%), including 4 unilobar bronchiolitis; atelectasis and bronchial abnormalities (8/147, 5.5%); interstitial pneumonia (5/147, 3.5%). Bacteria were isolated in 41% of patients with lobar pneumonia-pattern (mostly Streptococcus pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumonia) versus 19% in other patients (p = 0.01). Respiratory viruses were equally distributed within all patterns. CXR was falsely negative in 46/147 (31%) patients. Lobar pneumonia was significantly less missed on CXR than other patterns (p = 0.003), especially lobular pneumonia and unilobar infra-segmental consolidation, missed in 35% and 58% of cases, respectively. CONCLUSION: Lobar and lobular pneumonias are the most frequent CT-patterns. Lobar pneumonia is appropriately detected on CXR and mainly due to Streptococcus pneumoniae or Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Chest CT is very useful to identify CAP in other CT-patterns. Prior the COVID pandemic, CAP was rarely responsible for interstitial opacities on CT.


Subject(s)
Bronchiolitis , COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnostic imaging , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
4.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 843463, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779935

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the outbreak of COVID-19, a series of preventive and control measures in China have been used to effectively curb the spread of COVID-19. This study aimed to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) and Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) in hospitalized children with acute respiratory tract infection during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: MP IgM antibody and CP IgM antibody were detected in all hospitalized children due to acute respiratory tract infection in the Children's Hospital Affiliated to Zhejiang University from January 2019 to December 2020. These data were compared between 2019 and 2020 based on age and month. Results: The overall detection rate of MP and CP in 2020 was significantly lower than that in 2019 (MP: 21.5% vs 32.9%, P<0.001; CP: 0.3% vs 0.9%, P<0.001). This study found a 4-fold reduction in the number of children positive for MP and a 7.5-fold reduction in the number of children positive for CP from 2019 to 2020. The positive cases were concentrated in children aged >1 year old. In 2019, the positive rate of MP was detected more commonly in children 3 years of age or older than in younger children. In 2020, the higher positive rate of MP reached a peak in the 3- to 6-year age group (35.3%). CP was detected predominantly in children aged 6 years older in 2019 and 2020, with positive rates of 4.8% and 2.6%, respectively. Meanwhile, the positive rates of MP in 2019 were detected more commonly in July, August and September, with 47.2%, 46.7% and 46.3%, respectively. Nevertheless, the positive rates of MP from February to December 2020 apparently decreased compared to those in 2019. The positive rates of CP were evenly distributed throughout the year, with 0.5%-1.6% in 2019 and 0.0%-2.1% in 2020. Conclusions: A series of preventive and control measures for SARS-CoV-2 during the COVID-19 pandemic can not only contain the spread of SARS-CoV-2 but also sharply improve the infection of other atypical pathogens, including MP and CP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chlamydophila Infections , Chlamydophila pneumoniae , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Respiratory Tract Infections , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Chlamydophila Infections/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin M , Infant , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0155021, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685499

ABSTRACT

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common pathogen causing respiratory disease in children. We sought to investigate the epidemiology of M. pneumoniae among outpatient children with mild respiratory tract infections (RTIs) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Eligible patients were prospectively enrolled from January 2020 to June 2021. Throat swabs were tested for M. pneumoniae RNA. M. pneumoniae IgM was tested by a colloidal gold assay. Macrolide resistance and the effect of the COVID-19 countermeasures on M. pneumoniae prevalence were assessed. Symptom scores, treatments, and outcomes were evaluated. Eight hundred sixty-two eligible children at 15 centers in China were enrolled. M. pneumoniae was detected in 78 (9.0%) patients. Seasonally, M. pneumoniae peaked in the first spring and dropped dramatically to extremely low levels over time until the next summer. Decreases in COVID-19 prevalence were significantly associated with decreases in M. pneumoniae prevalence (r = 0.76, P = 0.001). The macrolide resistance rate was 7.7%. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the colloidal gold assay used in determining M. pneumoniae infection were 32.1% and 77.9%, respectively. No more benefits for improving the severity of symptoms and outcomes were observed in M. pneumoniae-infected patients treated with a macrolide than in those not treated with a macrolide during follow-up. The prevalences of M. pneumoniae and macrolide resistance in outpatient children with mild RTIs were at low levels in the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic but may have rebounded recently. The colloidal gold assay for M. pneumoniae IgM may be not appropriate for diagnosis of M. pneumoniae infection. Macrolides should be used with caution among outpatients with mild RTIs. IMPORTANCE This is the first and largest prospective, multicenter, active, population-based surveillance study of the epidemiology of Mycoplasma pneumoniae among outpatient children with mild respiratory tract infections (RTIs) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Nationwide measures like strict face mask wearing and restrictions on population movement implemented to prevent the spread of COVID-19 might also effectively prevent the spread of M. pneumoniae. The prevalence of M. pneumoniae and the proportion of drug-resistant M. pneumoniae isolates in outpatient children with mild RTIs were at low levels in the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic but may have rebounded recently. The colloidal gold assay for M. pneumoniae IgM may be not appropriate for screening and diagnosis of M. pneumoniae infection. Macrolides should be used with caution among outpatients with mild RTIs.


Subject(s)
Mycoplasma pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Adolescent , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Female , Humans , Infant , Macrolides/therapeutic use , Male , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/genetics , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/physiology , Outpatients/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 303-309, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544346

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence shows co-infection with atypical bacteria in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Respiratory illness caused by atypical bacteria such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila may show overlapping manifestations and imaging features with COVID-19 causing clinical and laboratory diagnostic issues. We conducted a prospective study to identify co-infections with SARS-CoV-2 and atypical bacteria in an Indian tertiary hospital. From June 2020 to January 2021, a total of 194 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were also tested for atypical bacterial pathogens. For diagnosing M. pneumoniae, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and serology (IgM ELISA) were performed. C. pneumoniae diagnosis was made based on IgM serology. L. pneumophila diagnosis was based on PCR or urinary antigen testing. Clinical and epidemiological features of SARS-CoV-2 and atypical bacteria-positive and -negative patient groups were compared. Of the 194 patients admitted with COVID-19, 17 (8.8%) were also diagnosed with M. pneumoniae (n = 10) or C. pneumoniae infection (n = 7). Confusion, headache, and bilateral infiltrate were found more frequently in the SARS CoV-2 and atypical bacteria co-infection group. Patients in the M. pneumoniae or C. pneumoniae co-infection group were more likely to develop ARDS, required ventilatory support, had a longer hospital length of stay, and higher fatality rate compared to patients with only SARS-CoV-2. Our report highlights co-infection with bacteria causing atypical pneumonia should be considered in patients with SARS-CoV-2 depending on the clinical context. Timely identification of co-existing pathogens can provide pathogen-targeted treatment and prevent fatal outcomes of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 during the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
Atypical Bacterial Forms/isolation & purification , COVID-19/pathology , Chlamydophila Infections/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Legionnaires' Disease/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Chlamydophila pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Female , Humans , India , Legionella pneumophila/isolation & purification , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
7.
World J Pediatr ; 17(3): 263-271, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279501

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to explore the characteristics of Kawasaki disease (KD) and concurrent pathogens due to a stay-at-home isolation policy during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. METHODS: All patients with KD admitted between February and April in 2015-2020, were classified into before (group 1, in 2015-2019) and after (group 2, in 2020) isolation groups. A total of 4742 patients [with KD (n = 98) and non-KD (n = 4644)] referred to Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) and virus detection were analyzed in 2020. Clinical characteristics, laboratory data, and 13 pathogens were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: Group 2 had a significantly increased incidence of KD (0.11%) with 107 patients compared to that of group 1 (0.03%) with 493 patients. The comparisons of oral mucosal change, strawberry tongue, desquamation of the fingertips, cervical lymphadenopathy and neutrophil percentage decreased in group 2 compared to group 1. The infection rate of MP increased significantly in group 2 (34.7%) compared to group 1 (19.3%), while the positive rate of viruses decreased significantly in group 2 (5.3%) compared to group 1 (14.3%). In 2020, the positive rate of MP infection increased significantly in patients with KD compared to the increase in patients with non-KD. The infection rate of MP for younger children aged less than 3 years old was higher in group 2 than in group 1. CONCLUSION: Compared with the characteristics of KD from 2015 to 2019 years, the incidence of KD was increased in 2020 and was accompanied by a high incidence of MP infection, especially in younger children (less than 3 years old) during the isolation due to COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Physical Distancing , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/virology
8.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 54(5): 801-807, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275504

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) manifests symptoms as common etiologies of respiratory tract infections (RTIs). During the pandemic of COVID-19, identifying the etiologies correctly from patients with RTI symptoms was crucial in not only disease control but preventing healthcare system from collapsing. By applying sensitive PCR-based molecular assays, we detected the etiologic agents and delineated the epidemiologic picture of RTIs in the early phase of COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: From December 2019 to February 2020, we screened patients presented with RTIs using multiplex PCR-based diagnostic assays. Data from pediatric and adult patients were compared with different months and units in the hospital. RESULTS: Of all 1631 patients including 1445 adult and 186 pediatric patients screened, 8 viruses and 4 bacteria were identified. Positive rates were 25% in December, 37% in January, and 20% in February, with pediatric patients having higher positive rates than adults (Ps < 0.001). In pediatric patients, RhV/EnV was the most commonly detected, followed by parainfluenza viruses. Most Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection occurred in pediatric patients. RhV/EnV was the most commonly detected agent in pediatric patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs), while influenza accounted for the majority of adult cases with critical illness. Noticeably, seasonal coronavirus ranked second in both adult and pediatric patients with ICU admission. CONCLUSION: While we focused on the pandemic of COVID-19, common etiologies still accounted for the majority of RTIs and lead to severe diseases, including other seasonal coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Humans , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pandemics , Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human , Parainfluenza Virus 2, Human , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seasons , Taiwan/epidemiology
9.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 202, 2021 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207594

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Following the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, a change in the incidence and transmission of respiratory pathogens was observed. Here, we retrospectively analyzed the impact of COVID-19 on the epidemiologic characteristics of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection among children in Chengdu, one of the largest cities of western China. METHOD: M. pneumoniae infection was diagnosed in 33,345 pediatric patients with respiratory symptoms at the Chengdu Women's & Children's Central Hospital between January 2017 and December 2020, based on a serum antibody titer of ≥1:160 measured by the passive agglutination assay. Differences in infection rates were examined by sex, age, and temporal distribution. RESULTS: Two epidemic outbreaks occurred between October-December 2017 and April-December 2019, and two infection peaks were detected in the second and fourth quarters of 2017, 2018, and 2019. Due to the public health response to COVID-19, the number of positive M. pneumoniae cases significantly decreased in the second quarter of 2020. The number of M. pneumoniae infection among children aged 3-6 years was higher than that in other age groups. CONCLUSIONS: Preschool children are more susceptible to M. pneumoniae infection and close contact appears to be the predominant factor favoring pathogen transmission. The public health response to COVID-19 can effectively control the transmission of M. pneumoniae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Mil Med Res ; 7(1): 60, 2020 12 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-956635

ABSTRACT

In 2019, an outbreak of Mycoplasma pneumoniae occurred at a military academy in China. The attack rate (10.08%,60/595) was significantly different among the units. High-intensity training and crowded environments to which cadets are exposed are the high risk factors for the outbreak of M. pneumoniae. In-time prevention and control measures effectively controlled the spread of the epidemic.


Subject(s)
Military Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/pathogenicity , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/drug therapy , Academies and Institutes/organization & administration , Academies and Institutes/statistics & numerical data , Academies and Institutes/trends , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/drug effects , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/epidemiology
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(11): e24315, 2021 Mar 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138005

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, considerable attention has been paid on its epidemiology and clinical characteristics in children patients. However, it is also crucial for clinicians to summarize and investigate the co-infection of SARS-CoV-2 in children.We retrospectively reviewed the clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and imaging characteristics of COVID-19 patients in co-infection group (CI, n = 27) and single infection group (SI, n = 54). Samples were tested for multiple pathogens.A high incidence (27/81, 33%) of co-infection in children with COVID-19 was revealed. The most frequent co-infected pathogen was mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP, 20/81, 25%), followed by virus (6/81, 7%), and bacteria (4/81, 5%). No significant difference in clinical characteristics, laboratory examinations, or hospital stay was observed between the patients with co-infections and those with monomicrobial, only lower in white blood cell counts (CI: 5.54 ±â€Š0.36 vs SI: 7.38 ±â€Š0.37, P = .002), neutrophil counts (CI: 2.20 ±â€Š0.20 vs SI: 2.92 ±â€Š0.23, P = .024) and lymphocyte counts (CI: 2.72 ±â€Š0.024 vs SI: 3.87 ±â€Š0.28, P = .006). Compared with the patients with monomicrobial, chest imaging of those with co-infections showed consolidation in more cases (CI: 29.6% vs SI: 11.1%, P = .038) and duration of positive in nucleic acid was shorter (CI: 6.69 ±â€Š0.82 vs SI: 9.69 ±â€Š0.74, P = .015).Co-infection was relatively common in children with COVID-19, almost 1/3 had co-infection, most commonly caused by MP. Co-infection did not cause a significant exacerbation in clinical manifestations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Adenoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Coinfection/microbiology , Coinfection/virology , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Moraxellaceae Infections/epidemiology , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e929783, 2021 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005108

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND This retrospective study aimed to investigate co-infections with common respiratory pathogens and SARS-CoV-2 and laboratory biochemistry findings in patients with COVID-19 in the Zhuzhou area of China, in order to provide a reference for the disease assessment and clinical treatment of COVID-19. MATERIAL AND METHODS The clinical data of COVID-19 patients admitted to the hospital of Zhuzhou City from January 28 to March 15, 2020, as well as laboratory test results for respiratory pathogens and biochemical indicators, were collected to conduct correlation analyses. All patients were diagnosed based on fluorescence-based PCR assay for SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS Eleven of the 78 patients (14.1%) were co-infected with other respiratory pathogens, among which Mycoplasma pneumoniae (n=5, 45.5%) and respiratory syncytial virus (n=4, 36.4%) were the most frequent. There were 8 patients co-infected with 1 other pathogen and 3 patients co-infected with 2 other pathogens. Compared with mono-infected COVID-19 patients, patients with co-infections had significantly higher levels of procalcitonin (P=0.002). CONCLUSIONS The findings showed that Mycoplasma pneumonia and respiratory syncytial virus were the most common co-infections in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Increased levels of PCT in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia were associated with co-infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Pandemics , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Creatine Kinase/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/blood , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/epidemiology , Procalcitonin/blood , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/blood , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/blood , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 132, 2020 Feb 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-827577

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the leading worldwide causes of childhood morbidity and mortality. Its disease burden varies by age and etiology and is time dependent. We aimed to investigate the annual and seasonal patterns in etiologies of pediatric CAP requiring hospitalization. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study in 30,994 children (aged 0-18 years) with CAP between 2010 and 2015 at 23 nationwide hospitals in South Korea. Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) pneumonia was clinically classified as macrolide-sensitive MP, macrolide-less effective MP (MLEP), and macrolide-refractory MP (MRMP) based on fever duration after initiation of macrolide treatment, regardless of the results of in vitro macrolide sensitivity tests. RESULTS: MP and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) were the two most commonly identified pathogens of CAP. With the two epidemics of MP pneumonia (2011 and 2015), the rates of clinical MLEP and MRMP pneumonia showed increasing trends of 36.4% of the total MP pneumonia. In children < 2 years of age, RSV (34.0%) was the most common cause of CAP, followed by MP (9.4%); however, MP was the most common cause of CAP in children aged 2-18 years of age (45.3%). Systemic corticosteroid was most commonly administered for MP pneumonia. The rate of hospitalization in intensive care units was the highest for RSV pneumonia, and ventilator care was most commonly needed in cases of adenovirus pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides fundamental data to establish public health policies to decrease the disease burden due to CAP and improve pediatric health.


Subject(s)
Community-Acquired Infections/etiology , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Adenoviridae Infections/drug therapy , Adenoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Adenoviridae Infections/etiology , Adolescent , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Child , Child, Preschool , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Female , Hospitals, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Macrolides/therapeutic use , Male , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/etiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/pathogenicity , Retrospective Studies , Seasons
15.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 58(8): 635-639, 2020 Aug 02.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-749115

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the spectrum of pathogenic agents in pediatric patients with acute respiratory infections (ARI) during the outbreak of coronavirus infectious diseases 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: Three groups of children were enrolled into the prospective study during January 20 to February 20, 2020 from Capital Institute of Pediatrics, including children in the exposed group with ARI and epidemiological history associated with COVID-19 from whom both pharyngeal and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected, children in the ARI group without COVID-19 associated epidemiological history and children in the screening group for hospital admission, with neither COVID-19 associated epidemiological history nor ARI. Only nasopharyngeal swabs were collected in the ARI group and screening group. Each group is expected to include at least 30 cases. All specimens were tested for 2019-nCoV nucleic acid by two diagnostic kits from different manufacturers. All nasopharyngeal swabs were tested for multiple respiratory pathogens, whilst the results from the ARI group were compared with that in the correspondence periods of 2019 and 2018 used by t or χ(2) test. Results: A total of 244 children were enrolled into three groups, including 139 males and 105 females, the age was (5±4) years. The test of 2019-nCoV nucleic acid were negative in all children, and high positive rates of pathogens were detected in exposed (69.4%, 25/36) and ARI (55.3%, 73/132) groups, with the highest positive rate for mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) (19.4%, 7/36 and 17.4%, 23/132, respectively), followed by human metapneumovirus (hMPV) (16.7%, 6/36 and 9.8%, 13/132, respectively). The positive rate (11.8%, 9/76) of pathogens in the screening group was low. In the same period of 2019, the positive rate of pathogens was 83.7% (77/92), with the highest rates for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) A (29.3%, 27/92), followed by influenza virus (Flu) A (H1N1) (19.6%, 18/92) and adenovirus (ADV) (14.1%, 13/92), which showed significant difference with the positive rates of the three viruses in 2020 (RSV A: χ(2)=27.346, P<0.01; FluA (H1N1): χ(2)=28.083, P<0.01; ADV: χ(2)=7.848, P=0.005) . In 2018, the positive rate of pathogens was 61.0% (50/82), with the highest rate for human bocavirus (HBoV) (13.4%, 11/82) and followed by ADV (11.0%, 9/82), and significant difference was shown in the positive rate of HBoV with that in 2020 (χ(2)=6.776, P=0.009). Conclusions: The infection rate of 2019-nCoV is low among children in Beijing with no family clustering or no close contact, even with epidemiological history. The spectrum of pathogens of ARI in children during the research period is quite different from that in the previous years when the viral infections were dominant. MP is the highest positively detected one among the main pathogens during the outbreak of COVID-19 in Beijing where there is no main outbreak area.


Subject(s)
Disease Outbreaks , Metapneumovirus/isolation & purification , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Paramyxoviridae Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Beijing/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Female , Humans , Infant , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Male , Metapneumovirus/pathogenicity , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/pathogenicity , Pandemics , Paramyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Pediatrics , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Infection ; 48(6): 871-877, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-680115

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has spread all over the world causing a global pandemic and representing a great medical challenge. Nowadays, there is limited knowledge on the rate of co-infections with other respiratory pathogens, with viral co-infection being the most representative agents. Co-infection with Mycoplasma pneumoniae has been described both in adults and pediatrics whereas only two cases of Chlamydia pneumoniae have been reported in a large US study so far. METHODS: In the present report, we describe a series of seven patients where co-infection with C. pneumoniae (n = 5) or M. pneumoniae (n = 2) and SARS-CoV-2 was detected in a large teaching hospital in Rome. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: An extensive review of the updated literature regarding the co-infection between SARS-CoV-2 and these atypical pathogens is also performed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Chlamydial Pneumonia/diagnosis , Chlamydial Pneumonia/microbiology , Coinfection , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/microbiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Chlamydial Pneumonia/epidemiology , Chlamydial Pneumonia/therapy , Comorbidity , Disease Management , Female , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Rome/epidemiology , Symptom Assessment , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
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