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4.
Int J Qual Health Care ; 33(1)2021 Feb 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1093551

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has forced health-care providers to find creative ways to allow continuity of care in times of lockdown. Telemedicine enables provision of care when in-person visits are not possible. Sheba Medical Center made a rapid transition of outpatient clinics to video consultations (VC) during the first wave of COVID-19 in Israel. OBJECTIVE: Results of a survey of patient and clinician user experience with VC are reported. METHODS: Satisfaction surveys were sent by text messages to patients, clinicians who practice VC (users) and clinicians who do not practice VC (non-users). Questions referred to general satisfaction, ease of use, technical issues and medical and communication quality. Questions and scales were based on surveys used regularly in outpatient clinics of Sheba Medical Center. RESULTS: More than 1200 clinicians (physicians, psychologists, nurses, social workers, dietitians, speech therapists, genetic consultants and others) provided VC during the study period. Five hundred and forty patients, 162 clinicians who were users and 50 clinicians who were non-users completed the survey. High level of satisfaction was reported by 89.8% of patients and 37.7% of clinician users. Technical problems were experienced by 21% of patients and 80% of clinician users. Almost 70% of patients but only 23.5% of clinicians found the platform very simple to use. Over 90% of patients were very satisfied with clinician's courtesy, expressed a high sense of trust, thought that clinician's explanations and recommendations were clear and estimated that the clinician understood their problems and 86.5% of them would recommend VC to family and friends. Eighty-seven percent of clinician users recognize the benefit of VC for patients during the COVID-19 pandemic but only 68% supported continuation of the service after the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Our study reports high levels of patient satisfaction from outpatient clinics VC during the COVID-19 pandemic. Lower levels of clinician satisfaction can mostly be attributed to technical and administrative challenges related to the newly implemented telemedicine platform. Our findings support the continued future use of VC as a means of providing patient-centered care. Future steps need to be taken to continuously improve the clinical and administrative application of telemedicine services.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , Patient Satisfaction , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Remote Consultation , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(7): e24668, 2021 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091183

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: We aimed to retrospectively analyze the clinical and computed tomography (CT) characteristics of young adults with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia who were critically ill and to identify the features associated with non-survival.Thirty-eight COVID-19 patients (20-45 years old, 28 men) who had been admitted in the intensive care unit were included, including 18 non-survivors (group 1) and 20 survivors (group 2). Their clinical characteristics and initial and follow-up CT were compared between groups.In group 1, the days from illness onset to death were 21.1 ±â€Š10.3 days; 7 patients had underlying comorbidities. At admission, group 1 exhibited higher serum ferritin and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels (1142.6 ±â€Š242.4 mg/L and 33.8 ±â€Š18.6 mmol/L) compared with group 2 (728.3 ±â€Š150.9 mg/L and 15.2 ±â€Š6.9 mmol/L, P < .01). Group 1 exhibited more rapidly progressive opacities and consolidation in follow-up CT (16.7 ±â€Š3.1 scores, 15.7 ±â€Š3.1 segments) than group 2 (11.4 ±â€Š4.0 scores, 10.3 ±â€Š4.6 segments, P < .01). The oxygenation index was lower (87.6 ±â€Š19.2 vs 99.1 ±â€Š20.4 mm Hg) and the mechanical ventilation duration was longer (14.7 ±â€Š6.9 vs 9.7 ±â€Š3.7 days) in group 1 compare with group 2 (P < .01).Compared with the survivors, the non-survivors showed higher serum ferritin and IL-6 levels, more rapidly progressive opacities in CT, lower oxygenation index, and longer mechanical ventilation durations. Special attention to ferritin/IL-6 levels and oxygenation index as well as early CT application and timely reexaminations are important to identify the individuals who may be at risk of becoming critically ill.


Subject(s)
/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adult , Critical Illness , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , Survival Analysis
6.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 100(3): 203-208, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087862

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic affects a large number of patients. The impact on feasibility and outcome of rehabilitation during COVID-19 actually remains unclear. Nosocomial infection of healthcare workers or hospitalized patients is common, and prevention of nosocomial infections during rehabilitation is challenging. Therefore, we analyzed a cohort of nosocomial infected COVID-19 patients in a single-center inpatient rehabilitation clinic and described performance and outcome. DESIGN: The cohort (N = 27) describes patients with nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 infection while participating in neuromusculoskeletal rehabilitation. Infection was caused by an initially unidentified so-called superspreader. We compared this cohort with all neuromusculoskeletal rehabilitation inpatients of 2019 (comparison group). Normally distributed continuous variables were presented as mean with standard deviation and the t test was used for comparison between groups. Linear regression was used to assess the impact of COVID-19 on Functional Independence Measure at discharge. RESULTS: COVID-19 patients were mostly male (66.7%) with an age of 71.5 ± 12.3 yrs. Age, sex, and cumulated comorbidities of the comparison group (n = 786) were not different from the COVID-19 group. A total of 92.6% of COVID-19 patients had a mild or moderate course, two patients had to be referred to acute hospital because of respiratory failure, and one of these patients died in the acute hospital. After implementation of a strict hygiene concept, no further nosocomial COVID-19 infections were detected. The rehabilitation duration was significantly longer in the COVID-19 group (54.2 ± 23.6 days vs. 32.1 ± 17.7 days, P < 0.001). Daily therapy duration was 132.3 ± 44 mins before SARS-CoV-2 infection and reduced to 81.9 ± 27.3 mins during COVID-19 (P < 0.001). After discontinuation of isolation measures, therapy duration increased significantly (99.3 ± 70.2 mins, P < 0.05).The baseline Functional Independence Measure score was higher in the COVID-19 group (91.93 ± 25.64 points vs. 82.98 ± 22.73 points) and Functional Independence Measure improvements were lower in COVID-19 patients than in the 2019 comparison group (6.96 ± 8.96 points vs. 20.3 ± 15.98 points, P < 0.001). COVID-19 infection itself had a strong negative impact on Functional Independence Measure change as identified by regression analysis. Linear regression analysis showed that COVID-19 reduced the Functional Independence Measure at discharge by 8.9 points (95% CI = -14.725 to -3.097, P = 0.003) after correction for Functional Independence Measure at admission, age, sex, and morbidity index at admission. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 had a strong negative impact on rehabilitation benefits as assessed by Functional Independence Measure. Neuromusculoskeletal rehabilitation could be continued, but all patients received less therapy minutes during isolation. After implementation of a strict COVID-19-specific hygiene concept, no further infections were detected.


Subject(s)
/diagnosis , Cross Infection/rehabilitation , Pneumonia, Viral/rehabilitation , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Inpatients , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Rehabilitation Centers , Risk Assessment
7.
Front Immunol ; 11: 609198, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1080669

ABSTRACT

During COVID-19 pandemic the care of onco-hematologic and autoimmune patients has raised the question whether they are at higher risk of infection and/or worse outcome. Here, we describe the clinical course of COVID-19 pneumonia in patients with autoimmune cytopenias (AIC) regularly followed at a reference center in Northern Italy. The study period started from COVID-19 outbreak (February 22, 2020) until the time of writing. Moreover, we provide a review of the literature, showing that most cases reported so far are AIC developed during or secondary to COVID-19 infection. At variance, data about AIC pre-existing to COVID infection are scanty. The 4 patients here described (2 autoimmune hemolytic anemias, AIHA, 1 Evans syndrome, and 1 immune thrombocytopenia) with COVID-19 pneumonia belong to a large cohort of 500 AIC patients, making this study nearly population-based. The observed frequency (4/501; 0.7%) is only slightly superior to that of the general population admitted to hospital/intensive care unit (0.28/0.03%, respectively) in Lombardy in the same period of observation. All cases occurred between March 21 and 25, whilst no more AIC were recorded later on. Although different in intensity of care needed, all patients recovered from COVID-19 pneumonia, with apparently no detrimental effect of previous/current immunomodulatory treatments. AIHA relapse occurred in two patients, but promptly responded to therapy. With limitations due to sample size, these results suggest a favorable outcome and a lower-than-expected incidence of COVID-19 pneumonia in patients with previously diagnosed AIC, and allow speculating that immunomodulatory drugs used for AIC may play a beneficial rather than a harmful effect on COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/complications , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Young Adult
8.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 21(1): 28, 2021 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079209

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has led to the adoption of unprecedented mitigation measures which could trigger many unintended consequences. These unintended consequences can be far-reaching and just as important as the intended ones. The World Health Organization identified the assessment of unintended consequences of COVID-19 mitigation measures as a top priority. Thus far, however, their systematic assessment has been neglected due to the inattention of researchers as well as the lack of training and practical tools. MAIN TEXT: Over six years our team has gained extensive experience conducting research on the unintended consequences of complex health interventions. Through a reflexive process, we developed insights that can be useful for researchers in this area. Our analysis is based on key literature and lessons learned reflexively in conducting multi-site and multi-method studies on unintended consequences. Here we present practical guidance for researchers wishing to assess the unintended consequences of COVID-19 mitigation measures. To ensure resource allocation, protocols should include research questions regarding unintended consequences at the outset. Social science theories and frameworks are available to help assess unintended consequences. To determine which changes are unintended, researchers must first understand the intervention theory. To facilitate data collection, researchers can begin by forecasting potential unintended consequences through literature reviews and discussions with stakeholders. Including desirable and neutral unintended consequences in the scope of study can help minimize the negative bias reported in the literature. Exploratory methods can be powerful tools to capture data on the unintended consequences that were unforeseen by researchers. We recommend researchers cast a wide net by inquiring about different aspects of the mitigation measures. Some unintended consequences may only be observable in subsequent years, so longitudinal approaches may be useful. An equity lens is necessary to assess how mitigation measures may unintentionally increase disparities. Finally, stakeholders can help validate the classification of consequences as intended or unintended. CONCLUSION: Studying the unintended consequences of COVID-19 mitigation measures is not only possible but also necessary to assess their overall value. The practical guidance presented will help program planners and evaluators gain a more comprehensive understanding of unintended consequences to refine mitigation measures.


Subject(s)
/prevention & control , Global Health , Health Priorities , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , /epidemiology , Health Services Research , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Research Design , Resource Allocation , World Health Organization
10.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(4): 623-630, ago. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1070235

ABSTRACT

Resumen: SARS-CoV-2 es un virus de alta estabilidad ambiental. Es principalmente un patógeno respiratorio que también afecta el tracto gastrointestinal. El receptor ACE2 es el principal receptor de SARS- CoV-2, hay evidencia de su elevada presencia en intestino, colon y colangiocitos; igualmente se en cuentra expresado en hepatocitos pero en menor proporción. SARS-CoV-2 tiene un tropismo gas trointestinal que explica los síntomas digestivos y la diseminación viral en deposiciones. Las caracte rísticas de SARS-CoV-2 incluyen a la proteína S (Spike o Espícula) que se une de forma muy estable al receptor ACE2. La infección por SARS-CoV-2 produce disbiosis y alteraciones en el eje pulmón- intestino. A nivel intestinal y hepático produce una respuesta Linfocitos T evidente y una respuesta de citocinas que producirían daño intestinal inflamatorio. Las manifestaciones a nivel intestinal en orden de frecuencia son pérdida de apetito, diarrea, náuseas, vómitos y dolor abdominal. Éste último podría ser un marcador de gravedad. En niños la diarrea es habitualmente leve y autolimitada. A nivel hepático la hipertransaminasemia ocurre en 40-60% de los pacientes graves. SARS-CoV-2 puede per manecer en deposiciones un tiempo más prolongado que en secreciones respiratorias, este hallazgo influiría en la diseminación de enfermedad. En esta revisión se destaca la importancia de efectuar un reconocimiento precoz de las manifestaciones gastrointestinales y hepáticas, aumentar el índice de sospecha, efectuar un diagnóstico oportuno y reconocer eventuales complicaciones de la enferme dad. La potencial transmisión fecal oral puede influir en la diseminación de enfermedad. Reconocer este hallazgo es importante para definir aislamiento.


Abstract: SARS-CoV-2 is a high environmental stable virus. It is predominantly a respiratory pathogen that also affects the gastrointestinal tract. The ACE 2 receptor is the main receptor of SARS-CoV-2, with evidence of its high presence in the intestine, colon and cholangiocytes, and, in smaller proportion, in hepatocytes. SARS-CoV-2 has a gastrointestinal tropism that explains digestive symptoms and viral spread in stools. The characteristics of this virus include the S (Spike) protein that binds very stably to the ACE-2 receptor and, at the same time, SARS-CoV-2 produces dysbiosis and alterations in the gut-lung axis. It produces a clear T-cell response and a cytokines storm in the intestine and liver that would produce inflammatory bowel damage. Intestinal manifestations by order of frequency are loss of appetite, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, and abdominal pain, where the latter could be a severity marker. In children, diarrhea is the most frequent symptom, usually mild and self-limiting. In the liver, hypertransaminasemia occurs in severe patients ranging from 40 to 60%. SARS-CoV-2 can re main in stools longer than in respiratory secretions, which would influence the spread of disease. This article highlights the importance of an early diagnosis of gastrointestinal and hepatic manifestations, increase the index of suspicion, make a timely diagnosis, and recognize eventual complications of the disease. The potential oral-fecal route of transmission may influence the disease spread. Recognizing this finding is important to define isolation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Liver Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Severity of Illness Index , Cytokines/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/physiopathology , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/physiopathology
11.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(4): 623-630, ago. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1070104

ABSTRACT

Resumen: SARS-CoV-2 es un virus de alta estabilidad ambiental. Es principalmente un patógeno respiratorio que también afecta el tracto gastrointestinal. El receptor ACE2 es el principal receptor de SARS- CoV-2, hay evidencia de su elevada presencia en intestino, colon y colangiocitos; igualmente se en cuentra expresado en hepatocitos pero en menor proporción. SARS-CoV-2 tiene un tropismo gas trointestinal que explica los síntomas digestivos y la diseminación viral en deposiciones. Las caracte rísticas de SARS-CoV-2 incluyen a la proteína S (Spike o Espícula) que se une de forma muy estable al receptor ACE2. La infección por SARS-CoV-2 produce disbiosis y alteraciones en el eje pulmón- intestino. A nivel intestinal y hepático produce una respuesta Linfocitos T evidente y una respuesta de citocinas que producirían daño intestinal inflamatorio. Las manifestaciones a nivel intestinal en orden de frecuencia son pérdida de apetito, diarrea, náuseas, vómitos y dolor abdominal. Éste último podría ser un marcador de gravedad. En niños la diarrea es habitualmente leve y autolimitada. A nivel hepático la hipertransaminasemia ocurre en 40-60% de los pacientes graves. SARS-CoV-2 puede per manecer en deposiciones un tiempo más prolongado que en secreciones respiratorias, este hallazgo influiría en la diseminación de enfermedad. En esta revisión se destaca la importancia de efectuar un reconocimiento precoz de las manifestaciones gastrointestinales y hepáticas, aumentar el índice de sospecha, efectuar un diagnóstico oportuno y reconocer eventuales complicaciones de la enferme dad. La potencial transmisión fecal oral puede influir en la diseminación de enfermedad. Reconocer este hallazgo es importante para definir aislamiento.


Abstract: SARS-CoV-2 is a high environmental stable virus. It is predominantly a respiratory pathogen that also affects the gastrointestinal tract. The ACE 2 receptor is the main receptor of SARS-CoV-2, with evidence of its high presence in the intestine, colon and cholangiocytes, and, in smaller proportion, in hepatocytes. SARS-CoV-2 has a gastrointestinal tropism that explains digestive symptoms and viral spread in stools. The characteristics of this virus include the S (Spike) protein that binds very stably to the ACE-2 receptor and, at the same time, SARS-CoV-2 produces dysbiosis and alterations in the gut-lung axis. It produces a clear T-cell response and a cytokines storm in the intestine and liver that would produce inflammatory bowel damage. Intestinal manifestations by order of frequency are loss of appetite, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, and abdominal pain, where the latter could be a severity marker. In children, diarrhea is the most frequent symptom, usually mild and self-limiting. In the liver, hypertransaminasemia occurs in severe patients ranging from 40 to 60%. SARS-CoV-2 can re main in stools longer than in respiratory secretions, which would influence the spread of disease. This article highlights the importance of an early diagnosis of gastrointestinal and hepatic manifestations, increase the index of suspicion, make a timely diagnosis, and recognize eventual complications of the disease. The potential oral-fecal route of transmission may influence the disease spread. Recognizing this finding is important to define isolation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Liver Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Severity of Illness Index , Cytokines/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/physiopathology , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/physiopathology
12.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 53, 2021 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069578

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic of COVID-19 caused thousands of deaths and healthcare professionals struggle to properly manage infected patients. This review summarizes information about SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding dynamics and intricacies, lung autopsy findings, immune response patterns, evidence-based explanations for the immune response, and COVID-19-associated hypercoagulability.


Subject(s)
/physiopathology , Carrier Proteins/physiology , Lung Diseases/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , /pathogenicity , /immunology , Carrier Proteins/immunology , Humans , Lung Diseases/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , /immunology
13.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 31(1): 14-20, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068267

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:   To identify utility of chest computed tomography severity score (CT-SS) as an additional tool to COVID-19 pneumonia imaging classification in assessing severity of COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive analytical study Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Radiology and Imaging, (AFIRI) Rawalpindi, from April 2020 to June 2020. METHODOLOGY: Five hundred suspected COVID-19 cases referred for high resolution computed tomography - chest were included in the study. Cases were categorised by radiological findings using COVID-19 pneumonia imaging classification, proposed in the radiological society of North America expert consensus statement on reporting chest CT findings related to COVID-19. CT-SS was calculated for all scans. Patients were clinically classified according to disease severity as per 'Diagnosis And Treatment Program of Pneumonia of New Coronavirus Infection' recommended by China's National Health Commission. The relationships between radiological findings, CT-SS, and clinical severity were explored. RESULTS: Based on the radiological findings, 298 cases were graded as typical, 34 as indeterminate, 15 as atypical, and 153 as negative for pneumonia. The apical and posterior basal segments of lower lobes were most commonly involved. The CT-SS showed higher values in patients of severe group as compared to those in moderate group (p < 0.05). CT-SS threshold for recognising severe COVID-19 was 18.5 (area under curve, 0.960), with 84.3% sensitivity and 92.5% specificity. CONCLUSION: In coherence with COVID-19 pneumonia imaging classification, CT-SS may provide a comprehensive and objective assessment of COVID-19 severity. Key Words: COVID-19, COVID-19 pneumonia, CT-SS, High resolution computed tomography.


Subject(s)
Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pakistan , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Tertiary Healthcare , Young Adult
14.
Epidemiol Prev ; 44(5-6 Suppl 2): 216-225, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068142

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: to explore clinical and epidemiological characteristics associated with an imaging feature of COVID-19 pneumonia at disease onset, in order to identify factors that may be evaluable by general practitioners at patient's home, and which may lead to identify a more severe disease, needing hospitalization. DESIGN: this is a retrospective/prospective observational hospital cohort. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: the study population includes all patients consecutively admitted to the emergency department of Città della salute e della scienza University Hospital from 01.03 to 31.05.2020 with a confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: patients were classified in two groups according to the findings of X-ray imaging, lung ultrasound and chest computer tomography, as pneumonia or not pneumonia patients. RESULTS: in multivariable analysis, factors most strongly associated with emergency department admission with pneumonia were age, oxygen saturation <90% (adj OR 4.16 ;95%CI 1.44-12.07), respiratory rate >24 breaths/min (adj OR 6.50; 95%CI 2.36-17.87), fever ≥38° (adj OR 3.05; 95%CI 1.53-6.08) and the presence of gastroenteric symptoms (vomiting and diarrhea). A delay (> 7 days) between the appearance of the initial lung symptoms (cough and dyspnea) and the admission to the emergency department was also related to a higher probability of receiving a positive imaging report (OR 4.99; 95%CI 2,02-12,34). CONCLUSIONS: in order to reorganize the management of COVID-19 patients in Italy, in view of the risk of a second wave of epidemic or of local outbreaks, it would be desirable to relocate the triage, and possibly the patient's care, from hospital to home. In this scenario it is important to identify all symptoms and signs associated with COVID-19 pneumonia that would facilitate the decision-making process of GPs leading to patients hospitalization.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Comorbidity , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospitals, University/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Oxygen/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Rate , Retrospective Studies , Symptom Assessment , Time Factors , Vomiting/epidemiology , Vomiting/etiology
15.
Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 19(5): 471-477, 2020 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068113

ABSTRACT

The emergence of a highly pathogenic virus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) accounts for severe pneumonia throughout the world. More than 7 million world population have been infected with SARS-CoV-2, and the number of deaths is increasing every day. This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of SARS-CoV-2 in hospitalized patients with an acute respiratory infection (ARI). During an outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2, the nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs were collected from 909 hospitalized patients with severe pneumonia, including 517 (56.9%) males and 392 (43.1%) females. All the collected samples were from different cities of Khuzestan province from 19 February to- 27 March 2020. The RNA was extracted from samples and subjected to real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for the detection of the SARS-CoV-2. Simultaneously, the computerized tomography (CT) scan was tested for the presence of ground-glass opacity in the lung among the patients. Of the total number of 909 specimens, 328 (36.08%) cases, including 185 (20.35%) females and 143 (15.73%) males, were positive for the SARS-CoV-2 while, 581 (63.9%) cases, including 374 (41.14%) males and 207 (22.77%) were negative for the SARS-CoV-2 by real-time PCR (p=0.001).Four hundred sixteen (45.76%) cases were positive for ground-glass opacity in the lung by CT scan, while 328/909 (36.08%) trials proved positive for SARS-CoV-2 by the real-time PCR (p=0.003).  In this study, 36.08% of patients were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Although the results of positive cases by CT scan showed higher than real-time PCR, screening the SARS-COV-2 with a real-time PCR method is the first line of choice.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Iran/epidemiology , Lymphopenia/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prevalence , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
16.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245547, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067419

ABSTRACT

Endemic human coronaviruses (HCoVs) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are members of the family Coronaviridae. Comparing the findings of the infections caused by these viruses would help reveal the novel characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and provide insight into the unique pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This study aimed to compare the clinical and radiological characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and endemic HCoVs infection in adult hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This study was performed at a university-affiliated tertiary hospital in the Republic of Korea, between January 1, 2015, and July 31, 2020. A total of 109 consecutive patients who were over 18 years of age with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 and endemic HCoVs were enrolled. Finally, 19 patients with SARS-CoV-2 CAP were compared to 40 patients with endemic HCoV CAP. Flu-like symptoms such as cough, sore throat, headache, myalgia, and prolonged fever were more common in SARS-CoV-2 CAP, whereas clinical findings suggestive of bacterial pneumonia such as dyspnea, leukocytosis with left shift, and increased C-reactive protein were more common in endemic HCoV CAP. Bilateral peripherally distributed ground-glass opacities (GGOs) were typical radiologic findings in SARS-CoV-2 CAP, whereas mixed patterns of GGOs, consolidations, micronodules, and pleural effusion were observed in endemic HCoV CAP. Coinfection was not observed in patients with SARS-CoV-2 CAP, but was observed in more than half of the patients with endemic HCoV CAP. There were distinctive differences in the clinical and radiologic findings between SARS-CoV-2 and endemic HCoV CAP. Further investigations are required to elucidate the mechanism underlying this difference. Follow-up observations are needed to determine if the presentation of SARS-CoV-2 CAP changes with repeated infection.


Subject(s)
/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Aged , /pathology , Cohort Studies , Coinfection/diagnostic imaging , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/pathology , Coinfection/virology , Community-Acquired Infections , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Endemic Diseases , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Thorax/diagnostic imaging
17.
Open Heart ; 7(2)2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066930

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is the virus responsible for the ongoing COVID-19 outbreak. The virus uses ACE2 receptor for viral entry. ACE2 is part of the counter-regulatory renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and is also expressed in the lower respiratory tract along the alveolar epithelium. There is, however, significant controversy regarding the role of ACE2 expression in COVID-19 pathogenesis. Some have argued that decreasing ACE2 expression would result in decreased susceptibility to the virus by decreasing available binding sites for SARS-CoV-2 and restricting viral entry into the cells. Others have argued that, like the pathogenesis of other viral pneumonias, including those stemming from previous severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) viruses, once SARS-CoV-2 binds to ACE2, it downregulates ACE2 expression. Lack of the favourable effects of ACE2 might exaggerate lung injury by a variety of mechanisms. In order to help address this controversy, we conducted a literature search and review of relevant preclinical and clinical publications pertaining to SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, ACE2, viral pneumonia, SARS, acute respiratory distress syndrome and lung injury. Our review suggests, although controversial, that patients at increased susceptibility to COVID-19 complications may have reduced baseline ACE2, and by modulating ACE2 expression one can possibly improve COVID-19 outcomes. Herein, we elucidate why and how this potential mechanism might work.


Subject(s)
/metabolism , /metabolism , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , /genetics , Adult , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Animals , /virology , Down-Regulation , Female , Humans , Immunity/immunology , Lung Injury/drug therapy , Lung Injury/physiopathology , Male , Mice , Middle Aged , Models, Animal , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Risk Factors , Virus Internalization/drug effects
18.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(2)2021 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066845

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a biphasic illness with an initial viraemia phase and later effective adaptive immune phase, except in a minority of people who develop severe disease. Immune regulation is the key target to treat COVID illness. In anticipation, an elderly man self-medicated himself with dexamethasone on the day of symptom onset of a flu-like illness, took other symptomatic measures and was tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. His condition deteriorated with each passing day resulting in hospitalisation. He demanded oxygen and declared as severe COVID. With supportive treatment, he recovered after the 20th day of illness. Immunosuppression and anti-inflammation are likely to benefit when the immune response is dysregulated and turning into a cytokine storm. A medication that has saved many could be the one predisposing to severity if taken as a preventive measure, too early in the disease course, especially the viraemia phase.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Viremia/drug therapy , Aged , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Self Medication/methods , Steroids/adverse effects , Steroids/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Viremia/complications
19.
mBio ; 12(1)2021 01 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066816

ABSTRACT

In December 2019 a new coronavirus (CoV) emerged as a human pathogen, SARS-CoV-2. There are few data on human coronavirus infections among individuals living with HIV. In this study we probed the role of pneumococcal coinfections with seasonal CoVs among children living with and without HIV hospitalized for pneumonia. We also described the prevalence and clinical manifestations of these infections. A total of 39,836 children who participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial on the efficacy of a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV9) were followed for lower respiratory tract infection hospitalizations until 2 years of age. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected at the time of hospitalization and were screened by PCR for four seasonal CoVs. The frequency of CoV-associated pneumonia was higher in children living with HIV (19.9%) than in those without HIV (7.6%, P < 0.001). Serial CoV infections were detected in children living with HIV. The case fatality risk among children with CoV-associated pneumonia was higher in those living with HIV (30.4%) than without HIV (2.9%, P = 0.001). C-reactive protein and procalcitonin levels were elevated in 36.8% (≥40 mg/liter) and 64.7% (≥0.5 ng/ml), respectively, of the fatal cases living with HIV. Among children without HIV, there was a 64.0% (95% CI: 22.9% to 83.2%) lower incidence of CoV-associated pneumonia hospitalizations among PCV9 recipients compared to placebo recipients. These data suggest that Streptococcus pneumoniae infections might have a role in the development of pneumonia associated with endemic CoVs, that PCV may prevent pediatric CoV-associated hospitalization, and that children living with HIV with CoV infections develop more severe outcomes.IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2 may cause severe hospitalization, but little is known about the role of secondary bacterial infection in these severe cases, beyond the observation of high levels of reported inflammatory markers, associated with bacterial infection, such as procalcitonin. We did a secondary analysis of a double-blind randomized trial of PCV to examine its impact on human CoV infections before the pandemic. We found that both children living with and without HIV randomized to receive PCV had evidence of less hospitalization due to seasonal CoV, suggesting that pneumococcal coinfection may play a role in severe hospitalized CoV infections.


Subject(s)
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Vaccines/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Streptococcus pneumoniae/immunology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/pathology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/microbiology , Coinfection/prevention & control , Coinfection/virology , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prevalence , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
20.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(1): 78-85, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065438

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine differences in community mobility reduction and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outcomes across counties with differing levels of socioeconomic disadvantage. METHODS: The sample included counties in the United States with at least one SARS-CoV-2 case between April 1 and May 15, 2020. Outcomes were growth in SARS-CoV-2 cases, SARS-CoV-2-related deaths, and mobility reduction across three settings: retail/recreation, grocery/pharmacy, and workplace. The main explanatory variable was the social deprivation index (SDI), a composite socioeconomic disadvantage measure. RESULTS: Adjusted differences in outcomes between low-, medium-, and high-SDI counties (defined by tertile) were calculated using linear regression with state-fixed effects. Workplace mobility reduction was 1.75 (95% CI, -2.36 to -1.14; P<.001) and 3.48 percentage points (95% CI, -4.21 to -2.75; P<.001) lower for medium- and high-SDI counties relative to low-SDI counties, respectively. Mobility reductions in the other settings were also significantly lower for higher-SDI counties. In analyses adjusted for SARS-CoV-2 prevalence on April 1, medium- and high-SDI counties had 1.39 (95% CI, 0.85 to 1.93; P<.001) and 2.56 (95% CI, 1.77 to 3.34; P<.001) more SARS-CoV-2 cases/1000 population on May 15 compared with low-SDI counties, respectively. Deaths per capita were also significantly higher for higher-SDI counties. CONCLUSION: Counties with higher social deprivation scores experienced greater growth in SARS-CoV-2 cases and deaths, but reduced mobility at lower rates. These findings are consistent with evidence demonstrating that economically disadvantaged communities have been disproportionately impacted by the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Efforts to socially distance may be more burdensome for these communities, potentially exacerbating disparities in SARS-CoV-2-related outcomes.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Social Conditions , Social Control, Formal , /mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology
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