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1.
World J Gastroenterol ; 28(39): 5735-5749, 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099935

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was perhaps the most severe global health crisis in living memory. Alongside respiratory symptoms, elevated liver enzymes, abnormal liver function, and even acute liver failure were reported in patients suffering from severe acute respiratory disease coronavirus 2 pneumonia. However, the precise triggers of these forms of liver damage and how they affect the course and outcomes of COVID-19 itself remain unclear. AIM: To analyze the impact of liver enzyme abnormalities on the severity and outcomes of COVID-19 in hospitalized patients. METHODS: In this study, 684 depersonalized medical records from patients hospitalized with COVID-19 during the 2020-2021 period were analyzed. COVID-19 was diagnosed according to the guidelines of the National Institutes of Health (2021). Patients were assigned to two groups: those with elevated liver enzymes (Group 1: 603 patients), where at least one out of four liver enzymes were elevated (following the norm of hospital laboratory tests: alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ≥ 40, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) ≥ 40, gamma-glutamyl transferase ≥ 36, or alkaline phosphatase ≥ 150) at any point of hospitalization, from admission to discharge; and the control group (Group 2: 81 patients), with normal liver enzymes during hospitalization. COVID-19 severity was assessed according to the interim World Health Organization guidance (2022). Data on viral pneumonia complications, laboratory tests, and underlying diseases were also collected and analyzed. RESULTS: In total, 603 (88.2%) patients produced abnormal liver test results. ALT and AST levels were elevated by a factor of less than 3 in 54.9% and 74.8% of cases with increased enzyme levels, respectively. Patients in Group 1 had almost double the chance of bacterial viral pneumonia complications [odds ratio (OR) = 1.73, P = 0.0217], required oxygen supply more often, and displayed higher biochemical inflammation indices than those in Group 2. No differences in other COVID-19 complications or underlying diseases were observed between groups. Preexisting hepatitis of a different etiology was rarely documented (in only 3.5% of patients), and had no impact on the severity of COVID-19. Only 5 (0.73%) patients experienced acute liver failure, 4 of whom died. Overall, the majority of the deceased patients (17 out of 20) had elevated liver enzymes, and most were male. All deceased patients had at least one underlying disease or combination thereof, and the deceased suffered significantly more often from heart diseases, hypertension, and urinary tract infections than those who made recoveries. Alongside male gender (OR = 1.72, P = 0.0161) and older age (OR = 1.02, P = 0.0234), diabetes (OR = 3.22, P = 0.0016) and hyperlipidemia (OR = 2.67, P = 0.0238), but not obesity, were confirmed as independent factors associated with more a severe COVID-19 infection in our cohort. CONCLUSION: In our study, the presence of liver impairment allows us to predict a more severe inflammation with a higher risk of bacterial complication and worse outcomes of COVID-19. Therefore, patients with severe disease forms should have their liver tests monitored regularly and their results should be considered when selecting treatment to avoid further liver damage or even insufficiency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Failure, Acute , Pneumonia, Viral , United States , Humans , Male , Female , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Liver Failure, Acute/complications , Inflammation/complications
3.
Pediatr Dermatol ; 37(3): 435-436, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097853

ABSTRACT

It has been reported that the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) may be associated with a papulovesicular skin eruption predominantly involving the trunk. We hereby present a case of COVID-19-associated varicella-like exanthem in an 8-year-old girl with mild systemic symptoms.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Exanthema/diagnosis , Exanthema/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , COVID-19 , Child , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Ter Arkh ; 94(5): 668-674, 2022 Jun 17.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091500

ABSTRACT

AIM: To study the effect of levilimab or baricitinib in combination with standard therapy (ST) on the incidence of severe viral pneumonia associated with a new coronavirus infection COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multicenter, open-label observational study of the efficacy and safety of levilimab in combination with ST (group 1, n=100), baricitinib in combination with ST (group 2, n=139), or in comparison with ST (group 3, n=200) in outpatients with verified CT-1 pneumonia. RESULTS: According to the results of laboratory tests, patients treated with levilimab in combination with ST had the best dynamics of changes in CRP from reliably the highest level (mg/L) to the lowest in comparison with other groups. In the group of patients with ST, in contrast to the other groups, no dynamics of CRP was observed by day 5 of therapy. In group of hospitalized patients initially receiving levilimab in addition to ST, the rate of transfer to the intensive care unit (2 patients, 9.52%) and length of stay (4 days) was significantly lower compared to the values in patients in both the baricitinib group in combination with ST (7 patients, 15.56%; 5 days [interquartile range 36.5]) and in patients receiving ST alone (7 patients, 15.56%; 5 days [interquartile range 36.5]). Also in hospitalized patients we observed no statistically significant intergroup differences in the incidence of infectious complications and thromboembolic events, which confirms the safety of including levilimab or baricitinib in COVID-19 pathogenetic therapy regimens. Observational results support the hypothesis that the initial inclusion of levilimab or baricitinib in addition to ST is accompanied by a reduced risk of viral pneumonia progression. CONCLUSION: The addition of levilimab or baricitinib to the therapy regimen for coronavirus infection during the outpatient phase has demonstrated a preemptive anti-inflammatory effect and reduced the probability of lung tissue damage progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia, Viral , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , Outpatients , SARS-CoV-2 , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
9.
Ter Arkh ; 94(5): 636-641, 2022 Jun 17.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091499

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Currently, observations are accumulating indicating the negative effect of therapy with a number of biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) drugs on the course of COVID-19. These facts determine the relevance of studying the factors of severe course and unfavorable outcome in immuno-inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IIRD) patients treated with bDMARDs in order to develop tactics for managing this category of patients in a pandemic. AIM: To evaluate the influence of clinical and demographic factors on the risk of development, severity of the course and clinical outcomes of a new coronavirus infection in patients suffering from IIRD and receiving therapy with genetically engineered biological drugs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the database of the register of patients with IIRD receiving bDMARDs in the Novosibirsk region was performed, which included 318 patients, 94 of whom had indications of having suffered viral infection/pneumonia for the period from 01.04.2020 to 31.12.2020. RESULTS: According to the data obtained, at the time of the analysis, 94 people out of 318 patients with IIRD had a new coronavirus infection. Most (53%) of the patients had a mild infection. At the same time, the nosological form, the use of anti-rheumatic drugs and glucocorticoids did not increase the risks of severe coronavirus infection. When using bDMARDs, only anti-B-cell therapy (rituximab) associated with statistically significant increase in the risk of severe/extremely severe COVID-19. The mortality rate according to the analysis of the register was 6,38%. CONCLUSION: Patients with IIRD have a high risk of severe coronavirus infection, while the severity of the disease is associated with the type of therapy performed.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents , Biological Products , COVID-19 , Pneumonia, Viral , Rheumatic Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/chemically induced , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , Biological Products/adverse effects
10.
Korean J Radiol ; 21(5): 541-544, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089767

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia is a recent outbreak in mainland China and has rapidly spread to multiple countries worldwide. Pulmonary parenchymal opacities are often observed during chest radiography. Currently, few cases have reported the complications of severe COVID-19 pneumonia. We report a case where serial follow-up chest computed tomography revealed progression of pulmonary lesions into confluent bilateral consolidation with lower lung predominance, thereby confirming COVID-19 pneumonia. Furthermore, complications such as mediastinal emphysema, giant bulla, and pneumothorax were also observed during the course of the disease.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumothorax/etiology , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Blister , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , China , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Disease Progression , Humans , Lung/pathology , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
11.
Saudi Med J ; 43(10): 1165-1167, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081102

ABSTRACT

To present an unusual and a rare pulmonary affection by coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), in which only one lung is affected. Coronavirus disease-19 attacks the lungs and interferes seriously with their functions. The attack is usually bilaterally, while a uni lateral pulmonary affection is unusual. The presentation, both clinical and radiological findings, bronchoscopy appearance, the strange operative findings of the resected mass, the uneventful post-operative course, in addition to the histopathological report, will be presented.In conclusion, unilateral lung affection is unusual and post-viral pneumonia COVID-19 should be considered as a possible aftermath, which may not be uncommon in Iraq.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia, Viral , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Bronchoscopy , Iraq
12.
BMJ ; 369: m1672, 2020 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2078903

ABSTRACT

Guideline: Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection in pregnancyPublished by the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG), with input from the Royal College of Midwives, the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health (RCPH), the Royal College of Anaesthetists, and the Obstetric Anaesthetists' Association.This summary is based on version 8 of the guideline, published on 17 April 2020 (https://www.rcog.org.uk/globalassets/documents/guidelines/2020-04-17-coronavirus-covid-19-infection-in-pregnancy.pdf).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Postnatal Care , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Prenatal Care , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
13.
JBRA Assist Reprod ; 24(2): 219-225, 2020 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067109

ABSTRACT

The current outbreak of the novel 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) started in China in December 2019 and has since spread to several other countries. On March 25, 2020, a total of 375,498 cases had been confirmed globally with 2,201 cases in Brazil, showing the urgency of reacting to this international public health emergency. While in most cases, mild symptoms are observed, in some cases the infection leads to serious pulmonary disease. As a result, the possible consequences of the COVID-19 outbreak for pregnant women and its potential effects on the management of assisted reproductive treatments, demand attention. In this review, we summarize the latest research progress related to COVID-19 epidemiology and the reported data of pregnant women, and discuss the current evidence of COVID-19 infections during pregnancy and its potential consequences for assisted reproductive treatments. Reported data suggest that symptoms in pregnant women are similar to those in other people, and that there is no evidence for higher maternal or fetal risks. However, considering the initial data and lack of comprehensive knowledge on the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy, human reproduction societies have recommended postponing the embryo transfers and do not initiate new treatment cycles. New evidence must be considered carefully in order to adjust these recommendations accordingly at any time and to guide assisted reproductive treatments.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Reproduction , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 301, 2022 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053945

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is unclear if the impact of frailty on mortality differs between patients with viral pneumonitis due to COVID-19 or other causes. We aimed to determine if a difference exists between patients with and without COVID-19 pneumonitis. METHODS: This multicentre, retrospective, cohort study using the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Adult Patient Database included patients aged ≥ 16 years admitted to 153 ICUs between 01/012020 and 12/31/2021 with admission diagnostic codes for viral pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome, and Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS). The primary outcome was hospital mortality. RESULTS: A total of 4620 patients were studied, and 3077 (66.6%) had COVID-19. The patients with COVID-19 were younger (median [IQR] 57.0 [44.7-68.3] vs. 66.1 [52.0-76.2]; p < 0.001) and less frail (median [IQR] CFS 3 [2-4] vs. 4 [3-5]; p < 0.001) than non-COVID-19 patients. The overall hospital mortality was similar between the patients with and without COVID-19 (14.7% vs. 14.9%; p = 0.82). Frailty alone as a predictor of mortality showed only moderate discrimination in differentiating survivors from those who died but was similar between patients with and without COVID-19 (AUROC 0.68 vs. 0.66; p = 0.42). Increasing frailty scores were associated with hospital mortality, after adjusting for Australian and New Zealand Risk of Death score and sex. However, the effect of frailty was similar in patients with and without COVID-19 (OR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.19-1.41 vs. OR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.11-1.37). CONCLUSION: The presence of frailty was an independent risk factor for mortality. However, the impact of frailty on outcomes was similar in COVID-19 patients compared to other causes of viral pneumonitis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic , Frailty , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Australia/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Data Analysis , Frailty/complications , Frailty/diagnosis , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , New Zealand/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Registries , Retrospective Studies
15.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 138, 2022 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038685

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To assess the outcome of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for severe adenovirus (Adv) pneumonia with refractory hypoxic respiratory failure (RHRF) in paediatric patients. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was performed in a tertiary paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in China. Patients with RHRF caused by Adv pneumonia who received ECMO support after mechanical ventilation failed to achieve adequate oxygenation between 2017 and 2020 were included. The outcome variables were the in-hospital survival rate and the effects of ECMO on the survival rate. RESULTS: In total, 18 children with RHRF received ECMO. The median age was 19 (9.5, 39.8) months, and the median ECMO duration was 196 (152, 309) h. The in-hospital survival rate was 72.2% (13/18). Thirteen patients (72.2%) required continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) due to fluid imbalance or acute kidney injury (AKI). At ECMO initiation, compared with survivors, nonsurvivors had a lower PaO2/FiO2 ratio [49 (34.5, 62) vs. 63 (56, 71); p = 0.04], higher oxygen index (OI) [41 (34.5, 62) vs. 30 (26.5, 35); p = 0.03], higher vasoactive inotropic score (VIS) [30 (16.3, 80) vs. 100 (60, 142.5); p = 0.04], longer duration from mechanical ventilation to ECMO support [8 (4, 14) vs. 4 (3, 5.5) h, p=0.02], and longer time from confirmed RHRF to ECMO initiation [9 (4.8, 13) vs. 5 (1.3, 5.5) h; p = 0.004]. Patients with PaO2/FiO2 <61 mmHg or an OI >43 and hypoxic respiratory failure for more than 9 days before the initiation of ECMO had worse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: ECMO seemed to be effective, as severe paediatric Adv pneumonia patients with RHRF had a cumulative survival rate of 72.2% in our study. Our study provides insight into ECMO rescue in children with severe Adv pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae Infections , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Pneumonia, Viral , Respiratory Insufficiency , Adenoviridae , Adult , Child , China , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/therapy , Oxygen , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
16.
Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult ; 99(4. Vyp. 2): 43-50, 2022.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025846

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the efficacy and safety of therapeutic exercises and chest hardware massage in electrostatic field in patients with COVID-associated viral pneumonia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 1551 patients admitted to the Clinical Hospital No. 1 (MEDSI Group JSC) with COVID-associated pneumonia between April 01, 2020 and June 15, 2021 (ICD-10 U07.1 and U07.2). Considering inclusion and exclusion criteria, we enrolled 153 patients. All patients were divided into comparable groups and subgroups depending on the methods of rehabilitation treatment and CT stage of viral pneumonia. Lung damage was assessed semi-automatically using Philips Portal v11 COPD software. Rehabilitation measures included therapeutic exercises and chest hardware massage in electrostatic field. therapeutic exercises. RESULTS: Therapeutic exercises significantly reduced severity of lung damage in patients with viral pneumonia CT-2 and no oxygen support (from 28.05% [28; 29.5] at admission to 15.3% [14.2; 19.3] at discharge). It was not observed in patients without rehabilitation treatment and in patients undergoing therapeutic exercises and massage in electrostatic field. CONCLUSION: Therapeutic exercises in patients with COVID-19 and baseline lung damage > 25% and < 50% (CT-2 stage) significantly reduce severity of lung damage at discharge compared to the control group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia, Viral , Humans , Lung , Massage , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Static Electricity
17.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 28(5): 463-469, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008657

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Since the beginning of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic, there has been a large increase in the consumption of antimicrobials, both as a form of treatment for viral pneumonia, which has been shown to be ineffective, and in the treatment of secondary infections that arise over the course of the severe presentation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This increase in consumption, often empirical, ends up causing an increase in the incidence of colonization and secondary infections by multi and pan-resistant germs. RECENT FINDINGS: The presence of a hyperinflammatory condition induced by the primary infection, associated with the structural damage caused by viral pneumonia and by the greater colonization by bacteria, generally multiresistant, are important risk factors for the acquisition of secondary infections in COVID-19. Consequently, there is an increased prevalence of secondary infections, associated with a higher consumption of antimicrobials and a significant increase in the incidence of infections by multi and pan-resistant bacteria. SUMMARY: Antimicrobial stewardship and improvement in diagnostic techniques, improving the accuracy of bacterial infection diagnosis, may impact the antibiotic consumption and the incidence of infections by resistant pathogens.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Pneumonia, Viral , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology
18.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 236, 2022 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002213

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic presented major challenges for critical care facilities worldwide. Infections which develop alongside or subsequent to viral pneumonitis are a challenge under sporadic and pandemic conditions; however, data have suggested that patterns of these differ between COVID-19 and other viral pneumonitides. This secondary analysis aimed to explore patterns of co-infection and intensive care unit-acquired infections (ICU-AI) and the relationship to use of corticosteroids in a large, international cohort of critically ill COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This is a multicenter, international, observational study, including adult patients with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis admitted to ICUs at the peak of wave one of COVID-19 (February 15th to May 15th, 2020). Data collected included investigator-assessed co-infection at ICU admission, infection acquired in ICU, infection with multi-drug resistant organisms (MDRO) and antibiotic use. Frequencies were compared by Pearson's Chi-squared and continuous variables by Mann-Whitney U test. Propensity score matching for variables associated with ICU-acquired infection was undertaken using R library MatchIT using the "full" matching method. RESULTS: Data were available from 4994 patients. Bacterial co-infection at admission was detected in 716 patients (14%), whilst 85% of patients received antibiotics at that stage. ICU-AI developed in 2715 (54%). The most common ICU-AI was bacterial pneumonia (44% of infections), whilst 9% of patients developed fungal pneumonia; 25% of infections involved MDRO. Patients developing infections in ICU had greater antimicrobial exposure than those without such infections. Incident density (ICU-AI per 1000 ICU days) was in considerable excess of reports from pre-pandemic surveillance. Corticosteroid use was heterogenous between ICUs. In univariate analysis, 58% of patients receiving corticosteroids and 43% of those not receiving steroids developed ICU-AI. Adjusting for potential confounders in the propensity-matched cohort, 71% of patients receiving corticosteroids developed ICU-AI vs 52% of those not receiving corticosteroids. Duration of corticosteroid therapy was also associated with development of ICU-AI and infection with an MDRO. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with severe COVID-19 in the first wave, co-infection at admission to ICU was relatively rare but antibiotic use was in substantial excess to that indication. ICU-AI were common and were significantly associated with use of corticosteroids. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04836065 (retrospectively registered April 8th 2021).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Pneumonia, Bacterial , Pneumonia, Viral , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Bacterial/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology
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