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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(29): 960-964, 2020 07 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389848

ABSTRACT

Population prevalence of persons infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), varies by subpopulation and locality. U.S. studies of SARS-CoV-2 infection have examined infections in nonrandom samples (1) or seroprevalence in specific populations* (2), which are limited in their generalizability and cannot be used to accurately calculate infection-fatality rates. During April 25-29, 2020, Indiana conducted statewide random sample testing of persons aged ≥12 years to assess prevalence of active infection and presence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2; additional nonrandom sampling was conducted in racial and ethnic minority communities to better understand the impact of the virus in certain racial and ethnic minority populations. Estimates were adjusted for nonresponse to reflect state demographics using an iterative proportional fitting method. Among 3,658 noninstitutionalized participants in the random sample survey, the estimated statewide point prevalence of active SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing was 1.74% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.10-2.54); 44.2% of these persons reported no symptoms during the 2 weeks before testing. The prevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) seropositivity, indicating past infection, was 1.09% (95% CI = 0.76-1.45). The overall prevalence of current and previous infections of SARS-CoV-2 in Indiana was 2.79% (95% CI = 2.02-3.70). In the random sample, higher overall prevalences were observed among Hispanics and those who reported having a household contact who had previously been told by a health care provider that they had COVID-19. By late April, an estimated 187,802 Indiana residents were currently or previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 (9.6 times higher than the number of confirmed cases [17,792]) (3), and 1,099 residents died (infection-fatality ratio = 0.58%). The number of reported cases represents only a fraction of the estimated total number of infections. Given the large number of persons who remain susceptible in Indiana, adherence to evidence-based public health mitigation and containment measures (e.g., social distancing, consistent and correct use of face coverings, and hand hygiene) is needed to reduce surge in hospitalizations and prevent morbidity and mortality from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Public Health Surveillance/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Female , Humans , Indiana/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Prevalence , Young Adult
4.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(6): 786-793, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310223

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Racial disparities exist in outcomes after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the contribution of race/ethnicity in SARS-CoV-2 testing, infection, and outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study (1 February 2020 to 31 May 2020). SETTING: Integrated health care delivery system in Northern California. PARTICIPANTS: Adult health plan members. MEASUREMENTS: Age, sex, neighborhood deprivation index, comorbid conditions, acute physiology indices, and race/ethnicity; SARS-CoV-2 testing and incidence of positive test results; and hospitalization, illness severity, and mortality. RESULTS: Among 3 481 716 eligible members, 42.0% were White, 6.4% African American, 19.9% Hispanic, and 18.6% Asian; 13.0% were of other or unknown race. Of eligible members, 91 212 (2.6%) were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection and 3686 had positive results (overall incidence, 105.9 per 100 000 persons; by racial group, White, 55.1; African American, 123.1; Hispanic, 219.6; Asian, 111.7; other/unknown, 79.3). African American persons had the highest unadjusted testing and mortality rates, White persons had the lowest testing rates, and those with other or unknown race had the lowest mortality rates. Compared with White persons, adjusted testing rates among non-White persons were marginally higher, but infection rates were significantly higher; adjusted odds ratios [aORs] for African American persons, Hispanic persons, Asian persons, and persons of other/unknown race were 2.01 (95% CI, 1.75 to 2.31), 3.93 (CI, 3.59 to 4.30), 2.19 (CI, 1.98 to 2.42), and 1.57 (CI, 1.38 to 1.78), respectively. Geographic analyses showed that infections clustered in areas with higher proportions of non-White persons. Compared with White persons, adjusted hospitalization rates for African American persons, Hispanic persons, Asian persons, and persons of other/unknown race were 1.47 (CI, 1.03 to 2.09), 1.42 (CI, 1.11 to 1.82), 1.47 (CI, 1.13 to 1.92), and 1.03 (CI, 0.72 to 1.46), respectively. Adjusted analyses showed no racial differences in inpatient mortality or total mortality during the study period. For testing, comorbid conditions made the greatest relative contribution to model explanatory power (77.9%); race only accounted for 8.1%. Likelihood of infection was largely due to race (80.3%). For other outcomes, age was most important; race only contributed 4.5% for hospitalization, 12.8% for admission illness severity, 2.3% for in-hospital death, and 0.4% for any death. LIMITATION: The study involved an insured population in a highly integrated health system. CONCLUSION: Race was the most important predictor of SARS-CoV-2 infection. After infection, race was associated with increased hospitalization risk but not mortality. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: The Permanente Medical Group, Inc.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , APACHE , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , California/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Residence Characteristics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
5.
AIDS ; 34(12): 1789-1794, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301407

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are limited data describing the presenting characteristics and outcomes among US persons with HIV (PWH) requiring hospitalization for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We performed a case series of all PWH sequentially admitted with COVID-19 from 8 March 2020 to 23 April 2020 at three hospitals in Atlanta, Georgia. Sociodemographic, clinical and HIV-associated characteristics were collected. RESULTS: Of 530 confirmed COVID-19 cases hospitalized during this period, 20 occurred among PWH (3.8%). The median age was 57 (Q1-Q3, 48-62) years, 65% were men, and 85% were non-Hispanic Black. Presenting median symptom duration was 5 (Q1-Q3, 3-7) days; cough (90%), fever (65%), malaise (60%) and dyspnea (60%) were most common. On admission, 40% of patients required oxygenation support and 65% had an abnormal chest radiograph. Median length of hospitalization was 5 (Q1-Q3, 4-12) days, 30% required intensive care, 15% required intubation, and 15% died. Median CD4 cell count prior to admission was 425 (Q1-Q3, 262-815) cells/µl and 90% of patients had HIV-1 RNA less than 200 copies/ml. Half of the patients had at least five comorbidities; hypertension (70%), dyslipidemia (60%) and diabetes (45%) were most prevalent. All three patients who died had CD4 cell count more than 200, HIV suppression and each had a total of five comorbidities. CONCLUSION: The multisite series in the Southern United States provides characteristics and early outcomes of hospitalized PWH with COVID-19. Nearly all patients had controlled HIV and a high comorbidity burden. Additional study of COVID-19 among PWH is needed to determine the role of age, comorbidities and HIV control in mediating COVID-19 presentation and its sequelae.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Georgia/epidemiology , HIV Infections/ethnology , HIV Infections/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies
6.
Ann Surg ; 272(3): e187-e190, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150057

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Our study aims to explore the differential impact of this pandemic on clinical presentations and outcomes in African Americans (AAs) compared to white patients. BACKGROUND: AAs have worse outcomes compared to whites while facing heart diseases, stroke, cancer, asthma, influenza and pneumonia, diabetes, and HIV/AIDS. However, there is no current study to show the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the AA communities. METHODS: This is a retrospective study that included patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from 2 tertiary centers in New Orleans, LA. Clinical and laboratory data were collected. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify the risk factors associated with adverse events. RESULTS: A total of 157 patients were identified. Of these, 134 (77%) were AAs, whereas 23.4% of patients were Whites. Interestingly, AA were younger, with a mean age of 63 ± 13.4 compared to 75.7 ± 23 years in Whites (P < 0.001). Thirty-seven patients presented with no insurance, and 34 of them were AA. SOFA Score was significantly higher in AA (2.57 ± 2.1) compared to White patients (1.69 ± 1.7), P = 0.041. Elevated SOFA score was associated with higher odds for intubation (odds ratio = 1.6, 95% confidence interval = 1.32-1.93, P < 0.001). AA had more prolonged length of hospital stays (11.1 ± 13.4 days vs 7.7 ± 23 days) than in Whites, P = 0.01. CONCLUSION: AAs present with more advanced disease and eventually have worse outcomes from COVID-19 infection. Future studies are warranted for further investigations that should impact the need for providing additional resources to the AA communities.


Subject(s)
African Americans , COVID-19/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Aged , Female , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , New Orleans , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
7.
HEC Forum ; 33(1-2): 19-33, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118245

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus of 2019 exposed, in an undeniable way, the severity of racial inequities in America's healthcare system. As the urgency of the pandemic grew, administrators, clinicians, and ethicists became concerned with upholding the ethical principle of "most lives saved" by re-visiting crisis standards of care and triage protocols. Yet a colorblind, race-neutral approach to "most lives saved" is inherently inequitable because it reflects the normality and invisibility of 'whiteness' while simultaneously disregarding the burdens of 'Blackness'. As written, the crisis standards of care (CSC) adopted by States are racist policies because they contribute to a history that treats Black Americans are inherently less than. This paper will unpack the idealized fairness and equity pursued by CSC, while also considering the use of modified Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (mSOFA) as a measure of objective equality in the context of a healthcare system that is built on systemic racism and the potential dangers this can have on Black Americans with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
African Americans , COVID-19/ethnology , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Racism/ethics , Resource Allocation/ethics , Health Equity , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
8.
AIDS ; 34(12): 1771-1774, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1105050

ABSTRACT

: We performed an observational prospective monocentric study in patients living with HIV (PLWH) diagnosed with COVID-19. Fifty-four PLWH developed COVID-19 with 14 severe (25.9%) and five critical cases (9.3%), respectively. By multivariate analysis, age, male sex, ethnic origin from sub-Saharan Africa and metabolic disorder were associated with severe or critical forms of COVID-19. Prior CD4 T cell counts did not differ between groups. No protective effect of a particular antiretroviral class was observed.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Africa South of the Sahara/ethnology , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Female , France/epidemiology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Metabolic Diseases/complications , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
12.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(5): 649-654, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1055267

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Identifying occupational risk factors for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among health care workers (HCWs) can improve HCW and patient safety. OBJECTIVE: To quantify demographic, occupational, and community risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity among HCWs in a large health care system. DESIGN: A logistic regression model was fitted to data from a cross-sectional survey conducted in April to June 2020, linking risk factors for occupational and community exposure to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity. SETTING: A large academic health care system in the Atlanta, Georgia, metropolitan area. PARTICIPANTS: Employees and medical staff members elected to participate in SARS-CoV-2 serology testing offered to all HCWs as part of a quality initiative and completed a survey on exposure to COVID-19 and use of personal protective equipment. MEASUREMENTS: Demographic risk factors for COVID-19, residential ZIP code incidence of COVID-19, occupational exposure to HCWs or patients who tested positive on polymerase chain reaction test, and use of personal protective equipment as potential risk factors for infection. The outcome was SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity. RESULTS: Adjusted SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity was estimated to be 3.8% (95% CI, 3.4% to 4.3%) (positive, n = 582) among the 10 275 HCWs (35% of the Emory Healthcare workforce) who participated in the survey. Community contact with a person known or suspected to have COVID-19 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.9 [CI, 1.4 to 2.6]; 77 positive persons [10.3%]) and community COVID-19 incidence (aOR, 1.5 [CI, 1.0 to 2.2]) increased the odds of infection. Black individuals were at high risk (aOR, 2.1 [CI, 1.7 to 2.6]; 238 positive persons [8.3%]). LIMITATIONS: Participation rates were modest and key workplace exposures, including job and infection prevention practices, changed rapidly in the early phases of the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Demographic and community risk factors, including contact with a COVID-19-positive person and Black race, are more strongly associated with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity among HCWs than is exposure in the workplace. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Emory COVID-19 Response Collaborative.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/ethnology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Georgia/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases/ethnology , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
13.
Ann Epidemiol ; 52: 46-53.e2, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023435

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to ascertain COVID-19 transmission dynamics among Latino communities nationally. METHODS: We compared predictors of COVID-19 cases and deaths between disproportionally Latino counties (≥17.8% Latino population) and all other counties through May 11, 2020. Adjusted rate ratios (aRRs) were estimated using COVID-19 cases and deaths via zero-inflated binomial regression models. RESULTS: COVID-19 diagnoses rates were greater in Latino counties nationally (90.9 vs. 82.0 per 100,000). In multivariable analysis, COVID-19 cases were greater in Northeastern and Midwestern Latino counties (aRR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.11-1.84, and aRR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.57-1.85, respectively). COVID-19 deaths were greater in Midwestern Latino counties (aRR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.04-1.34). COVID-19 diagnoses were associated with counties with greater monolingual Spanish speakers, employment rates, heart disease deaths, less social distancing, and days since the first reported case. COVID-19 deaths were associated with household occupancy density, air pollution, employment, days since the first reported case, and age (fewer <35 yo). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 risks and deaths among Latino populations differ by region. Structural factors place Latino populations and particularly monolingual Spanish speakers at elevated risk for COVID-19 acquisition.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Health Status Disparities , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Local Government , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Population Surveillance , Residence Characteristics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
15.
J Infect Dis ; 222(6): 890-893, 2020 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-990713

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has unveiled unsettling disparities in the outcome of the disease among African Americans. These disparities are not new but are rooted in structural inequities that must be addressed to adequately care for communities of color. We describe the historical context of these structural inequities, their impact on the progression of COVID-19 in the African American (black) community, and suggest a multifaceted approach to addressing these healthcare disparities. (Of note, terminology from survey data cited for this article varied from blacks, African Americans, or both; for consistency, we use African Americans throughout.).


Subject(s)
African Americans , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Health Services Accessibility , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Determinants of Health/ethnology , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology
16.
Am J Public Health ; 110(11): 1628-1634, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-982652

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental distress in US adults.Methods. Participants were 5065 adults from the Understanding America Study, a probability-based Internet panel representative of the US adult population. The main exposure was survey completion date (March 10-16, 2020). The outcome was mental distress measured via the 4-item version of the Patient Health Questionnaire.Results. Among states with 50 or more COVID-19 cases as of March 10, each additional day was significantly associated with an 11% increase in the odds of moving up a category of distress (odds ratio = 1.11; 95% confidence interval = 1.01, 1.21; P = .02). Perceptions about the likelihood of getting infected, death from the virus, and steps taken to avoid infecting others were associated with increased mental distress in the model that included all states. Individuals with higher consumption of alcohol or cannabis or with history of depressive symptoms were at significantly higher risk for mental distress.Conclusions. These data suggest that as the COVID-19 pandemic continues, mental distress may continue to increase and should be regularly monitored. Specific populations are at high risk for mental distress, particularly those with preexisting depressive symptoms.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Insurance, Health , Male , Marijuana Smoking/epidemiology , Medically Uninsured , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
17.
Am J Public Health ; 110(11): 1624-1627, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-982651

ABSTRACT

Anti-Asian discrimination and assaults have increased significantly during the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, contributing to a "secondary contagion" of racism. The United States has a long and well-documented history of both interpersonal and structural anti-Asian discrimination, and the current pandemic reinforces longstanding negative stereotypes of this rapidly growing minority group as the "Yellow Peril."We provide a general overview of the history of anti-Asian discrimination in the United States, review theoretical and empirical associations between discrimination and health, and describe the associated public health implications of the COVID-19 pandemic, citing relevant evidence from previous disasters in US history that became racialized.Although the literature suggests that COVID-19 will likely have significant negative effects on the health of Asian Americans and other vulnerable groups, there are reasons for optimism as well. These include the emergence of mechanisms for reporting and tracking incidents of racial bias, increased awareness of racism's insidious harms and subsequent civic and political engagement by the Asian American community, and further research into resilience-promoting factors that can reduce the negative health effects of racism.


Subject(s)
Asian Americans , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Racism/statistics & numerical data , Asian Americans/history , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Public Health/trends , Racism/history , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
19.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(28): 923-929, 2020 Jul 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-981648

ABSTRACT

During January 1, 2020-May 18, 2020, approximately 1.3 million cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and 83,000 COVID-19-associated deaths were reported in the United States (1). Understanding the demographic and clinical characteristics of decedents could inform medical and public health interventions focused on preventing COVID-19-associated mortality. This report describes decedents with laboratory-confirmed infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, using data from 1) the standardized CDC case-report form (case-based surveillance) (https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/reporting-pui.html) and 2) supplementary data (supplemental surveillance), such as underlying medical conditions and location of death, obtained through collaboration between CDC and 16 public health jurisdictions (15 states and New York City).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Health Status Disparities , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Public Health Surveillance , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Chronic Disease , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
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