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3.
Neurosurgery ; 87(4): 854-856, 2020 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-641027

ABSTRACT

Even though neurosurgeons exercise these enormous and versatile skills, the COVID-19 pandemic has shaken the fabrics of the global neurosurgical family, jeopardizing human lives, and forcing the entire world to be locked down. We stand on the shoulders of the giants and will not forget their examples and their teachings. We will work to the best of our ability to honor their memory. Professor Harvey Cushing said: "When to take great risks; when to withdraw in the face of unexpected difficulties; whether to force an attempted enucleation of a pathologically favorable tumor to its completion with the prospect of an operative fatality, or to abandon the procedure short of completeness with the certainty that after months or years even greater risks may have to be faced at a subsequent session-all these require surgical judgment which is a matter of long experience." It is up to us, therefore, to keep on the noble path that we have decided to undertake, to accumulate the surgical experience that these icons have shown us, the fruit of sacrifice and obstinacy. Our tribute goes to them; we will always remember their excellent work and their brilliant careers that will continue to enlighten all of us.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/history , Neurosurgery/history , Pandemics/history , Pneumonia, Viral/history , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , History, 21st Century , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality
4.
J Med Libr Assoc ; 108(3): 494-497, 2020 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-743487
5.
Ann Intern Med ; 173(4): 297-299, 2020 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729754

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has sickened millions, killed hundreds of thousands, and utterly disrupted the daily lives of billions of people around the world. In an effort to ameliorate this devastation, the biomedical research complex has allocated billions of dollars and scientists have initiated hundreds of clinical trials in an expedited effort to understand, prevent, and treat this disease. National emergencies can stimulate significant investment of financial, physical, and intellectual resources that catalyze impressive scientific accomplishments, as evident with the Manhattan Project, penicillin, and the polio vaccines in the 20th century. However, pressurized research has also led to false promises, disastrous consequences, and breaches in ethics. Antiserum in the 1918 flu epidemic, contaminated yellow fever vaccines in World War II, and unethical human experimentation with mustard gas offer just a few cautionary exemplars. It is critical to continue biomedical research efforts to address this pandemic, and it is appropriate that they receive priority in both attention and funding. But history also demonstrates the importance of treating early results-such as those associated with hydroxychloroquine-with caution as we only begin to understand the biology, epidemiology, and potential target points of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research/history , Biomedical Research/standards , Coronavirus Infections/history , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Emergencies/history , Pandemics/history , Pneumonia, Viral/history , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Human Experimentation/history , Humans
6.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 319(4): E689-E708, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696089

ABSTRACT

Much more serious than the previous severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV) outbreaks, the novel SARS-CoV-2 infection has spread speedily, affecting 213 countries and causing ∼17,300,000 cases and ∼672,000 (∼+1,500/day) deaths globally (as of July 31, 2020). The potentially fatal coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by air droplets and airborne as the main transmission modes, clearly induces a spectrum of respiratory clinical manifestations, but it also affects the immune, gastrointestinal, hematological, nervous, and renal systems. The dramatic scale of disorders and complications arises from the inadequacy of current treatments and absence of a vaccine and specific anti-COVID-19 drugs to suppress viral replication, inflammation, and additional pathogenic conditions. This highlights the importance of understanding the SARS-CoV-2 mechanisms of actions and the urgent need of prospecting for new or alternative treatment options. The main objective of the present review is to discuss the challenging issue relative to the clinical utility of plants-derived polyphenols in fighting viral infections. Not only is the strong capacity of polyphenols highlighted in magnifying health benefits, but the underlying mechanisms are also stressed. Finally, emphasis is placed on the potential ability of polyphenols to combat SARS-CoV-2 infection via the regulation of its molecular targets of human cellular binding and replication, as well as through the resulting host inflammation, oxidative stress, and signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Phytotherapy/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Polyphenols/therapeutic use , Primary Prevention/methods , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/history , History, 21st Century , Humans , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Molecular Targeted Therapy/trends , Pandemics/history , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/history , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Virus Replication/drug effects
8.
Anesth Analg ; 131(1): 97-101, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-599941

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has thus far caused a total of 81,747 confirmed cases with 3283 deaths in China and more than 370,000 confirmed cases including over 16,000 deaths around the world by March 24, 2020. This issue has received extensive attention from the international community and has become a major public health priority. As the pandemic progresses, it is regrettable to know the health care workers, including anesthesiologists, are being infected constantly. Therefore, we would like to share our firsthand practical experience and perspective in China, focusing on the personal protection of health care workers and the risk factors related to their infection, based on the different stages of the COVID-19 epidemic in China.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , China , Coronavirus Infections/history , History, 21st Century , Humans , Pandemics/history , Pneumonia, Viral/history
10.
Commun Dis Intell (2018) ; 442020 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-596263

ABSTRACT

Confirmed cases in Australia notified up to 17 May 2020: notifications = 7,075; deaths = 100. The incidence of new cases of COVID-19 has reduced dramatically since a peak in mid-March. Social distancing measures, public health action and the reduction in international travel have likely been effective in slowing the spread of the disease, in the Australian community. Testing rates over the past week have increased markedly, with a continued very low proportion of people testing positive. These low rates of detection are indicative of low levels of COVID-19 transmission. It is important that testing rates and community adherence to public health measures remain high to support the continued suppression of the virus, particularly in vulnerable high-risk groups and settings. New cases of COVID-19 are currently being reported by by only some jurisdictions, albeit at relatively low rates. Although case numbers are low, new cases tend to still be a mix of overseas-acquired and locally-acquired infections. Most locally-acquired cases can be linked back to a known case or cluster. Although the proportion of locally-acquired cases has increased, the overall rate of new cases, regardless of place of acquisition, continues to decrease. The crude case fatality rate in Australia remains low (1.4%), compared with the WHO reported global rate (6.9%). The low case fatality rate is likely reflective of high case detection and high quality of health care services in Australia. Deaths from COVID-19 in Australia have occurred predominantly among the elderly and those with comorbidities, with no deaths occurring in those under 40 years. The highest rate of COVID-19 continues to be among people aged 60-79 years. One third of all cases in this age group have been associated with several outbreaks linked to cruise ships. The lowest rate of disease is in young children, a pattern reflected in international reports. Internationally, while the number of new cases each day remains relatively stable at the global level, some areas such as Brazil and India are showing a dramatic rise in reported cases. Although some low-income countries have so far reported few cases, it is possible that this is due to limited diagnostic and public health capacity, and may not be reflective of true disease incidence.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Australia/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/history , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Disease Notification , Female , Geography, Medical , Global Health , History, 21st Century , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Pandemics/history , Pneumonia, Viral/history , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Public Health Surveillance , Risk Factors , Seasons , Young Adult
11.
Commun Dis Intell (2018) ; 442020 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-594295

ABSTRACT

Confirmed cases in Australia notified up to 24 May 2020: notifications = 7,135; deaths = 102. The incidence of COVID-19 has markedly reduced since a peak in mid-March. There have been no cases reported in SA, the NT or the ACT in the last four weeks. The numbers of new cases reported from other jurisdictions continue to be very low. Testing rates have been higher across all jurisdictions, with Victoria reporting an 85% testing rate increase and NSW a 40% increase over this period. The positivity rate nationally continues to remain very low at less than 0.1% over the reporting period. Continued high rates of testing are necessary to detect and mitigate the spread of COVID-19 in the community. Over the past fortnight, 45% of cases acquired their infection overseas. Of cases considered to be locally acquired over this period, most were associated with contacts of confirmed cases or were associated with known outbreaks. The highest rate of COVID-19 continues to be among people aged 65-79 years. Three-quarters of all cases in this age group have been associated with overseas travel, including several outbreaks linked to cruise ships. The lowest rate of disease is in children under 18, a pattern reflected in international reports. A small proportion of cases overall have experienced severe disease, requiring hospitalisation or intensive care with some fatalities. The crude case fatality rate amongst Australian cases is 1.4%. People who are older and have one or more comorbidities are more likely to experience severe disease. A combination of early case identification, physical distancing, public health measures and a reduction in international travel have likely been effective in slowing the spread of the disease in Australia. In addition, the median number of days between symptom onset and diagnostic testing has improved considerably from 7 days in the early phase of the outbreak to 1 day in the latest phase of the epidemic. Internationally, as at 24 May 2020, there have been recent increases in the number of daily cases reported globally. The largest numbers of both cases and deaths have been reported in the United States. Of the confirmed cases reported globally, the case fatality rate is approximately 6.5%. Countries in South America are starting to see rapid acceleration, while the United States is seeing a very slow decline in its daily new case numbers. In the South East Asia region, India and Bangladesh are seeing accelerating epidemics, compounded by the recovery from Cyclone Amphan. Increasing numbers of cases are also being reported in Africa, although the numbers are much smaller. In the Pacific there are very few daily new cases reported.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Australia/epidemiology , Australia/ethnology , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/history , Disease Notification , Female , Geography, Medical , Global Health , History, 21st Century , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Pandemics/history , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/history , Public Health Surveillance , Risk Factors , Seasons , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
12.
Ann Intern Med ; 173(6): 474-481, 2020 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-535234

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is exacting a disproportionate toll on ethnic minority communities and magnifying existing disparities in health care access and treatment. To understand this crisis, physicians and public health researchers have searched history for insights, especially from a great outbreak approximately a century ago: the 1918 influenza pandemic. However, of the accounts examining the 1918 influenza pandemic and COVID-19, only a notable few discuss race. Yet, a rich, broader scholarship on race and epidemic disease as a "sampling device for social analysis" exists. This commentary examines the historical arc of the 1918 influenza pandemic, focusing on black Americans and showing the complex and sometimes surprising ways it operated, triggering particular responses both within a minority community and in wider racial, sociopolitical, and public health structures. This analysis reveals that critical structural inequities and health care gaps have historically contributed to and continue to compound disparate health outcomes among communities of color. Shifting from this context to the present, this article frames a discussion of racial health disparities through a resilience approach rather than a deficit approach and offers a blueprint for approaching the COVID-19 crisis and its afterlives through the lens of health equity.


Subject(s)
Continental Population Groups/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Coronavirus Infections/history , Influenza, Human/ethnology , Influenza, Human/history , Pandemics/history , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/history , Betacoronavirus , Health Services Accessibility , Health Status Disparities , Healthcare Disparities , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , United States
15.
Science ; 368(6490): 462-465, 2020 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-152259
16.
Turk J Med Sci ; 50(SI-1): 557-562, 2020 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-60497

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases remain as the significant causes of human and animal morbidity and mortality, leading to extensive outbreaks and epidemics. Acute respiratory viral diseases claim over 4 million deaths and cause millions of hospitalizations in developing countries every year. Emerging viruses, especially the RNA viruses, are more pathogenic since most people have no herd immunity. The RNA viruses can adapt to the rapidly changing global and local environment due to the high error rate of their polymerases that replicate their genomes. Currently, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is determined as an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which was first identified in 2019 in Wuhan. Herein we discuss emerging and reemerging respiratory viral infections till to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/history , Pandemics/history , Pneumonia, Viral/history , Respiratory Tract Diseases/history , Respiratory Tract Diseases/virology , Virus Diseases/history , Betacoronavirus , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/history , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans
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