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1.
Pediatr Dermatol ; 37(3): 435-436, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097853

ABSTRACT

It has been reported that the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) may be associated with a papulovesicular skin eruption predominantly involving the trunk. We hereby present a case of COVID-19-associated varicella-like exanthem in an 8-year-old girl with mild systemic symptoms.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Exanthema/diagnosis , Exanthema/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , COVID-19 , Child , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Cells ; 11(16)2022 Aug 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987666

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a feared outcome of many pulmonary diseases which results in a reduction in lung compliance and capacity. The development of PF is relatively rare, but it can occur secondary to viral pneumonia, especially COVID-19 infection. While COVID-19 infection and its complications are still under investigation, we can look at a similar outbreak in the past to gain better insight as to the expected long-term outcomes of COVID-19 patient lung function. In the current article, we review the literature relative to PF via PubMed. We also performed a literature search for COVID-related pathological changes in the lungs. Finally, the paper was reviewed and summarized based on the studies' integrity, relative, or power calculations. This article provides a narrative review that endeavors to elucidate the current understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying PF and therapeutic strategies. We also discussed the potential for preventing progression to the fibrotic state within the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. With the massive scale of the COVID-19 pandemic, we expect there should more instances of PF due to COVID-19 infection. Patients who survive severe COVID-19 infection may suffer from a high incidence of PF.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia, Viral , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Humans , Lung/pathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/complications , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy
5.
Nat Med ; 26(6): 842-844, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900503

ABSTRACT

Respiratory immune characteristics associated with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity are currently unclear. We characterized bronchoalveolar lavage fluid immune cells from patients with varying severity of COVID-19 and from healthy people by using single-cell RNA sequencing. Proinflammatory monocyte-derived macrophages were abundant in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with severe COVID-9. Moderate cases were characterized by the presence of highly clonally expanded CD8+ T cells. This atlas of the bronchoalveolar immune microenvironment suggests potential mechanisms underlying pathogenesis and recovery in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Single-Cell Analysis , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 20(7): 442-447, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1830064

ABSTRACT

A male bias in mortality has emerged in the COVID-19 pandemic, which is consistent with the pathogenesis of other viral infections. Biological sex differences may manifest themselves in susceptibility to infection, early pathogenesis, innate viral control, adaptive immune responses or the balance of inflammation and tissue repair in the resolution of infection. We discuss available sex-disaggregated epidemiological data from the COVID-19 pandemic, introduce sex-differential features of immunity and highlight potential sex differences underlying COVID-19 severity. We propose that sex differences in immunopathogenesis will inform mechanisms of COVID-19, identify points for therapeutic intervention and improve vaccine design and increase vaccine efficacy.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adaptive Immunity , Age Factors , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Interferons/immunology , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Sociological Factors
8.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 34: 101623, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764000

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: An epidemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) began in December 2019 in China leading to a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). Clinical, laboratory, and imaging features have been partially characterized in some observational studies. No systematic reviews on COVID-19 have been published to date. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review with meta-analysis, using three databases to assess clinical, laboratory, imaging features, and outcomes of COVID-19 confirmed cases. Observational studies and also case reports, were included, and analyzed separately. We performed a random-effects model meta-analysis to calculate pooled prevalences and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). RESULTS: 660 articles were retrieved for the time frame (1/1/2020-2/23/2020). After screening, 27 articles were selected for full-text assessment, 19 being finally included for qualitative and quantitative analyses. Additionally, 39 case report articles were included and analyzed separately. For 656 patients, fever (88.7%, 95%CI 84.5-92.9%), cough (57.6%, 95%CI 40.8-74.4%) and dyspnea (45.6%, 95%CI 10.9-80.4%) were the most prevalent manifestations. Among the patients, 20.3% (95%CI 10.0-30.6%) required intensive care unit (ICU), 32.8% presented with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (95%CI 13.7-51.8), 6.2% (95%CI 3.1-9.3) with shock. Some 13.9% (95%CI 6.2-21.5%) of hospitalized patients had fatal outcomes (case fatality rate, CFR). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 brings a huge burden to healthcare facilities, especially in patients with comorbidities. ICU was required for approximately 20% of polymorbid, COVID-19 infected patients and hospitalization was associated with a CFR of >13%. As this virus spreads globally, countries need to urgently prepare human resources, infrastructure and facilities to treat severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cough/virology , Fever/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Analyst ; 145(12): 4173-4180, 2020 Jun 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721601

ABSTRACT

Studies have shown that microRNAs, which are small noncoding RNAs, hold tremendous promise as next-generation circulating biomarkers for early cancer detection via liquid biopsies. A novel, solid-state nanoplasmonic sensor capable of assaying circulating microRNAs through a combined surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and plasmon-enhanced fluorescence (PEF) approach has been developed. Here, the unique localized surface plasmon resonance properties of chemically-synthesized gold triangular nanoprisms (Au TNPs) are utilized to create large SERS and PEF enhancements. With careful modification to the surface of Au TNPs, this sensing approach is capable of quantifying circulating microRNAs at femtogram/microliter concentrations. Uniquely, the multimodal analytical methods mitigate both false positive and false negative responses and demonstrate the high stability of our sensors within bodily fluids. As a proof of concept, microRNA-10b and microRNA-96 were directly assayed from the plasma of six bladder cancer patients. Results show potential for a highly specific liquid biopsy method that could be used in point-of-care clinical diagnostics to increase early cancer detection or any other diseases including SARS-CoV-2 in which RNAs can be used as biomarkers.


Subject(s)
Circulating MicroRNA/blood , Fluorescent Dyes/chemistry , Spectrum Analysis, Raman , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Biomarkers, Tumor/blood , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Gold/chemistry , Humans , Limit of Detection , Microscopy, Confocal , Nanostructures/chemistry , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Point-of-Care Systems , SARS-CoV-2 , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/genetics , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology
11.
Cell Host Microbe ; 27(6): 879-882.e2, 2020 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719463

ABSTRACT

The inflammatory response to SARS-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is thought to underpin COVID-19 pathogenesis. We conducted daily transcriptomic profiling of three COVID-19 cases and found that the early immune response in COVID-19 patients is highly dynamic. Patient throat swabs were tested daily for SARS-CoV-2, with the virus persisting for 3 to 4 weeks in all three patients. Cytokine analyses of whole blood revealed increased cytokine expression in the single most severe case. However, most inflammatory gene expression peaked after respiratory function nadir, except expression in the IL1 pathway. Parallel analyses of CD4 and CD8 expression suggested that the pro-inflammatory response may be intertwined with T cell activation that could exacerbate disease or prolong the infection. Collectively, these findings hint at the possibility that IL1 and related pro-inflammatory pathways may be prognostic and serve as therapeutic targets for COVID-19. This work may also guide future studies to illuminate COVID-19 pathogenesis and develop host-directed therapies.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adult , Aged , Biological Variation, Individual , COVID-19 , Cluster Analysis , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cytokines/blood , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Transcriptome , Up-Regulation
12.
Diagn Pathol ; 17(1): 31, 2022 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690905

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite a reported cardiac injury in patients with new coronavirus infection, the possibility and specifics of genuine viral myocarditis in COVID-19 remains not fully clear. PURPOSE: To study the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the myocardium and the morphological properties of myocarditis in patients with severe coronavirus infection (COVID-19). METHODS: Autopsy data of eight elderly patients (75.6 ± 7.4 years), four male and four female, with severe new coronavirus infection were studied. The lifetime diagnosis of COVID-19 is based on a positive result of the PCR study. The inclusion criterion was the presence of morphological signs of myocarditis according to the Dallas criteria. A standard histological examination included staining by hematoxylin and eosin, toluidin blue and Van Gieson. An immunohistochemical study was performed using antibodies to CD3, CD 68, CD20, perforin, toll-like receptor (TLR) types 4 and 9. PCR in real-time was performed to determine the viral RNA in the myocardium. RESULTS: All patients had severe bilateral viral pneumonia. In all cases, myocarditis was not clinically diagnosed. Morphological examination of the heart found signs of active lymphocytic myocarditis. PCR identified the SARS-Cov2 RNA in all cases. There were also signs of destructive coronaritis in all cases, thrombovasculitis, lymphocytic pericarditis (in 3 cases) and endocarditis (in 2 cases). The absence of neutrophils confirms the aseptic nature of inflammation. An immunohistochemical study showed the CD3-positive T lymphocytes in the infiltrates. Increased expression of TLR type 4 and less 9 was also detected. CONCLUSION: Morphological and immunohistochemical evidence of myocarditis in COVID-19 was presented. Lymphocytic infiltrations and positive PCR confirm the viral nature of inflammation. Myocarditis in COVID-19 is also characterized by coronaritis with microvascular thrombosis and associated with lymphocytic endo- and pericarditis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Myocarditis/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Female , Heart/virology , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Inflammation , Lymphocytes/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/complications , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/virology , Myocardium/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
13.
Transl Res ; 240: 1-16, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630282

ABSTRACT

The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a common complication of severe COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) caused by SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infection. Knowledge of molecular mechanisms driving host responses to SARS-CoV-2 is limited by the lack of reliable preclinical models of COVID-19 that recapitulate human illness. Further, existing COVID-19 animal models are not characterized as models of experimental acute lung injury (ALI) or ARDS. Acknowledging differences in experimental lung injury in animal models and human ARDS, here we systematically evaluate a model of experimental acute lung injury as a result of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Syrian golden hamsters. Following intranasal inoculation, hamsters demonstrate acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, viral pneumonia, and systemic illness but survive infection with clearance of virus. Hamsters exposed to SARS-CoV-2 exhibited key features of experimental ALI, including histologic evidence of lung injury, increased pulmonary permeability, acute inflammation, and hypoxemia. RNA sequencing of lungs indicated upregulation of inflammatory mediators that persisted after infection clearance. Lipidomic analysis demonstrated significant differences in hamster phospholipidome with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Lungs infected with SARS-CoV-2 showed increased apoptosis and ferroptosis. Thus, SARS-CoV-2 infected hamsters exhibit key features of experimental lung injury supporting their use as a preclinical model of COVID-19 ARDS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Lung/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Cricetinae , Male , Mesocricetus , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
14.
J Altern Complement Med ; 26(6): 444-448, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637539

ABSTRACT

Editor's Note: For those whose response to COVID-19 includes exploring beyond vaccines, conventional pharmaceuticals, and the watchful or healthy waiting until such tools might arrive, interest in cannabinoids has been high - and controversial. It has already stimulated one journal, the Liebert Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, to issue a call for papers on COVID-19. The unique place of cannabis in the culture seems to always mark the herb with an exponential asterisk whenever basketed with the other natural health strategies that are both widely used, and as broadly derided. In this invited commentary, JACM Editorial Board member Michelle Sexton, ND starts by describing the multiple immune modulating effects associated with the herb. The University of California San Diego Assistant Adjunct Professor in Anesthesiology then asks: "Given these effects, can phytocannabinoids be either helpful, or harmful for immune competency, in the context of the current COVID-19 pandemic?" A skilled edge-walker, Sexton lets the research fall where it may in wending a path through this evidentiary maze. -John Weeks, Editor-in-Chief, JACM.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Cannabinoids/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus/drug effects , Immunocompetence/drug effects , Medical Marijuana/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 168-171, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623181

ABSTRACT

HCoV-OC43 is one of the mildly pathogenic coronaviruses with high infection rates in common population. Here, 43 HCoV-OC43 related cases with pneumonia were reported, corresponding genomes of HCoV-OC43 were obtained. Phylogenetic analyses based on complete genome, orf1ab and spike genes revealed that two novel genotypes of HCoV-OC43 have emerged in China. Obvious recombinant events also can be detected in the analysis of the evolutionary dynamics of novel HCoV-OC43 genotypes. Estimated divergence time analysis indicated that the two novel genotypes had apparently independent evolutionary routes. Efforts should be conducted for further investigation of genomic diversity and evolution analysis of mildly pathogenic coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Common Cold/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/genetics , Genome, Viral , Genotype , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Base Sequence , Bayes Theorem , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Common Cold/pathology , Common Cold/transmission , Common Cold/virology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/classification , Coronavirus OC43, Human/pathogenicity , Epidemiological Monitoring , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Monte Carlo Method , Mutation , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Recombination, Genetic
16.
Clin Hemorheol Microcirc ; 75(1): 7-11, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581406

ABSTRACT

There is growing evidence that COVID-19 not only affects the lungs but beyond that the endothelial system. Recent studies showed that this can lead to microcirculatory impairments and in consequence to functional disorders of all inner organs. The combination of endothelial dysfunction with a generalized inflammatory state and complement elements may together contribute to the overall pro-coagulative state described in COVID-19 patients leading to venular as well as to arteriolar occlusions.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Endothelium, Vascular/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524093

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known on the clinical relevance of the nutritional status and body composition of patients hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim of our study was to assess the prevalence of malnutrition in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia using bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA), and to evaluate the relationship of their nutritional status with the severity and outcome of disease. METHODS: Among 150 consecutive patients who were hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia, 37 (24.3%) were classified as malnourished by BIVA, and were followed-up for 60 days from admission. Outcome measures were differences in the need for invasive mechanical ventilation, in-hospital mortality, and the duration of hospital stay in survivors. RESULTS: During 60 days of follow-up, 10 (27%) malnourished patients and 13 (12%) non-malnourished patients required invasive mechanical ventilation (p = 0.023), and 13 (35%) malnourished patients and 9 (8%) non-malnourished patients died (p < 0.001). The average duration of the hospital stay in survivors was longer in patients with malnutrition (18.2 ± 15.7 vs. 13.2 ± 14.8 days, p < 0.001). In survival analyses, mechanical ventilation free (log-rank 7.887, p = 0.050) and overall (log-rank 17.886, p < 0.001) survival were significantly longer in non-malnourished than malnourished patients. The Cox proportional ratio showed that malnutrition was associated with an increased risk of mechanical ventilation (HR 4.375, p = 0.004) and death (HR 4.478, p = 0.004) after adjusting for major confounders such as age, sex, and BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Malnutrition diagnosed with BIVA was associated with worse outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Body Composition/physiology , COVID-19/complications , Electric Impedance , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Malnutrition/complications , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Nutrition Assessment , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Prevalence , Prognosis , Prospective Studies
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21259, 2021 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493217

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is currently a serious public health concern worldwide. Notably, co-infection with other pathogens may worsen the severity of COVID-19 symptoms and increase fatality. Here, we show that co-infection with influenza A virus (IAV) causes more severe body weight loss and more severe and prolonged pneumonia in SARS-CoV-2-infected hamsters. Each virus can efficiently spread in the lungs without interference by the other. However, in immunohistochemical analyses, SARS-CoV-2 and IAV were not detected at the same sites in the respiratory organs of co-infected hamsters, suggesting that either the two viruses may have different cell tropisms in vivo or each virus may inhibit the infection and/or growth of the other within a cell or adjacent areas in the organs. Furthermore, a significant increase in IL-6 was detected in the sera of hamsters co-infected with SARS-CoV-2 and IAV at 7 and 10 days post-infection, suggesting that IL-6 may be involved in the increased severity of pneumonia. Our results strongly suggest that IAV co-infection with SARS-CoV-2 can have serious health risks and increased caution should be applied in such cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Mesocricetus , Orthomyxoviridae/pathogenicity , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/pathology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Virus Replication
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