Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 1.452
Filter
Add filters

Document Type
Year range
5.
JAMA ; 323(16): 1574-1581, 2020 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453471

ABSTRACT

Importance: In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2]) emerged in China and has spread globally, creating a pandemic. Information about the clinical characteristics of infected patients who require intensive care is limited. Objective: To characterize patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) requiring treatment in an intensive care unit (ICU) in the Lombardy region of Italy. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective case series of 1591 consecutive patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 referred for ICU admission to the coordinator center (Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy) of the COVID-19 Lombardy ICU Network and treated at one of the ICUs of the 72 hospitals in this network between February 20 and March 18, 2020. Date of final follow-up was March 25, 2020. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay of nasal and pharyngeal swabs. Main Outcomes and Measures: Demographic and clinical data were collected, including data on clinical management, respiratory failure, and patient mortality. Data were recorded by the coordinator center on an electronic worksheet during telephone calls by the staff of the COVID-19 Lombardy ICU Network. Results: Of the 1591 patients included in the study, the median (IQR) age was 63 (56-70) years and 1304 (82%) were male. Of the 1043 patients with available data, 709 (68%) had at least 1 comorbidity and 509 (49%) had hypertension. Among 1300 patients with available respiratory support data, 1287 (99% [95% CI, 98%-99%]) needed respiratory support, including 1150 (88% [95% CI, 87%-90%]) who received mechanical ventilation and 137 (11% [95% CI, 9%-12%]) who received noninvasive ventilation. The median positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) was 14 (IQR, 12-16) cm H2O, and Fio2 was greater than 50% in 89% of patients. The median Pao2/Fio2 was 160 (IQR, 114-220). The median PEEP level was not different between younger patients (n = 503 aged ≤63 years) and older patients (n = 514 aged ≥64 years) (14 [IQR, 12-15] vs 14 [IQR, 12-16] cm H2O, respectively; median difference, 0 [95% CI, 0-0]; P = .94). Median Fio2 was lower in younger patients: 60% (IQR, 50%-80%) vs 70% (IQR, 50%-80%) (median difference, -10% [95% CI, -14% to 6%]; P = .006), and median Pao2/Fio2 was higher in younger patients: 163.5 (IQR, 120-230) vs 156 (IQR, 110-205) (median difference, 7 [95% CI, -8 to 22]; P = .02). Patients with hypertension (n = 509) were older than those without hypertension (n = 526) (median [IQR] age, 66 years [60-72] vs 62 years [54-68]; P < .001) and had lower Pao2/Fio2 (median [IQR], 146 [105-214] vs 173 [120-222]; median difference, -27 [95% CI, -42 to -12]; P = .005). Among the 1581 patients with ICU disposition data available as of March 25, 2020, 920 patients (58% [95% CI, 56%-61%]) were still in the ICU, 256 (16% [95% CI, 14%-18%]) were discharged from the ICU, and 405 (26% [95% CI, 23%-28%]) had died in the ICU. Older patients (n = 786; age ≥64 years) had higher mortality than younger patients (n = 795; age ≤63 years) (36% vs 15%; difference, 21% [95% CI, 17%-26%]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this case series of critically ill patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to ICUs in Lombardy, Italy, the majority were older men, a large proportion required mechanical ventilation and high levels of PEEP, and ICU mortality was 26%.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Hospital Mortality , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Positive-Pressure Respiration/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Distribution , Young Adult
6.
JAMA ; 323(16): 1582-1589, 2020 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453469

ABSTRACT

Importance: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic with no specific therapeutic agents and substantial mortality. It is critical to find new treatments. Objective: To determine whether convalescent plasma transfusion may be beneficial in the treatment of critically ill patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: Case series of 5 critically ill patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) who met the following criteria: severe pneumonia with rapid progression and continuously high viral load despite antiviral treatment; Pao2/Fio2 <300; and mechanical ventilation. All 5 were treated with convalescent plasma transfusion. The study was conducted at the infectious disease department, Shenzhen Third People's Hospital in Shenzhen, China, from January 20, 2020, to March 25, 2020; final date of follow-up was March 25, 2020. Clinical outcomes were compared before and after convalescent plasma transfusion. Exposures: Patients received transfusion with convalescent plasma with a SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody (IgG) binding titer greater than 1:1000 (end point dilution titer, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]) and a neutralization titer greater than 40 (end point dilution titer) that had been obtained from 5 patients who recovered from COVID-19. Convalescent plasma was administered between 10 and 22 days after admission. Main Outcomes and Measures: Changes of body temperature, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (range 0-24, with higher scores indicating more severe illness), Pao2/Fio2, viral load, serum antibody titer, routine blood biochemical index, ARDS, and ventilatory and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) supports before and after convalescent plasma transfusion. Results: All 5 patients (age range, 36-65 years; 2 women) were receiving mechanical ventilation at the time of treatment and all had received antiviral agents and methylprednisolone. Following plasma transfusion, body temperature normalized within 3 days in 4 of 5 patients, the SOFA score decreased, and Pao2/Fio2 increased within 12 days (range, 172-276 before and 284-366 after). Viral loads also decreased and became negative within 12 days after the transfusion, and SARS-CoV-2-specific ELISA and neutralizing antibody titers increased following the transfusion (range, 40-60 before and 80-320 on day 7). ARDS resolved in 4 patients at 12 days after transfusion, and 3 patients were weaned from mechanical ventilation within 2 weeks of treatment. Of the 5 patients, 3 have been discharged from the hospital (length of stay: 53, 51, and 55 days), and 2 are in stable condition at 37 days after transfusion. Conclusions and Relevance: In this preliminary uncontrolled case series of 5 critically ill patients with COVID-19 and ARDS, administration of convalescent plasma containing neutralizing antibody was followed by improvement in their clinical status. The limited sample size and study design preclude a definitive statement about the potential effectiveness of this treatment, and these observations require evaluation in clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Donors , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Critical Illness , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 26(10): 1380-1385, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439953

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim was to determine the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients because the SARS-CoV-2 virus continues to circulate in the population. METHODS: This is a retrospective, multicentre, cohort study. Adult COVID-19 cases from four hospitals in Zhejiang were enrolled and clustered into three groups based on epidemiological history. First-generation patients had a travel history to Hubei within 14 days before disease onset; second-generation patients had a contact history with first-generation patients; third-generation patients had a contact history with second-generation patients. Demographic, clinical characteristics, clinical outcomes and duration of viral shedding were analysed. RESULTS: A total of 171 patients were enrolled, with 83, 44 and 44 patients in the first-, second-, and third-generation, respectively. Compared with the first and second generations, third-generation patients were older (61.3 vs. 48.3 and 44.0 years, p < 0.001) and had more coexisting conditions (56.8% vs. 36.1% and 27.3%, p 0.013). At 7 ± 1 days from illness onset, third-generation patients had lower lymphocyte (0.6 vs. 0.8 and 0.8 × 109/L, p 0.007), higher C-reactive protein (29.7 vs. 17.1 and 13.8 mg/L, p 0.018) and D-dimer (1066 vs. 412.5 and 549 µg/L, p 0.002) and more lesions involving the pulmonary lobes (lobes ≥5, 81.8% vs. 53.0% and 34.1%, p < 0.001). The proportions of third-generation patients developing severe illness (72.7% vs. 32.5% and 27.3%, p < 0.001), critical illness (38.6% vs. 10.8% and 6.8%, p < 0.001) and receiving endotracheal intubation (20.5% vs. 3.6% and 2.3%, p 0.002) were higher than in the other two groups. DISCUSSION: Third-generation patients were older, had more underlying comorbidities and had a higher proportion of severe or critical illness than first- and second-generation patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/physiopathology , Interleukin-6/blood , Intubation, Intratracheal , Lymphocytes/pathology , Lymphocytes/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/blood , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Travel/statistics & numerical data , Virus Shedding
9.
S Afr Med J ; 111(9): 849-851, 2021 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404035

ABSTRACT

During the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in South Africa, a recurrent pattern of prolonged recovery after acute COVID-19 pneumonia, characterised by low oxygen saturation levels for >2 weeks, was observed in an intermediate-care facility in Cape Town. A case study together with a series of 12 patients is presented to illustrate this phenomenon, and two types of 'sats gap' are described, which were used by physiotherapists and doctors to monitor daily progress. We attempt to explain this prolonged recovery in terms of the possible pathophysiology, and suggest a number of learning points to guide further research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Aged , Female , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Recovery of Function , South Africa
12.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 99(7): 819-822, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388175

ABSTRACT

The Public Health Agency of Sweden has analyzed how many pregnant and postpartum women with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have been treated in intensive care units (ICU) in Sweden between 19 March and 20 April 2020 compared with non-pregnant women of similar age. Cases were identified in a special reporting module within the Swedish Intensive Care Registry (SIR). Fifty-three women aged 20-45 years with SARS-CoV-2 were reported in SIR, and 13 of these women were either pregnant or postpartum (<1 week). The results indicate that the risk of being admitted to ICU may be higher in pregnant and postpartum women with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 in Sweden, compared with non-pregnant women of similar age.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections , Critical Care , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Puerperal Infection , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Puerperal Infection/epidemiology , Puerperal Infection/physiopathology , Puerperal Infection/therapy , Puerperal Infection/virology , Registries/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sweden/epidemiology
18.
Cell ; 181(6): 1194-1199, 2020 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385209

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection displays immense inter-individual clinical variability, ranging from silent infection to lethal disease. The role of human genetics in determining clinical response to the virus remains unclear. Studies of outliers-individuals remaining uninfected despite viral exposure and healthy young patients with life-threatening disease-present a unique opportunity to reveal human genetic determinants of infection and disease.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Age Factors , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Disease Resistance , Genetic Association Studies , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/immunology , Genetic Variation , Genome, Human , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Infections/genetics , Infections/immunology , Infections/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Cell ; 181(5): 969-977, 2020 05 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385208

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection is mild in the majority of individuals but progresses into severe pneumonia in a small proportion of patients. The increased susceptibility to severe disease in the elderly and individuals with co-morbidities argues for an initial defect in anti-viral host defense mechanisms. Long-term boosting of innate immune responses, also termed "trained immunity," by certain live vaccines (BCG, oral polio vaccine, measles) induces heterologous protection against infections through epigenetic, transcriptional, and functional reprogramming of innate immune cells. We propose that induction of trained immunity by whole-microorganism vaccines may represent an important tool for reducing susceptibility to and severity of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Immunomodulation , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS Virus/physiology , Animals , BCG Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lymphopenia/pathology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Virus Replication
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...