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1.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 28(1): 107, 2020 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098376

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 presents challenges to the emergency care system that could lead to emergency department (ED) crowding. The Huddinge site at the Karolinska university hospital (KH) responded through a rapid transformation of inpatient care capacity together with changing working methods in the ED. The aim is to describe the KH response to the COVID-19 crisis, and how ED crowding, and important input, throughput and output factors for ED crowding developed at KH during a 30-day baseline period followed by the first 60 days of the COVID-19 outbreak in Stockholm Region. METHODS: Different phases in the development of the crisis were described and identified retrospectively based on major events that changed the conditions for the ED. Results were presented for each phase separately. The outcome ED length of stay (ED LOS) was calculated with mean and 95% confidence intervals. Input, throughput, output and demographic factors were described using distributions, proportions and means. Pearson correlation between ED LOS and emergency ward occupancy by phase was estimated with 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: As new working methods were introduced between phase 2 and 3, ED LOS declined from mean (95% CI) 386 (373-399) minutes to 307 (297-317). Imaging proportion was reduced from 29 to 18% and admission rate increased from 34 to 43%. Correlation (95% CI) between emergency ward occupancy and ED LOS by phase was 0.94 (0.55-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to avoid ED crowding, even during extreme and quickly changing conditions by leveraging previously known input, throughput and output factors. One key factor was the change in working methods in the ED with higher competence, less diagnostics and increased focus on rapid clinical admission decisions. Another important factor was the reduction in bed occupancy in emergency wards that enabled a timely admission to inpatient care. A key limitation was the retrospective study design.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Crowding , Emergency Service, Hospital , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bed Occupancy , COVID-19 , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals, University , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sweden
2.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 28(1): 106, 2020 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098375

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global public health emergency. Here, we developed and validated a practical model based on the data from a multi-center cohort in China for early identification and prediction of which patients will be admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: Data of 1087 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were collected from 49 sites between January 2 and February 28, 2020, in Sichuan and Wuhan. Patients were randomly categorized into the training and validation cohorts (7:3). The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator and logistic regression analyzes were used to develop the nomogram. The performance of the nomogram was evaluated for the C-index, calibration, discrimination, and clinical usefulness. Further, the nomogram was externally validated in a different cohort. RESULTS: The individualized prediction nomogram included 6 predictors: age, respiratory rate, systolic blood pressure, smoking status, fever, and chronic kidney disease. The model demonstrated a high discriminative ability in the training cohort (C-index = 0.829), which was confirmed in the external validation cohort (C-index = 0.776). In addition, the calibration plots confirmed good concordance for predicting the risk of ICU admission. Decision curve analysis revealed that the prediction nomogram was clinically useful. CONCLUSION: We established an early prediction model incorporating clinical characteristics that could be quickly obtained on hospital admission, even in community health centers. This model can be conveniently used to predict the individual risk for ICU admission of patients with COVID-19 and optimize the use of limited resources.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Hospitalization , Intensive Care Units , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Nomograms , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 28(1): 94, 2020 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098374

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19, the pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, is challenging healthcare systems worldwide. Little is known about problems faced by emergency medical services-particularly helicopter services-caring for suspected or confirmed COVID-19 patients. We aimed to describe the issues faced by air ambulance services in Europe as they transport potential COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Nine different HEMS providers in seven different countries across Europe were invited to share their experiences and to report their data regarding the care, transport, and safety measures in suspected or confirmed COVID-19 missions. Six air ambulance providers in six countries agreed and reported their data regarding development of special procedures and safety instructions in preparation for the COVID-19 pandemic. Four providers agreed to provide mission related data. Three hundred eighty-five COVID-19-related missions were analysed, including 119 primary transport missions and 266 interfacility transport missions. RESULTS: All providers had developed special procedures and safety instructions in preparation for COVID-19. Ground transport was the preferred mode of transport in primary missions, whereas air transport was preferred for interfacility transport. In some countries the transport of COVID-19 patients by regular air ambulance services was avoided. Patients in interfacility transport missions had a significantly higher median (range) NACA Score 4 (2-5) compared with 3 (1-7), needed significantly more medical interventions, were significantly younger (59.6 ± 16 vs 65 ± 21 years), and were significantly more often male (73% vs 60.5%). CONCLUSIONS: All participating air ambulance providers were prepared for COVID-19. Safe care and transport of suspected or confirmed COVID-19 patients is achievable. Most patients on primary missions were transported by ground. These patients were less sick than interfacility transport patients, for whom air transport was the preferred method.


Subject(s)
Air Ambulances/organization & administration , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Transportation of Patients/methods , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(41): e30998, 2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077958

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To date, there has been little agreement on what drug is the "best" drug for treating severe COVID-19 patients. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of different medications available at present for severe COVID-19. METHODS: We searched databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published up to February 28, 2022, with no language restrictions, of medications recommended for patients (aged 16 years or older) with severe COVID-19 infection. We extracted data on trials and patient characteristics, and the following primary outcomes: all-cause mortality (ACM), and treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). RESULTS: We identified 4021 abstracts and of these included 48 RCTs comprising 9147 participants through database searches and other sources. For decrease in ACM, we found that ivermectin/doxycycline, C-IVIG (i.e., a hyperimmune anti-COVID-19 intravenous immunoglobulin), methylprednisolone, interferon-beta/standard-of-care (SOC), interferon-beta-1b, convalescent plasma, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, immunoglobulin gamma, high dosage sarilumab (HS), auxora, and imatinib were effective when compared with placebo or SOC group. We found that colchicine and interferon-beta/SOC were only associated with the TEAEs of severe COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: This study suggested that ivermectin/doxycycline, C-IVIG, methylprednisolone, interferon-beta/SOC, interferon-beta-1b, convalescent plasma (CP), remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, immunoglobulin gamma, HS, auxora, and imatinib were efficacious for treating severe COVID-19 patients. We found that most medications were safe in treating severe COVID-19. More large-scale RCTs are still needed to confirm the results of this study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Doxycycline/therapeutic use , Humans , Imatinib Mesylate/therapeutic use , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Interferon beta-1b/therapeutic use , Ivermectin/adverse effects , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Network Meta-Analysis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Ritonavir/therapeutic use
10.
Rev Med Chil ; 150(3): 316-323, 2022 Mar.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055642

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In a decade, we faced two pandemic viruses, influenza A H1N1pdm09 and SARS CoV-2, whose most serious manifestation is pneumonia. AIM: To compare the clinical, epidemiological and management aspects of pneumonias caused by each pandemic virus in adults requiring hospitalization. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Comparative, observational study carried out at a regional Chilean hospital, including 75 patients with influenza A H1N1pdm09 prospectively studied in 2009 and 142 patients with SARS-CoV-2 studied in 2020. RESULTS: Patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia were older (56 and 39.7 years respectively, p < 0.01) and had significantly more comorbidities. Cough, fever and myalgias were more frequent in influenza. Dyspnea was more frequent in COVID-19. Patients with COVID-19 had more extensive lung involvement and a longer hospitalization (13.6 and 8.6 days respectively, p = 0.01). There was no difference on ICU admission requirements and mortality attributable to pneumonia. Patients with influenza had greater APACHE scores and a higher frequency of a PaO2/FiO2 ratio ≤ 200. During COVID-19pandemic chest sean replaced x-ray examination. Also high-flow nasal cannulas and awake prone position ventilation were added as treatments. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients were older, had fewer classic flu symptoms but more dyspnea and longer hospitalization periods than patients with influenza.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dyspnea , Hospitalization , Humans , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 301, 2022 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053945

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is unclear if the impact of frailty on mortality differs between patients with viral pneumonitis due to COVID-19 or other causes. We aimed to determine if a difference exists between patients with and without COVID-19 pneumonitis. METHODS: This multicentre, retrospective, cohort study using the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Adult Patient Database included patients aged ≥ 16 years admitted to 153 ICUs between 01/012020 and 12/31/2021 with admission diagnostic codes for viral pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome, and Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS). The primary outcome was hospital mortality. RESULTS: A total of 4620 patients were studied, and 3077 (66.6%) had COVID-19. The patients with COVID-19 were younger (median [IQR] 57.0 [44.7-68.3] vs. 66.1 [52.0-76.2]; p < 0.001) and less frail (median [IQR] CFS 3 [2-4] vs. 4 [3-5]; p < 0.001) than non-COVID-19 patients. The overall hospital mortality was similar between the patients with and without COVID-19 (14.7% vs. 14.9%; p = 0.82). Frailty alone as a predictor of mortality showed only moderate discrimination in differentiating survivors from those who died but was similar between patients with and without COVID-19 (AUROC 0.68 vs. 0.66; p = 0.42). Increasing frailty scores were associated with hospital mortality, after adjusting for Australian and New Zealand Risk of Death score and sex. However, the effect of frailty was similar in patients with and without COVID-19 (OR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.19-1.41 vs. OR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.11-1.37). CONCLUSION: The presence of frailty was an independent risk factor for mortality. However, the impact of frailty on outcomes was similar in COVID-19 patients compared to other causes of viral pneumonitis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic , Frailty , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Australia/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Data Analysis , Frailty/complications , Frailty/diagnosis , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , New Zealand/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Registries , Retrospective Studies
13.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 138, 2022 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038685

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To assess the outcome of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for severe adenovirus (Adv) pneumonia with refractory hypoxic respiratory failure (RHRF) in paediatric patients. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was performed in a tertiary paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in China. Patients with RHRF caused by Adv pneumonia who received ECMO support after mechanical ventilation failed to achieve adequate oxygenation between 2017 and 2020 were included. The outcome variables were the in-hospital survival rate and the effects of ECMO on the survival rate. RESULTS: In total, 18 children with RHRF received ECMO. The median age was 19 (9.5, 39.8) months, and the median ECMO duration was 196 (152, 309) h. The in-hospital survival rate was 72.2% (13/18). Thirteen patients (72.2%) required continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) due to fluid imbalance or acute kidney injury (AKI). At ECMO initiation, compared with survivors, nonsurvivors had a lower PaO2/FiO2 ratio [49 (34.5, 62) vs. 63 (56, 71); p = 0.04], higher oxygen index (OI) [41 (34.5, 62) vs. 30 (26.5, 35); p = 0.03], higher vasoactive inotropic score (VIS) [30 (16.3, 80) vs. 100 (60, 142.5); p = 0.04], longer duration from mechanical ventilation to ECMO support [8 (4, 14) vs. 4 (3, 5.5) h, p=0.02], and longer time from confirmed RHRF to ECMO initiation [9 (4.8, 13) vs. 5 (1.3, 5.5) h; p = 0.004]. Patients with PaO2/FiO2 <61 mmHg or an OI >43 and hypoxic respiratory failure for more than 9 days before the initiation of ECMO had worse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: ECMO seemed to be effective, as severe paediatric Adv pneumonia patients with RHRF had a cumulative survival rate of 72.2% in our study. Our study provides insight into ECMO rescue in children with severe Adv pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae Infections , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Pneumonia, Viral , Respiratory Insufficiency , Adenoviridae , Adult , Child , China , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/therapy , Oxygen , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
14.
Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult ; 99(4. Vyp. 2): 43-50, 2022.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025846

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the efficacy and safety of therapeutic exercises and chest hardware massage in electrostatic field in patients with COVID-associated viral pneumonia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 1551 patients admitted to the Clinical Hospital No. 1 (MEDSI Group JSC) with COVID-associated pneumonia between April 01, 2020 and June 15, 2021 (ICD-10 U07.1 and U07.2). Considering inclusion and exclusion criteria, we enrolled 153 patients. All patients were divided into comparable groups and subgroups depending on the methods of rehabilitation treatment and CT stage of viral pneumonia. Lung damage was assessed semi-automatically using Philips Portal v11 COPD software. Rehabilitation measures included therapeutic exercises and chest hardware massage in electrostatic field. therapeutic exercises. RESULTS: Therapeutic exercises significantly reduced severity of lung damage in patients with viral pneumonia CT-2 and no oxygen support (from 28.05% [28; 29.5] at admission to 15.3% [14.2; 19.3] at discharge). It was not observed in patients without rehabilitation treatment and in patients undergoing therapeutic exercises and massage in electrostatic field. CONCLUSION: Therapeutic exercises in patients with COVID-19 and baseline lung damage > 25% and < 50% (CT-2 stage) significantly reduce severity of lung damage at discharge compared to the control group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia, Viral , Humans , Lung , Massage , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Static Electricity
15.
J Clin Virol ; 154: 105244, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991142

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human adenovirus type B7 (HAdV-B7) has been reported to cause pneumonia. However, there are limited data about the epidemiological and clinical features of HAdV-B7 pneumonia in young adults. METHODS: This retrospective observational study included 52 patients diagnosed of human adenovirus B7 pneumonia in Nanjing, China from February 7, 2016, to February 20, 2016. We retrospectively collected and analyzed clinical, laboratory, and radiologic features, treatments and outcomes. RESULTS: The median age of the 52 patients was 19.5 years (IQR 18.0-21.0). The most common symptoms were fever (50, 96.2%), cough (49, 94.2%), and expectoration (48, 92.3%). Most of the routine hematology and blood chemistry parameters were within the normal range. The predominant abnormal patterns seen on chest CT were unilateral (33, 66%), multifocal (36, 72%), and ground-glass opacity (27, 54%), mainly involving the left lower lobes (41 [36.0%] of 114 affected segments). As the disease progressed in the second week after symptom onset, consolidation and mixed patterns became more common, while the ground glass opacity pattern decreased. The single-agent ribavirin therapy group had a significantly shorter duration of nonrespiratory symptoms, and no statistically significant difference was observed between the single-agent methylprednisolone group and the nonglucocorticoid group. CONCLUSIONS: The main symptoms in immunocompetent patients with adenovirus type 7 are fever, cough and sputum, with no significant abnormalities in laboratory tests. Chest CT scan mostly shows a ground-glass opacity at the beginning of the disease, which subsequently changes to a mixed pattern. Ribavirin and glucocorticoids did not shorten the course of disease.


Subject(s)
Adenoviruses, Human , Coronavirus Infections , Pneumonia, Viral , Pneumonia , Adolescent , Adult , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cough , Disease Outbreaks , Fever/epidemiology , Humans , Lung , Pandemics , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Ribavirin , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
18.
Blood ; 140(3): 196-207, 2022 07 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951013

ABSTRACT

As the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic led to a global health crisis, there were limited treatment options and no prophylactic therapies for those exposed to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Convalescent plasma is quick to implement, potentially provides benefits, and has a good safety profile. The therapeutic potential of COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) is likely mediated by antibodies through direct viral neutralization and Fc-dependent functions such as a phagocytosis, complement activation, and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. In the United States, CCP became one of the most common treatments with more than a half million units transfused despite limited efficacy data. More than a dozen randomized trials now demonstrate that CCP does not provide benefit for those hospitalized with moderate to severe disease. However, similar to other passive antibody therapies, CCP is beneficial for early disease when provided to elderly outpatients within 72 hours after symptom onset. Only high-titer CCP should be transfused. CCP should also be considered for immunosuppressed patients with COVID-19. CCP collected in proximity, by time and location, to the patient may be more beneficial because of SARS-CoV-2 variants. Additional randomized trial data are still accruing and should be incorporated with other trial data to optimize CCP indications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Pneumonia, Viral , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
19.
Cardiol Clin ; 40(3): 277-285, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944425

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus, has resulted in unprecedented morbidity and mortality worldwide. While COVID-19 typically presents as viral pneumonia, cardiovascular manifestations such as acute coronary syndromes, arterial and venous thrombosis, acutely decompensated heart failure (HF), and arrhythmia are frequently observed. Many of these complications are associated with poorer outcomes, including death. Herein we review the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes among patients with COVID-19, cardiovascular manifestations of COVID-19, and cardiovascular complications associated with COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
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