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1.
Int J Qual Health Care ; 33(1)2021 Feb 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1093551

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has forced health-care providers to find creative ways to allow continuity of care in times of lockdown. Telemedicine enables provision of care when in-person visits are not possible. Sheba Medical Center made a rapid transition of outpatient clinics to video consultations (VC) during the first wave of COVID-19 in Israel. OBJECTIVE: Results of a survey of patient and clinician user experience with VC are reported. METHODS: Satisfaction surveys were sent by text messages to patients, clinicians who practice VC (users) and clinicians who do not practice VC (non-users). Questions referred to general satisfaction, ease of use, technical issues and medical and communication quality. Questions and scales were based on surveys used regularly in outpatient clinics of Sheba Medical Center. RESULTS: More than 1200 clinicians (physicians, psychologists, nurses, social workers, dietitians, speech therapists, genetic consultants and others) provided VC during the study period. Five hundred and forty patients, 162 clinicians who were users and 50 clinicians who were non-users completed the survey. High level of satisfaction was reported by 89.8% of patients and 37.7% of clinician users. Technical problems were experienced by 21% of patients and 80% of clinician users. Almost 70% of patients but only 23.5% of clinicians found the platform very simple to use. Over 90% of patients were very satisfied with clinician's courtesy, expressed a high sense of trust, thought that clinician's explanations and recommendations were clear and estimated that the clinician understood their problems and 86.5% of them would recommend VC to family and friends. Eighty-seven percent of clinician users recognize the benefit of VC for patients during the COVID-19 pandemic but only 68% supported continuation of the service after the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Our study reports high levels of patient satisfaction from outpatient clinics VC during the COVID-19 pandemic. Lower levels of clinician satisfaction can mostly be attributed to technical and administrative challenges related to the newly implemented telemedicine platform. Our findings support the continued future use of VC as a means of providing patient-centered care. Future steps need to be taken to continuously improve the clinical and administrative application of telemedicine services.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , Patient Satisfaction , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Remote Consultation , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(7): e24668, 2021 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091183

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: We aimed to retrospectively analyze the clinical and computed tomography (CT) characteristics of young adults with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia who were critically ill and to identify the features associated with non-survival.Thirty-eight COVID-19 patients (20-45 years old, 28 men) who had been admitted in the intensive care unit were included, including 18 non-survivors (group 1) and 20 survivors (group 2). Their clinical characteristics and initial and follow-up CT were compared between groups.In group 1, the days from illness onset to death were 21.1 ±â€Š10.3 days; 7 patients had underlying comorbidities. At admission, group 1 exhibited higher serum ferritin and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels (1142.6 ±â€Š242.4 mg/L and 33.8 ±â€Š18.6 mmol/L) compared with group 2 (728.3 ±â€Š150.9 mg/L and 15.2 ±â€Š6.9 mmol/L, P < .01). Group 1 exhibited more rapidly progressive opacities and consolidation in follow-up CT (16.7 ±â€Š3.1 scores, 15.7 ±â€Š3.1 segments) than group 2 (11.4 ±â€Š4.0 scores, 10.3 ±â€Š4.6 segments, P < .01). The oxygenation index was lower (87.6 ±â€Š19.2 vs 99.1 ±â€Š20.4 mm Hg) and the mechanical ventilation duration was longer (14.7 ±â€Š6.9 vs 9.7 ±â€Š3.7 days) in group 1 compare with group 2 (P < .01).Compared with the survivors, the non-survivors showed higher serum ferritin and IL-6 levels, more rapidly progressive opacities in CT, lower oxygenation index, and longer mechanical ventilation durations. Special attention to ferritin/IL-6 levels and oxygenation index as well as early CT application and timely reexaminations are important to identify the individuals who may be at risk of becoming critically ill.


Subject(s)
/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adult , Critical Illness , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , Survival Analysis
3.
Front Immunol ; 11: 609198, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1080669

ABSTRACT

During COVID-19 pandemic the care of onco-hematologic and autoimmune patients has raised the question whether they are at higher risk of infection and/or worse outcome. Here, we describe the clinical course of COVID-19 pneumonia in patients with autoimmune cytopenias (AIC) regularly followed at a reference center in Northern Italy. The study period started from COVID-19 outbreak (February 22, 2020) until the time of writing. Moreover, we provide a review of the literature, showing that most cases reported so far are AIC developed during or secondary to COVID-19 infection. At variance, data about AIC pre-existing to COVID infection are scanty. The 4 patients here described (2 autoimmune hemolytic anemias, AIHA, 1 Evans syndrome, and 1 immune thrombocytopenia) with COVID-19 pneumonia belong to a large cohort of 500 AIC patients, making this study nearly population-based. The observed frequency (4/501; 0.7%) is only slightly superior to that of the general population admitted to hospital/intensive care unit (0.28/0.03%, respectively) in Lombardy in the same period of observation. All cases occurred between March 21 and 25, whilst no more AIC were recorded later on. Although different in intensity of care needed, all patients recovered from COVID-19 pneumonia, with apparently no detrimental effect of previous/current immunomodulatory treatments. AIHA relapse occurred in two patients, but promptly responded to therapy. With limitations due to sample size, these results suggest a favorable outcome and a lower-than-expected incidence of COVID-19 pneumonia in patients with previously diagnosed AIC, and allow speculating that immunomodulatory drugs used for AIC may play a beneficial rather than a harmful effect on COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/complications , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Young Adult
4.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 21(1): 28, 2021 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079209

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has led to the adoption of unprecedented mitigation measures which could trigger many unintended consequences. These unintended consequences can be far-reaching and just as important as the intended ones. The World Health Organization identified the assessment of unintended consequences of COVID-19 mitigation measures as a top priority. Thus far, however, their systematic assessment has been neglected due to the inattention of researchers as well as the lack of training and practical tools. MAIN TEXT: Over six years our team has gained extensive experience conducting research on the unintended consequences of complex health interventions. Through a reflexive process, we developed insights that can be useful for researchers in this area. Our analysis is based on key literature and lessons learned reflexively in conducting multi-site and multi-method studies on unintended consequences. Here we present practical guidance for researchers wishing to assess the unintended consequences of COVID-19 mitigation measures. To ensure resource allocation, protocols should include research questions regarding unintended consequences at the outset. Social science theories and frameworks are available to help assess unintended consequences. To determine which changes are unintended, researchers must first understand the intervention theory. To facilitate data collection, researchers can begin by forecasting potential unintended consequences through literature reviews and discussions with stakeholders. Including desirable and neutral unintended consequences in the scope of study can help minimize the negative bias reported in the literature. Exploratory methods can be powerful tools to capture data on the unintended consequences that were unforeseen by researchers. We recommend researchers cast a wide net by inquiring about different aspects of the mitigation measures. Some unintended consequences may only be observable in subsequent years, so longitudinal approaches may be useful. An equity lens is necessary to assess how mitigation measures may unintentionally increase disparities. Finally, stakeholders can help validate the classification of consequences as intended or unintended. CONCLUSION: Studying the unintended consequences of COVID-19 mitigation measures is not only possible but also necessary to assess their overall value. The practical guidance presented will help program planners and evaluators gain a more comprehensive understanding of unintended consequences to refine mitigation measures.


Subject(s)
/prevention & control , Global Health , Health Priorities , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , /epidemiology , Health Services Research , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Research Design , Resource Allocation , World Health Organization
6.
Epidemiol Prev ; 44(5-6 Suppl 2): 216-225, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068142

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: to explore clinical and epidemiological characteristics associated with an imaging feature of COVID-19 pneumonia at disease onset, in order to identify factors that may be evaluable by general practitioners at patient's home, and which may lead to identify a more severe disease, needing hospitalization. DESIGN: this is a retrospective/prospective observational hospital cohort. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: the study population includes all patients consecutively admitted to the emergency department of Città della salute e della scienza University Hospital from 01.03 to 31.05.2020 with a confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: patients were classified in two groups according to the findings of X-ray imaging, lung ultrasound and chest computer tomography, as pneumonia or not pneumonia patients. RESULTS: in multivariable analysis, factors most strongly associated with emergency department admission with pneumonia were age, oxygen saturation <90% (adj OR 4.16 ;95%CI 1.44-12.07), respiratory rate >24 breaths/min (adj OR 6.50; 95%CI 2.36-17.87), fever ≥38° (adj OR 3.05; 95%CI 1.53-6.08) and the presence of gastroenteric symptoms (vomiting and diarrhea). A delay (> 7 days) between the appearance of the initial lung symptoms (cough and dyspnea) and the admission to the emergency department was also related to a higher probability of receiving a positive imaging report (OR 4.99; 95%CI 2,02-12,34). CONCLUSIONS: in order to reorganize the management of COVID-19 patients in Italy, in view of the risk of a second wave of epidemic or of local outbreaks, it would be desirable to relocate the triage, and possibly the patient's care, from hospital to home. In this scenario it is important to identify all symptoms and signs associated with COVID-19 pneumonia that would facilitate the decision-making process of GPs leading to patients hospitalization.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Comorbidity , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospitals, University/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Oxygen/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Rate , Retrospective Studies , Symptom Assessment , Time Factors , Vomiting/epidemiology , Vomiting/etiology
7.
Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 19(5): 471-477, 2020 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068113

ABSTRACT

The emergence of a highly pathogenic virus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) accounts for severe pneumonia throughout the world. More than 7 million world population have been infected with SARS-CoV-2, and the number of deaths is increasing every day. This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of SARS-CoV-2 in hospitalized patients with an acute respiratory infection (ARI). During an outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2, the nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs were collected from 909 hospitalized patients with severe pneumonia, including 517 (56.9%) males and 392 (43.1%) females. All the collected samples were from different cities of Khuzestan province from 19 February to- 27 March 2020. The RNA was extracted from samples and subjected to real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for the detection of the SARS-CoV-2. Simultaneously, the computerized tomography (CT) scan was tested for the presence of ground-glass opacity in the lung among the patients. Of the total number of 909 specimens, 328 (36.08%) cases, including 185 (20.35%) females and 143 (15.73%) males, were positive for the SARS-CoV-2 while, 581 (63.9%) cases, including 374 (41.14%) males and 207 (22.77%) were negative for the SARS-CoV-2 by real-time PCR (p=0.001).Four hundred sixteen (45.76%) cases were positive for ground-glass opacity in the lung by CT scan, while 328/909 (36.08%) trials proved positive for SARS-CoV-2 by the real-time PCR (p=0.003).  In this study, 36.08% of patients were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Although the results of positive cases by CT scan showed higher than real-time PCR, screening the SARS-COV-2 with a real-time PCR method is the first line of choice.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Iran/epidemiology , Lymphopenia/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prevalence , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
8.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245547, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067419

ABSTRACT

Endemic human coronaviruses (HCoVs) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are members of the family Coronaviridae. Comparing the findings of the infections caused by these viruses would help reveal the novel characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and provide insight into the unique pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This study aimed to compare the clinical and radiological characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and endemic HCoVs infection in adult hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This study was performed at a university-affiliated tertiary hospital in the Republic of Korea, between January 1, 2015, and July 31, 2020. A total of 109 consecutive patients who were over 18 years of age with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 and endemic HCoVs were enrolled. Finally, 19 patients with SARS-CoV-2 CAP were compared to 40 patients with endemic HCoV CAP. Flu-like symptoms such as cough, sore throat, headache, myalgia, and prolonged fever were more common in SARS-CoV-2 CAP, whereas clinical findings suggestive of bacterial pneumonia such as dyspnea, leukocytosis with left shift, and increased C-reactive protein were more common in endemic HCoV CAP. Bilateral peripherally distributed ground-glass opacities (GGOs) were typical radiologic findings in SARS-CoV-2 CAP, whereas mixed patterns of GGOs, consolidations, micronodules, and pleural effusion were observed in endemic HCoV CAP. Coinfection was not observed in patients with SARS-CoV-2 CAP, but was observed in more than half of the patients with endemic HCoV CAP. There were distinctive differences in the clinical and radiologic findings between SARS-CoV-2 and endemic HCoV CAP. Further investigations are required to elucidate the mechanism underlying this difference. Follow-up observations are needed to determine if the presentation of SARS-CoV-2 CAP changes with repeated infection.


Subject(s)
/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Aged , /pathology , Cohort Studies , Coinfection/diagnostic imaging , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/pathology , Coinfection/virology , Community-Acquired Infections , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Endemic Diseases , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Thorax/diagnostic imaging
9.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(1): 78-85, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065438

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine differences in community mobility reduction and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outcomes across counties with differing levels of socioeconomic disadvantage. METHODS: The sample included counties in the United States with at least one SARS-CoV-2 case between April 1 and May 15, 2020. Outcomes were growth in SARS-CoV-2 cases, SARS-CoV-2-related deaths, and mobility reduction across three settings: retail/recreation, grocery/pharmacy, and workplace. The main explanatory variable was the social deprivation index (SDI), a composite socioeconomic disadvantage measure. RESULTS: Adjusted differences in outcomes between low-, medium-, and high-SDI counties (defined by tertile) were calculated using linear regression with state-fixed effects. Workplace mobility reduction was 1.75 (95% CI, -2.36 to -1.14; P<.001) and 3.48 percentage points (95% CI, -4.21 to -2.75; P<.001) lower for medium- and high-SDI counties relative to low-SDI counties, respectively. Mobility reductions in the other settings were also significantly lower for higher-SDI counties. In analyses adjusted for SARS-CoV-2 prevalence on April 1, medium- and high-SDI counties had 1.39 (95% CI, 0.85 to 1.93; P<.001) and 2.56 (95% CI, 1.77 to 3.34; P<.001) more SARS-CoV-2 cases/1000 population on May 15 compared with low-SDI counties, respectively. Deaths per capita were also significantly higher for higher-SDI counties. CONCLUSION: Counties with higher social deprivation scores experienced greater growth in SARS-CoV-2 cases and deaths, but reduced mobility at lower rates. These findings are consistent with evidence demonstrating that economically disadvantaged communities have been disproportionately impacted by the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Efforts to socially distance may be more burdensome for these communities, potentially exacerbating disparities in SARS-CoV-2-related outcomes.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Social Conditions , Social Control, Formal , /mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology
10.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(1): 32-39, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065435

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between maximal exercise capacity measured before severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and hospitalization due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We identified patients (≥18 years) who completed a clinically indicated exercise stress test between January 1, 2016, and February 29, 2020, and had a test for SARS-CoV-2 (ie, real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction test) between February 29, 2020, and May 30, 2020. Maximal exercise capacity was quantified in metabolic equivalents of task (METs). Logistic regression was used to evaluate the likelihood that hospitalization secondary to COVID-19 is related to peak METs, with adjustment for 13 covariates previously identified as associated with higher risk for severe illness from COVID-19. RESULTS: We identified 246 patients (age, 59±12 years; 42% male; 75% black race) who had an exercise test and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Among these, 89 (36%) were hospitalized. Peak METs were significantly lower (P<.001) among patients who were hospitalized (6.7±2.8) compared with those not hospitalized (8.0±2.4). Peak METs were inversely associated with the likelihood of hospitalization in unadjusted (odds ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.74-0.92) and adjusted models (odds ratio, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.76-0.99). CONCLUSION: Maximal exercise capacity is independently and inversely associated with the likelihood of hospitalization due to COVID-19. These data further support the important relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and health outcomes. Future studies are needed to determine whether improving maximal exercise capacity is associated with lower risk of complications due to viral infections, such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
/physiopathology , Exercise Tolerance , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Exercise Test , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies
12.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(1): 560-571, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1063565

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multicenter retrospective comparison of the first high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and other viral pneumonias. METHODS: We retrospectively collected clinical and imaging data from 262 cases of confirmed viral pneumonia in 20 hospitals in Yunnan Province, China, from March 1, 2015 to March 15, 2020. According to the virus responsible for the pneumonia, the pneumonias were divided into non-COVID-19 (141 cases) and COVID-19 (121 cases). The non-COVID-19 pneumonias comprised cytomegalovirus (CMV) (31 cases), influenza A virus (82 cases), and influenza B virus (20 cases). The differences in the basic clinical characteristics, lesion distribution, location and imaging signs among the four viral pneumonias were analyzed and compared. RESULTS: Fever and cough were the most common clinical symptoms of the four viral pneumonias. Compared with the COVID-19 patients, the non-COVID-19 patients had higher proportions of fatigue, sore throat, expectorant and chest tightness (all P<0.000). In addition, in the CMV pneumonia patients, the proportions of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and leukopenia were high (all PP<0.000). Comparison of the imaging findings of the four viral pneumonias showed that the pulmonary lesions of COVID-19 were more likely to occur in the peripheral and lower lobes of both lungs, whereas those of CMV pneumonia were diffusely distributed. Compared with the non-COVID-19 pneumonias, COVID-19 pneumonia was more likely to present as ground-glass opacity, intralobular interstitial thickening, vascular thickening and halo sign (all PP<0.05). In addition, in the early stage of COVID-19, extensive consolidation, fibrous stripes, subpleural lines, crazy-paving pattern, tree-in-bud, mediastinal lymphadenectasis, pleural thickening and pleural effusion were rare (all PP<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The HRCT findings of COVID-19 pneumonia and other viral pneumonias overlapped significantly, but many important differential imaging features could still be observed.


Subject(s)
/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adult , Cytomegalovirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Influenza A virus , Influenza B virus , Influenza, Human/diagnostic imaging , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies
14.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 23, 2021 Feb 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1061200

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the first SARS-CoV-2 pandemic phase, the sudden closure of schools was one of the main measures to minimize the spread of the virus. In the second phase, several safety procedures were implemented to avoid school closure. To evaluate if the school is a safe place, students and staff of two school complexes of Rome were monitored to evaluate the efficacy of prevention measures inside the school buildings. METHODS: Oral secretions specimens were collected from 1262 subjects for a total of 3431 samples, collected over a 3 months period. Detection of Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 was performed by real-time PCR. Target genes were represented by E gene, RdRP/S gene and N gene. RESULTS: Among the 3431 samples analyzed, just 16 sample resulted as positive or low positive: 1 sample in the first month, 12 samples in the second month and 3 in the third month. In each period of evaluation, all positive children attended different classes. CONCLUSIONS: Even if the school has the potential for spreading viruses, our preliminary results show the efficacy of the implementations undertaken in this setting to minimize virus diffusion. Our evidence suggests that school does not act as an amplifier for transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and can be really considered a safe place for students.


Subject(s)
/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Infection Control/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , School Health Services/organization & administration , Adolescent , /transmission , Child , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(4): e24475, 2021 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1061053

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: To evaluate the antiviral effect and safety of arbidol and Lianhuaqingwen Capsule (LH) in treating patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).108 patients with COVID-19 were divided into 2 groups, including 40 patients in the arbidol group and 68 patients in the arbidol + LH group. Patients in the arbidol + LH group received 200 mg of arbidol and 1400 mg of LH per 8 hour, and the arbidol group was given 200 mg arbidol per 8 hour. Blood routine examination, blood biochemistry detection, SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection, and chest CT scans were performed to evaluate the clinical effects between the 2 groups.No statistically significant differences were observed between the 2 groups in terms of preoperative characteristics including the baseline characteristics, laboratory indicators, and chest CT. On day 7 after admission, patients in the arbidol + LH group showed a higher level of Lymphocytes count, and a lower level of serum amyloid A and C-reactive protein levels (P < .05). Moreover, the median time from admission to the first negative result of the SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection was shorter in the arbidol + LH group (P < .05). Analysis based on CT scan results showed a better extinction of lung inflammation in the arbidol + LH group. No apparent side effects were found in both groups. No patients were transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU) treatment.Arbidol combined with LH treatment may be more effective in improving the prognosis and accelerating the SARS-CoV-2 clearance in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Indoles/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Capsules , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies
16.
Int J Risk Saf Med ; 32(1): 3-17, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058394

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral illness caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS- CoV-2) presenting with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary manifestations. The first case was reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and it has rapidly progressed to the form of a pandemic. The presentation is mild in about 80 percent of the cases but the disease can also progress to a severe form of respiratory illness leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and sometimes multi-organ failure, especially in people with other co-morbidities. Pregnant women also appear to be at a greater risk of acquiring a severe infection due to physiological changes during pregnancy. Many drugs with in vitro activity against the virus or an immunomodulatory effect have been considered for repurposing or have been tried as off-label drugs. The safety data regarding the use of newly approved or off-label or investigational drugs in pregnant women is limited and this poses a great challenge for clinicians. Therefore, it is important to know the utility and safety of the medications to avoid untoward adverse effects on pregnant women and fetuses. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of the approved, off-label, unlicensed, new and some promising pharmacological options for their use in the treatment of COVID-19 and the safety profile in pregnancy in an Indian scenario.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Fetus/drug effects , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Anti-Infective Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Drugs, Investigational , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , India/epidemiology , Off-Label Use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnant Women , Steroids/adverse effects , Steroids/therapeutic use
17.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 22(3): 190-196, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054967

ABSTRACT

AIM: The aim of this study was to detect predisposing CV risks factors and ECGs changes in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: The study population included 60 noncritically ill patients with COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to our hospital between 16 March and 11 May 2020. Electrographic changes, evaluated from ECGs acquired at admission and at 7 days after starting COVID-19 therapy, were analysed. We also compared 45 patients without CV involvement with 15 patients with new onset of cardiac adverse events during hospitalization. RESULTS: ECGs under treatment showed a lower heart rate (HR) (69.45 ±â€Š8.06 vs 80.1 ±â€Š25.1 beats/min, P = 0,001) and a longer QRS (102.46 ±â€Š15.08 vs 96.75 ±â€Š17.14, P = 0.000) and QT corrected (QTc) interval (452.15 ±â€Š37.55 vs 419.9 ±â€Š33.41, P = 0,000) duration than ECGs before therapy. Fifteen patients (25%) showed clinical CV involvement. Within this group, female sex, lower ejection fraction (EF), low serum haemoglobin, high Troponin I levels (TnI), low lymphocytes count, high serum IL-6 levels, or use of Tocilizumab (TCZ) were more represented. CONCLUSIONS: Patients admitted for SARS-CoV2 infection and treated with anti-COVID-19 drug therapy develop ECG changes such as reduction in HR and increase in QRS duration and QTc interval. One in four patients developed CV events. Gender, EF, heamoglobin values, TnI, lymphocytes count, IL-6 and use of TCZ can be considered as predisposing factors for CV involvement.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , /drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Electrocardiography , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Biomarkers/blood , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Stroke Volume
18.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 19, 2021 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054827

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has markedly affected emergency care, due to sudden limitation of health care capacity by general practitioners (GP) and urgent need for infection control strategies. We evaluated the activity of the Emergency Department (ED) during the national lockdown (March 8-April 30), as well as the outcomes of our infection control strategy. RESULTS: Despite a reduction in access by one fifth, a proportion of febrile patients comparable to 2019 was seen (829/2492, 33.3% vs 4580/13.342, 34.3%, p = 0.3). Diagnostic swab for COVID-19 was performed in 25% of patients, especially in subjects with co-morbidities or multiple access. Six infected cases were identified, all presenting with febrile disease. Only two positive patients fulfilled the criteria for diagnostic swab provided by the Italian Health Authorities, because of close contact with suspected or confirmed cases. The rate of admission for febrile or respiratory conditions was higher than the same period of 2019 (33.4% vs 25.9%, p < 0.0001). None of the 105 health-care professionals working during the study time lapse exhibited anti-SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion. Among the 589 patients with information available, 54.9% declared no medical consultation at all prior to coming to ED, while only 40 (of which 27 with fever) had been examined by their GP before coming to ED. Nevertheless, 35.6% of the cases were already taking medications. None of the 9 patients requiring intensive care reported recent pediatric consultation, despite symptoms duration up to 30 days. CONCLUSION: Our results provide evidence that the reduced capacity of primary care facilities during the national lockdown may have caused a high rate of self-medication as well as a delayed provision of care in some patients. Identification of pediatric patients affected with SARS-CoV-2 infection remains a challenge because of the absence of reliable predictive factors. Finally, the use of specific triage centers, with dedicated pathways to diagnose SARS-CoV-2 infection, trace contacts and allow adequate care after swabs, is effective in preventing spreading of the infection.


Subject(s)
/prevention & control , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Hospitals, Pediatric/organization & administration , Infection Control/organization & administration , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , /epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , Time-to-Treatment , Triage
20.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e31, 2021 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1038189

ABSTRACT

This study was a retrospective multicentre cohort study of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnosed at 24 hospitals in Jiangsu province, China as of 15 March 2020. The primary outcome was the occurrence of acute respiratory failure during hospital stay. Of 625 patients, 56 (9%) had respiratory failure. Some selected demographic, epidemiologic, clinical and laboratory features as well as radiologic features at admission and treatment during hospitalisation were significantly different in patients with and without respiratory failure. The multivariate logistic analysis indicated that age (in years) (odds ratio [OR], 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.10; P = 0.0002), respiratory rate (breaths/minute) (OR, 1.23; 95% CI: 1.08-1.40; P = 0.0020), lymphocyte count (109/l) (OR, 0.18; 95% CI: 0.05-0.69; P = 0.0157) and pulmonary opacity score (per 5%) (OR, 1.38; 95% CI: 1.19-1.61; P < 0.0001) at admission were associated with the occurrence of respiratory failure. Older age, increased respiratory rate, decreased lymphocyte count and greater pulmonary opacity score at admission were independent risk factors of respiratory failure in patients with COVID-19. Patients having these risk factors need to be intensively managed during hospitalisation.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Adult , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
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