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1.
Ter Arkh ; 94(4): 497-502, 2022 May 26.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091496

ABSTRACT

Treatment of patients with long-term persistent symptoms after COVID-19 is an urgent problem for clinicians around the world. One of the most significant manifestations of post-COVID-19 syndrome is organizing pneumonia that is usually treat with corticosteroids. The paper presents a clinical case of typical course of post-COVID-19 organizing pneumonia in a patient without previous lung disease. Risk factors, diagnostic methods and treatment options in this group of patients are also discuss.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/etiology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use
2.
JAMA ; 328(14): 1427-1437, 2022 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2084928

ABSTRACT

Importance: Evidence describing the incidence of severe COVID-19 illness following vaccination and booster with BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, and Ad26.COV2.S vaccines is needed, particularly for high-risk populations. Objective: To describe the incidence of severe COVID-19 illness among a cohort that received vaccination plus a booster vaccine dose. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study of adults receiving care at Veterans Health Administration facilities across the US who received a vaccination series plus 1 booster against SARS-CoV-2, conducted from July 1, 2021, to May 30, 2022. Patients were eligible if they had received a primary care visit in the prior 2 years and had documented receipt of all US Food and Drug Administration-authorized doses of the initial mRNA vaccine or viral vector vaccination series after December 11, 2020, and a subsequent documented booster dose between July 1, 2021, and April 29, 2022. The analytic cohort consisted of 1 610 719 participants. Exposures: Receipt of any combination of mRNA-1273 (Moderna), BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech), and Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen/Johnson & Johnson) primary vaccination series and a booster dose. Main Outcomes and Measures: Outcomes were breakthrough COVID-19 (symptomatic infection), hospitalization with COVID-19 pneumonia and/or death, and hospitalization with severe COVID-19 pneumonia and/or death. A subgroup analysis of nonoverlapping populations included those aged 65 years or older, those with high-risk comorbid conditions, and those with immunocompromising conditions. Results: Of 1 610 719 participants, 1 100 280 (68.4%) were aged 65 years or older and 132 243 (8.2%) were female; 1 133 785 (70.4%) had high-risk comorbid conditions, 155 995 (9.6%) had immunocompromising conditions, and 1 467 879 (91.1%) received the same type of mRNA vaccine (initial series and booster). Over 24 weeks, 125.0 (95% CI, 123.3-126.8) per 10 000 persons had breakthrough COVID-19, 8.9 (95% CI, 8.5-9.4) per 10 000 persons were hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia or died, and 3.4 (95% CI, 3.1-3.7) per 10 000 persons were hospitalized with severe pneumonia or died. For high-risk populations, incidence of hospitalization with COVID-19 pneumonia or death was as follows: aged 65 years or older, 1.9 (95% CI, 1.4-2.6) per 10 000 persons; high-risk comorbid conditions, 6.7 (95% CI, 6.2-7.2) per 10 000 persons; and immunocompromising conditions, 39.6 (95% CI, 36.6-42.9) per 10 000 persons. Subgroup analyses of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia or death by time after booster demonstrated similar incidence estimates among those aged 65 years or older and with high-risk comorbid conditions but not among those with immunocompromising conditions. Conclusions and Relevance: In a US cohort of patients receiving care at Veterans Health Administration facilities during a period of Delta and Omicron variant predominance, there was a low incidence of hospitalization with COVID-19 pneumonia or death following vaccination and booster with any of BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, or Ad26.COV2.S vaccines.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Ad26COVS1 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Immunization, Secondary , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/therapeutic use , Ad26COVS1/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , BNT162 Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunization, Secondary/statistics & numerical data , Incidence , Male , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination , Veterans Health Services/statistics & numerical data
3.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0273842, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021944

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the possibility of asymptomatic pneumonia in children with COVID-19 leading to overexposure to radiation and problems in limited-resource settings, we conducted a nationwide, multi-center study to determine the risk factors of pneumonia in children with COVID-19 in order to create a pediatric pneumonia predictive score, with score validation. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study done by chart review of all children aged 0-15 years admitted to 13 medical centers across Thailand during the study period. Univariate and multivariate analyses as well as backward and forward stepwise logistic regression were used to generate a final prediction model of the pneumonia score. Data during the pre-Delta era was used to create a prediction model whilst data from the Delta one was used as a validation cohort. RESULTS: The score development cohort consisted of 1,076 patients in the pre-Delta era, and the validation cohort included 2,856 patients in the Delta one. Four predictors remained after backward and forward stepwise logistic regression: age < 5 years, number of comorbidities, fever, and dyspnea symptoms. The predictive ability of the novel pneumonia score was acceptable with the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of 0.677 and a well-calibrated goodness-of-fit test (p = 0.098). The positive likelihood ratio for pneumonia was 0.544 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.491-0.602) in the low-risk category, 1.563 (95% CI: 1.454-1.679) in the moderate, and 4.339 (95% CI: 2.527-7.449) in the high-risk. CONCLUSION: This study created an acceptable clinical prediction model which can aid clinicians in performing an appropriate triage for children with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Models, Statistical , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/etiology , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment
4.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0273350, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002329

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Postoperative pneumonia is a serious complication in elderly patients with hip fracture. It is necessary to identify the influencing factors of postoperative pneumonia in patients with hip fracture. METHODS: Elderly patients with hip fractures admitted to a tertiary hospital in China from January 1, 2020 to August 31, 2021 were included. The characteristics of patients with and without postoperative pneumonia were evaluated and compared. Logistic multivariate regression analyses were conducted to assess the risk factors of postoperative pneumonia. RESULTS: 267 patients with hip fracture were included, the incidence of postoperative pneumonia in patients with hip fracture was 13.11%. There were significant differences in the age, diabetes mellitus, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, anesthesia method and duration of surgery between infection and no infection group, no significant differences in the gender, BMI, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, type of fracture, preoperative oxygen saturation, white blood cell count, platelet count, red blood cell count, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, estimated blood loss during surgery were detected between infection and no infection group. Logistic regression analysis showed that age≥70y (OR2.326, 95%CI1.248~3.129), diabetes mellitus (OR2.123, 95%CI1.021~3.551), anemia (OR3.199,95%CI1.943~5.024), hypoalbuminemia (OR2.377, 95%CI1.211~3.398), general anesthesia (OR1.947, 95%CI1.115~3.038), duration of surgery≥120min (OR1.621, 95%CI1.488~2.534) were the risk factors of postoperative pneumonia in elderly patients with hip fracture (all p<0.05). Escherichia Coli (33.33%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (28.57%), Staphylococcus aureus (21.43%) were the most common bacteria of pulmonary infection. CONCLUSION: There are many risk factors for postoperative pneumonia in elderly patients with hip fractures after surgery. In clinical practice, medical workers should take targeted interventions for those risk factors to reduce postoperative pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Hip Fractures , Hypoalbuminemia , Pneumonia , Aged , Hip Fractures/complications , Hip Fractures/epidemiology , Hip Fractures/surgery , Humans , Hypoalbuminemia/complications , Pneumonia/complications , Pneumonia/etiology , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
5.
Brain Behav ; 12(8): e2718, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1999832

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Stroke-associated pneumonia (SAP) occurs frequently after a stroke. Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) is a valuable indicator of elderly individuals' nutritional status. This research was designed to obtain insight into the link between GNRI and SAP. METHODS: Patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) were categorized into the SAP and non-SAP groups. GNRI scores were divided into four layers: Q1, GNRI < 82; Q2, 82≤ GNRI < 92; Q3, 92≤ GNRI ≤98; Q4, GNRI > 98. To identify the independent risk and protective factors of developing SAP, logistic regression analyses were conducted. Additionally, we utilized the restricted cubic spline (RCS) analysis to test the effect of GNRI on the SAP risk. RESULTS: The SAP group showed lower GNRI scores than the non-SAP group (96.88 ± 9.36 vs. 100.88 ± 8.25, p  <  0.001). According to the logistic regression model, the Q1 and Q2 layers showed a higher risk of SAP than the Q3 layer, while the Q4 layer showed a lower SAP risk (all p < 0.05). Besides, the RCS model found that the risk of SAP dropped dramatically as GNRI scores increased, which got stable when the GNRI score was more significant than 100. CONCLUSION: Lower GNRI scores were linked to a higher prevalence of SAP. In clinical practice, GNRI showed predictive value for SAP, which could be helpful in early SAP intervention and therapy.


Subject(s)
Ischemic Stroke , Pneumonia , Stroke , Aged , Geriatric Assessment , Humans , Nutrition Assessment , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/etiology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stroke/epidemiology
6.
Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl ; 32(6): 1679-1688, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975053

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has become a public health concern and global threat with high morbidity and mortality among kidney transplant recipients. However, risk factors and manifestations in this group of patients remain poorly understood. We aimed to study the clinical characteristics, laboratory parameters, and disease course of kidney transplant recipients with COVID-19 pneumonia. We enrolled 35 kidney transplant patients with COVID-19 pneumonia from March 2020 to November 2020 and studied their clinical records, laboratory results, radiological characteristics, and outcome. Their mean age was 44.82 ± 11.69 years (range: 17-65). The most common symptom was fever (94.28%) followed by cough (54.28%), fatigue (48.57%), shortness of breath (34.28%), and diarrhea/nausea/vomiting (22.85%). Leukopenia was seen in two patients (20.8%), and three patients had leukocytosis, while 75% of the patients had a white cell count in the normal range. Lymphopenia (<1100 per mm3) was seen in 23 patients (79%). All patients had elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) with a range of 6-239.9 mg/L. An increase in serum creatinine from the baseline was seen in 25 patients (71.42%) with a mean of 2.62 mg/dL. Computerized tomography scan of the chest of 30 patients (85.71%) showed typical findings of multifocal ground glass shadows in both lung fields. Injection remdesivir was given in 28 patients (80%), and tocilizumab was given to three patients. Mortality was seen in six patients (17.14%), higher in those with O2 saturation <95% on admission (odds ratio: 6.29). Patients with kidney transplants display a high risk of mortality. The presence of multiple coexisting comorbidities, hypoxia at the time of admission, and high level of inflammatory markers (lactate dehydrogenase, CRP, D-dimer, and ferritin) is predictive of poorer outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Pneumonia , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
7.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 18(10): 1239-1245, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972312

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, surgical centers had to weigh the benefits and risks of conducting bariatric surgery. Obesity increases the risk of developing severe COVID-19 infections, and therefore, bariatric surgery is beneficial. In contrast, surgical patients who test positive for COVID-19 have higher mortality rates. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the national prevalence of postoperative pneumonia during the COVID-19 pandemic in the bariatric surgery population. SETTING: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Project (ACS-NSQIP) database. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study using the ACS-NSQIP database. The population of concern included patients who underwent sleeve gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedures. Information was extracted on rate of postoperative pneumonia and other 30-day complications between 2018 and 2020. RESULTS: All baseline characteristics were similar among patients who underwent bariatric surgery between 2018 and 2020. However, there was a 156% increase in postoperative pneumonia in 2020 compared with the previous year. Furthermore, despite the similar postoperative complication rates across the years, there was a statistically significant increase in all-cause mortality in 2020. The multivariate analysis showed that having surgery in 2020 was a statistically significant risk factor for pneumonia development postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of postoperative pneumonia during the COVID-19 pandemic among bariatric surgery patients. Surgical centers must continuously evaluate the risks associated with healthcare-associated exposure to COVID-19 and weigh the benefits of bariatric surgery.


Subject(s)
Bariatric Surgery , COVID-19 , Gastric Bypass , Laparoscopy , Obesity, Morbid , Pneumonia , Bariatric Surgery/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Gastrectomy/methods , Gastric Bypass/methods , Humans , Laparoscopy/methods , Obesity, Morbid/complications , Obesity, Morbid/epidemiology , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Pandemics , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/etiology , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Postoperative Complications/surgery , Quality Improvement , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
9.
Intern Emerg Med ; 17(6): 1575-1588, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1935858

ABSTRACT

Awareness of the influence of sex ands gender on the natural history of several diseases is increasing. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the most common acute respiratory disease, and it is associated with both morbidity and mortality across all age groups. Although a role for sex- and gender-based differences in the development and associated complications of CAP has been postulated, there is currently high uncertainty on the actual contribution of these factors in the epidemiology and clinical course of CAP. More evidence has been produced on the topic during the last decades, and sex- and gender-based differences have also been extensively studied in COVID-19 patients since the beginning of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. This review aims to provide an extensive outlook of the role of sex and gender in the epidemiology, pathogenesis, treatment, and outcomes of patients with CAP, and on the future research scenarios, with also a specific focus on COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia , COVID-19/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Pneumonia/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
10.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e057957, 2022 06 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902001

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify aetiologies of childhood community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) based on a comprehensive diagnostic approach. DESIGN: 'Partnerships for Enhanced Engagement in Research-Pneumonia in Paediatrics (PEER-PePPeS)' study was an observational prospective cohort study conducted from July 2017 to September 2019. SETTING: Government referral teaching hospitals and satellite sites in three cities in Indonesia: Semarang, Yogyakarta and Tangerang. PARTICIPANTS: Hospitalised children aged 2-59 months who met the criteria for pneumonia were eligible. Children were excluded if they had been hospitalised for >24 hours; had malignancy or history of malignancy; a history of long-term (>2 months) steroid therapy, or conditions that might interfere with compliance with study procedures. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Causative bacterial, viral or mixed pathogen(s) for pneumonia were determined using microbiological, molecular and serological tests from routinely collected specimens (blood, sputum and nasopharyngeal swabs). We applied a previously published algorithm (PEER-PePPeS rules) to determine the causative pathogen(s). RESULTS: 188 subjects were enrolled. Based on our algorithm, 48 (25.5%) had a bacterial infection, 31 (16.5%) had a viral infection, 76 (40.4%) had mixed bacterial and viral infections, and 33 (17.6%) were unable to be classified. The five most common causative pathogens identified were Haemophilus influenzae non-type B (N=73, 38.8%), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (N=51, 27.1%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (N=43, 22.9%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (N=29, 15.4%) and Influenza virus (N=25, 13.3%). RSV and influenza virus diagnoses were highly associated with Indonesia's rainy season (November-March). The PCR assays on induced sputum (IS) specimens captured most of the pathogens identified in this study. CONCLUSIONS: Our study found that H. influenzae non-type B and RSV were the most frequently identified pathogens causing hospitalised CAP among Indonesian children aged 2-59 months old. Our study also highlights the importance of PCR for diagnosis and by extension, appropriate use of antimicrobials. TRAIL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03366454.


Subject(s)
Community-Acquired Infections , Haemophilus influenzae type b , Pneumonia , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Virus Diseases , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Child, Preschool , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Humans , Indonesia/epidemiology , Infant , Pneumonia/etiology , Prospective Studies , Virus Diseases/complications
11.
EBioMedicine ; 81: 104082, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867077

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) can be caused by a variety of pathogens, of which Streptococcus pneumoniae, Influenza and currently SARS-CoV-2 are the most common. We sought to identify shared and pathogen-specific host response features by directly comparing different aetiologies of CAP. METHODS: We measured 72 plasma biomarkers in a cohort of 265 patients hospitalized for CAP, all sampled within 48 hours of admission, and 28 age-and sex matched non-infectious controls. We stratified the biomarkers into several pathophysiological domains- antiviral response, vascular response and function, coagulation, systemic inflammation, and immune checkpoint markers. We directly compared CAP caused by SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19, n=39), Streptococcus pneumoniae (CAP-strep, n=27), Influenza (CAP-flu, n=22) and other or unknown pathogens (CAP-other, n=177). We adjusted the comparisons for age, sex and disease severity scores. FINDINGS: Biomarkers reflective of a stronger cell-mediated antiviral response clearly separated COVID-19 from other CAPs (most notably granzyme B). Biomarkers reflecting activation and function of the vasculature showed endothelial barrier integrity was least affected in COVID-19, while glycocalyx degradation and angiogenesis were enhanced relative to other CAPs. Notably, markers of coagulation activation, including D-dimer, were not different between the CAP groups. Ferritin was most increased in COVID-19, while other systemic inflammation biomarkers such as IL-6 and procalcitonin were highest in CAP-strep. Immune checkpoint markers showed distinctive patterns in viral and non-viral CAP, with highly elevated levels of Galectin-9 in COVID-19. INTERPRETATION: Our investigation provides insight into shared and distinct pathophysiological mechanisms in different aetiologies of CAP, which may help guide new pathogen-specific therapeutic strategies. FUNDING: This study was financially supported by the Dutch Research Council, the European Commission and the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections , Influenza, Human , Pneumonia , Antiviral Agents , Biomarkers , Humans , Inflammation , Pneumonia/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Streptococcus pneumoniae
12.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 68, 2022 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759751

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patient hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pulmonary infection can have sequelae such as impaired exercise capacity. We aimed to determine the frequency of long-term exercise capacity limitation in survivors of severe COVID-19 pulmonary infection and the factors associated with this limitation. METHODS: Patients with severe COVID-19 pulmonary infection were enrolled 3 months after hospital discharge in COVulnerability, a prospective cohort. They underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing, pulmonary function test, echocardiography, and skeletal muscle mass evaluation. RESULTS: Among 105 patients included, 35% had a reduced exercise capacity (VO2peak < 80% of predicted). Compared to patients with a normal exercise capacity, patients with reduced exercise capacity were more often men (89.2% vs. 67.6%, p = 0.015), with diabetes (45.9% vs. 17.6%, p = 0.002) and renal dysfunction (21.6% vs. 17.6%, p = 0.006), but did not differ in terms of initial acute disease severity. An altered exercise capacity was associated with an impaired respiratory function as assessed by a decrease in forced vital capacity (p < 0.0001), FEV1 (p < 0.0001), total lung capacity (p < 0.0001) and DLCO (p = 0.015). Moreover, we uncovered a decrease of muscular mass index and grip test in the reduced exercise capacity group (p = 0.001 and p = 0.047 respectively), whilst 38.9% of patients with low exercise capacity had a sarcopenia, compared to 10.9% in those with normal exercise capacity (p = 0.001). Myocardial function was normal with similar systolic and diastolic parameters between groups whilst reduced exercise capacity was associated with a slightly shorter pulmonary acceleration time, despite no pulmonary hypertension. CONCLUSION: Three months after a severe COVID-19 pulmonary infection, more than one third of patients had an impairment of exercise capacity which was associated with a reduced pulmonary function, a reduced skeletal muscle mass and function but without any significant impairment in cardiac function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Pneumonia/physiopathology , Aged , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cohort Studies , Echocardiography/methods , Echocardiography/statistics & numerical data , Exercise Test/methods , Exercise Test/statistics & numerical data , Exercise Tolerance/immunology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , France , Humans , Lung/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/etiology , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Respiratory Function Tests/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology
13.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(5): 1777-1785, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1754188

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The first pandemic phase of COVID-19 in Italy was characterized by high in-hospital mortality ranging from 23% to 38%. During the third pandemic phase there has been an improvement in the management and treatment of COVID-19, so mortality and predictors may have changed. A prospective study was planned to identify predictors of mortality during the third pandemic phase. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 15 December 2020 to 15 May 2021, 208 patients were hospitalized (median age: 64 years; males: 58.6%); 83% had a median of 2 (IQR,1-4) comorbidities; pneumonia was present in 89.8%. Patients were monitored remotely for respiratory function and ECG trace for 24 hours/day. Management and treatment were done following the timing and dosage recommended by international guidelines. RESULTS: 79.2% of patients necessitated O2-therapy. ARDS was present in 46.1% of patients and 45.4% received non-invasive ventilation and 11.1% required ICU treatment. 38% developed arrhythmias which were identified early by telemetry and promptly treated. The in-hospital mortality rate was 10%. At multivariate analysis independent predictors of mortality were: older age (R-R for≥70 years: 5.44), number of comorbidities ≥3 (R-R 2.72), eGFR ≤60 ml/min (RR 2.91), high d-Dimer (R-R for≥1,000 ng/ml:7.53), and low PaO2/FiO2 (R-R for <200: 3.21). CONCLUSIONS: Management and treatment adherence to recommendations, use of telemetry, and no overcrowding appear to reduce mortality. Advanced age, number of comorbidities, severe renal failure, high d-Dimer and low P/F remain predictors of poor outcome. The data help to identify current high-risk COVID-19 patients in whom management has yet to be optimized, who require the greatest therapeutic effort, and subjects in whom vaccination is mandatory.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Departments/organization & administration , Hospital Mortality , Internal Medicine/methods , Pandemics , Telemetry/methods , Age Factors , Aged , Critical Care , Electrocardiography , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/blood , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/etiology , Pneumonia/mortality , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4270, 2022 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740475

ABSTRACT

Inflammatory burden is associated with COVID-19 severity and outcomes. Residual computed tomography (CT) lung abnormalities have been reported after COVID-19. The aim was to evaluate the association between inflammatory burden during COVID-19 and residual lung CT abnormalities collected on follow-up CT scans performed 2-3 and 6-7 months after COVID-19, in severe COVID-19 pneumonia survivors. C-reactive protein (CRP) curves describing inflammatory burden during the clinical course were built, and CRP peaks, velocities of increase, and integrals were calculated. Other putative determinants were age, sex, mechanical ventilation, lowest PaO2/FiO2 ratio, D-dimer peak, and length of hospital stay (LOS). Of the 259 included patients (median age 65 years; 30.5% females), 202 (78%) and 100 (38.6%) had residual, predominantly non-fibrotic, abnormalities at 2-3 and 6-7 months, respectively. In age- and sex-adjusted models, best CRP predictors for residual abnormalities were CRP peak (odds ratio [OR] for one standard deviation [SD] increase = 1.79; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.23-2.62) at 2-3 months and CRP integral (OR for one SD increase = 2.24; 95%CI = 1.53-3.28) at 6-7 months. Hence, inflammation is associated with short- and medium-term lung damage in COVID-19. Other severity measures, including mechanical ventilation and LOS, but not D-dimer, were mediators of the relationship between CRP and residual abnormalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Pneumonia/etiology , Pneumonia/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
15.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 39(6): 1021-1026, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718753

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the infection of the new coronavirus (COVID-19) caused an outbreak of new coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China, and caused great public concern. Both COVID-19 and SARS-CoV belong to the coronavirus family and both invade target cells through ACE2. An in-depth understanding of ACE2 and a series of physiological and physiological changes caused by the virus invading the human body may help to discover and explain the corresponding clinical phenomena and then deal with them timely. In addition, ACE2 is a potential therapeutic target. This article will summarize the role of ACE2 in multiple organ damage caused by COVID-19 and SARS-CoV, targeted blocking drugs against ACE2, and drugs that inhibit inflammation in order to provide the basis for subsequent related research, diagnosis and treatment, and drug development.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral , Pneumonia , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , /metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Pneumonia/etiology , Pneumonia/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy
16.
J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev ; 42(1): 59-63, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621694

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Inflammatory pathways are involved in the pathogenesis of pneumonia. Frequent sauna sessions may reduce the risk of respiratory tract infections including pneumonia independent of inflammation. We aimed to evaluate the independent and joint associations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and frequency of sauna bathing (FSB) with risk of pneumonia in a prospective cohort study. METHODS: Serum hsCRP as an inflammatory marker was measured using an immunometric assay and FSB was assessed by self-reported sauna bathing habits at baseline in 2264 men aged 42-61 yr. Serum hsCRP was categorized as normal and high (≤3 and >3 mg/L, respectively) and FSB as low and high (defined as ≤1 and 2-7 sessions/wk, respectively). Multivariable-adjusted HRs (CIs) were calculated for incident pneumonia. RESULTS: A total of 528 cases of pneumonia occurred during a median follow-up of 26.6 yr. Comparing high versus normal hsCRP, the multivariable-adjusted risk for pneumonia was HR = 1.30 (95% CI, 1.04-1.62). The corresponding risk was HR = 0.79 (95% CI, 0.66-0.95) comparing high versus low FSB. Compared with men with normal hsCRP and low FSB, high hsCRP and low FSB was associated with an increased risk of pneumonia in multivariable analysis (HR = 1.67: 95% CI, 1.21-2.29), with no evidence of an association for high hsCRP and high FSB and pneumonia (HR = 0.94: 95% CI, 0.69-1.29). CONCLUSIONS: In a general middle-aged to older male Caucasian population, frequent sauna baths attenuated the increased risk of pneumonia due to inflammation.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia , Steam Bath , Baths , C-Reactive Protein , Humans , Inflammation , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/etiology , Pneumonia/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Steam Bath/adverse effects
17.
Clin Pediatr (Phila) ; 61(2): 150-158, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511594

ABSTRACT

Background. This case-control study aims to investigate the clinical characteristics in pediatric patients with pneumonia infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), influenza A, and human adenoviruses (HAdVs). Methods. Hospitalized pediatric patients with pneumonia infected with SARS-CoV-2 at Wuhan Children's Hospital and pneumonia infected with influenza A, and HAdVs at Qilu Children's Hospital were compared. Clinical manifestations, laboratory examinations, and imaging characteristics were analyzed. Results. The proportions of hyperpyrexia (54.3%, 33.9%), cough (100%, 99.2%), wheezing (45.7%, 53.7%), diarrhea (31.4%, 14.9%), and fever (100%, 75.2%) in patients with influenza A and HAdVs were higher than those of patients with SARS-CoV-2 (9.4%, P < .001; 48.5%, P < .001; 0%, P < .001; 8.8%, P = .002; 41.5%, P < .001; respectively). Laboratory examinations revealed the proportions of leukocytosis (37.1%, 52.9%), abnormal rates of neutrophils (40%, 40.5%), and lymphocytosis (42.9%, 65.3%) in influenza A and HAdV pneumonia groups were significantly higher than coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) group (0%, P < .001; 0%, P < .001; 0%, P < .001; respectively). The proportion of elevated procalcitonin (5.7%, 14%) in patients with influenza A and HAdVs was significantly lower than those in patients with SARS-CoV-2 (64%, P < .001). In chest computed tomography, ground-glass opacities near the pleura were more common in patients with COVID-19 than those in patients with influenza A and HAdVs (32.7% vs 0% vs 0%, P < .001). Conclusion. Fever, cough, and wheezing are more common in the influenza A and HAdVs groups, whereas procalcitonin and computed tomography findings are likely to be pronounced in COVID-19 pneumonia. It provides a variety of methods except polymerase chain reaction for differentiating COVID-19 pneumonia from influenza A and HAdVs pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Infections, Human/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child, Hospitalized/statistics & numerical data , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Pneumonia/physiopathology , Adenovirus Infections, Human/epidemiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Influenza A virus/pathogenicity , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/etiology , Retrospective Studies
18.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(10)2021 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495131

ABSTRACT

Acute COVID-19 usually lasts 4 weeks from the onset of symptoms. We report two cases of COVID-19-associated organising pneumonia (OP) occurring beyond 4 weeks from the acute onset of symptoms. Both tested positive for SARS reverse transcription-PCR 2 months before presentation with a resolution of respiratory symptoms. The first case presented with residual fatigue and worsening exertional dyspnoea. Chest CT revealed an OP pattern. The second case presented with worsening cough and new-onset pleuritic chest pain with persistent radiological consolidation. A transbronchial lung biopsy confirmed OP. Both patients responded well to 12 weeks of steroid therapy. This case illustrates the rare presentation of OP as a late sequela of COVID-19 and the good response to steroid therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia , Pneumonia , Cough/etiology , Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia/drug therapy , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(2): e513-e522, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493765

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: For pediatric pneumonia, the meteorological and air pollution indicators have been frequently investigated for their association with viral circulation but not for their impact on disease severity. METHODS: We performed a 10-year prospective, observational study in 1 hospital in Chongqing, China, to recruit children with pneumonia. Eight commonly seen respiratory viruses were tested. Autoregressive distributed lag (ADL) and random forest (RF) models were used to fit monthly detection rates of each virus at the population level and to predict the possibility of severe pneumonia at the individual level, respectively. RESULTS: Between 2009 and 2018, 6611 pediatric pneumonia patients were included, and 4846 (73.3%) tested positive for at least 1 respiratory virus. The patient median age was 9 months (interquartile range, 4‒20). ADL models demonstrated a decent fitting of detection rates of R2 > 0.7 for respiratory syncytial virus, human rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, and human metapneumovirus. Based on the RF models, the area under the curve for host-related factors alone was 0.88 (95% confidence interval [CI], .87‒.89) and 0.86 (95% CI, .85‒.88) for meteorological and air pollution indicators alone and 0.62 (95% CI, .60‒.63) for viral infections alone. The final model indicated that 9 weather and air pollution indicators were important determinants of severe pneumonia, with a relative contribution of 62.53%, which is significantly higher than respiratory viral infections (7.36%). CONCLUSIONS: Meteorological and air pollution predictors contributed more to severe pneumonia in children than did respiratory viruses. These meteorological data could help predict times when children would be at increased risk for severe pneumonia and when interventions, such as reducing outdoor activities, may be warranted.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , Pneumonia , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Virus Diseases , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , Child , China/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/etiology , Prospective Studies , Weather
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