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1.
Infect Genet Evol ; 102: 105299, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821418

ABSTRACT

Pneumonia, an acute respiratory tract infection, is one of the major causes of mortality worldwide. Depending on the site of acquisition, pneumonia can be community acquired pneumonia (CAP) or nosocomial pneumonia (NP). The risk of pneumonia, is partially driven by host genetics. CYP1A1 is a widely studied pulmonary CYP family gene primarily expressed in peripheral airway epithelium. The CYP1A1 genetic variants, included in this study, alter the gene activity and are known to contribute in lung inflammation, which may cause pneumonia pathogenesis. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis to establish the possible contribution of CYP1A1 gene, and its three variants (rs2606345, rs1048943 and rs4646903) towards the genetic etiology of pneumonia risk. Using PRISMA guidelines, we systematically reviewed and meta-analysed case-control studies, evaluating risk of pneumonia in patients carrying the risk alleles of CYP1A1 variants. Heterogeneity across the studies was evaluated using I2 statistics. Based on heterogeneity, a random-effect (using maximum likelihood) or fixed-effect (using inverse variance) model was applied to estimate the effect size. Pooled odds ratio (OR) was calculated to estimate the overall effect of the risk allele association with pneumonia susceptibility. Egger's regression test and funnel plot were used to assess publication bias. Subgroup analysis was performed based on pneumonia type (CAP and NP), population, as well as age group. A total of ten articles were identified as eligible studies, which included 3049 cases and 2249 healthy controls. The meta-analysis findings revealed CYP1A1 variants, rs2606345 [T vs G; OR = 1.12 (0.75-1.50); p = 0.02; I2 = 84.89%], and rs1048943 [G vs T; OR = 1.19 (0.76-1.61); p = 0.02; I2 = 0.00%] as risk markers whereas rs4646903 showed no statistical significance for susceptibility to pneumonia. On subgroup analysis, both the genetic variants showed significant association with CAP but not with NP. We additionally performed a spatial analysis to identify the key factors possibly explaining the variability across countries in the prevalence of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a viral pneumonia. We observed a significant association between the risk allele of rs2606345 and rs1048943, with a higher COVID-19 prevalence worldwide, providing us important links in understanding the variability in COVID-19 prevalence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia , COVID-19/genetics , Cues , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Human Genetics , Humans , Pneumonia/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Risk Factors
3.
Clin Immunol ; 235: 108929, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1629722

ABSTRACT

Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and TLR7 genes are involved in the host immune response against viral infections including SARS-COV-2. This study aimed to investigate the association between the TLR3(rs3775290) and TLR7(rs179008) polymorphisms with the prognosis and susceptibility to COVID-19 pneumonia accompanying SARS-COV-2 infection. This case-control study included 236 individuals: 136 COVID-19 pneumonia patients and 100 age and sex-matched controls. Two polymorphisms (TLR3 rs3775290 and TLR7 rs179008) were genotyped by allelic discrimination through TaqMan real-time PCR. This study also investigated predictors of mortality in COVID-19 pneumonia through logistic regression. The mutant 'T/T' genotypes and the 'T' alleles of TLR3(rs3775290) and TLR7(rs179008) polymorphisms were significantly associated with increased risk of COVID-19 pneumonia. This study did not report association between the mutant 'T/T' genotypes of TLR3(rs3775290) and TLR7(rs179008) and the disease outcome. In multivariate analysis, the independent predictors of mortality in COVID-19 pneumonia were male sex, SPO2 ≤ 82%, INR > 1, LDH ≥ 1000 U/l, and lymphocyte count<900/mm3 (P < 0.05).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Pneumonia/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Toll-Like Receptor 3/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 7/genetics , Aged , Alleles , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Gene Frequency , Genotype , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Pneumonia/virology , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
4.
J Clin Immunol ; 42(1): 1-9, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482248

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exhibits a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from asymptomatic to critical conditions. Understanding the mechanism underlying life-threatening COVID-19 is instrumental for disease prevention and treatment in individuals with a high risk. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify the genetic cause for critical COVID-19 pneumonia in a patient with a preexisting inborn error of immunity (IEI). METHODS: Serum levels of specific antibodies against the virus and autoantibodies against type I interferons (IFNs) were measured. Whole exome sequencing was performed, and the impacts of candidate gene variants were investigated. We also evaluated 247 ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) patients in the Iranian IEI registry. RESULTS: We report a 7-year-old Iranian boy with a preexisting hyper IgM syndrome who developed critical COVID-19 pneumonia. IgM only specific COVID-19 immune response was detected but no autoantibodies against type I IFN were observed. A homozygous deleterious mutation in the ATM gene was identified, which together with his antibody deficiency, radiosensitivity, and neurological signs, established a diagnosis of A-T. Among the 247 A-T patients evaluated, 36 had SARS-CoV-2 infection, but all had mild symptoms or were asymptomatic except the index patient. A hemizygous deleterious mutation in the TLR7 gene was subsequently identified in the patient. CONCLUSIONS: We report a unique IEI patient with combined ATM and TLR7 deficiencies. The two genetic defects underlie A-T and critical COVID-19 in this patient, respectively.


Subject(s)
Ataxia Telangiectasia/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Pneumonia/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 7/deficiency , Toll-Like Receptor 7/genetics , Child , Humans , Iran , Male
5.
Nat Med ; 27(6): 1012-1024, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472229

ABSTRACT

Age is the dominant risk factor for infectious diseases, but the mechanisms linking age to infectious disease risk are incompletely understood. Age-related mosaic chromosomal alterations (mCAs) detected from genotyping of blood-derived DNA, are structural somatic variants indicative of clonal hematopoiesis, and are associated with aberrant leukocyte cell counts, hematological malignancy, and mortality. Here, we show that mCAs predispose to diverse types of infections. We analyzed mCAs from 768,762 individuals without hematological cancer at the time of DNA acquisition across five biobanks. Expanded autosomal mCAs were associated with diverse incident infections (hazard ratio (HR) 1.25; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15-1.36; P = 1.8 × 10-7), including sepsis (HR 2.68; 95% CI = 2.25-3.19; P = 3.1 × 10-28), pneumonia (HR 1.76; 95% CI = 1.53-2.03; P = 2.3 × 10-15), digestive system infections (HR 1.51; 95% CI = 1.32-1.73; P = 2.2 × 10-9) and genitourinary infections (HR 1.25; 95% CI = 1.11-1.41; P = 3.7 × 10-4). A genome-wide association study of expanded mCAs identified 63 loci, which were enriched at transcriptional regulatory sites for immune cells. These results suggest that mCAs are a marker of impaired immunity and confer increased predisposition to infections.


Subject(s)
Aging/genetics , Communicable Diseases/genetics , Pneumonia/genetics , Sepsis/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging/pathology , Biological Specimen Banks , Chromosome Aberrations , Communicable Diseases/complications , Communicable Diseases/microbiology , Digestive System Diseases/epidemiology , Digestive System Diseases/genetics , Digestive System Diseases/microbiology , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genome-Wide Association Study , Genotype , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/genetics , Hematologic Neoplasms/microbiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mosaicism , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/microbiology , Risk Factors , Sepsis/epidemiology , Sepsis/microbiology , Urogenital Abnormalities/epidemiology , Urogenital Abnormalities/genetics , Urogenital Abnormalities/microbiology , Young Adult
6.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 99, 2021 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169963

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pneumonia has been associated with severe acute hypoxia, sepsis-like states, thrombosis and chronic sequelae including persisting hypoxia and fibrosis. The molecular hypoxia response pathway has been associated with such pathologies and our recent observations on anti-hypoxic and anti-inflammatory effects of whole aqueous extract of Adhatoda Vasica (AV) prompted us to explore its effects on relevant preclinical mouse models. METHODS: In this study, we tested the effect of whole aqueous extract of AV, in murine models of bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis, Cecum Ligation and Puncture (CLP) induced sepsis, and siRNA induced hypoxia-thrombosis phenotype. The effect on lung of AV treated naïve mice was also studied at transcriptome level. We also determined if the extract may have any effect on SARS-CoV2 replication. RESULTS: Oral administration AV extract attenuates increased airway inflammation, levels of transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1), IL-6, HIF-1α and improves the overall survival rates of mice in the models of pulmonary fibrosis and sepsis and rescues the siRNA induced inflammation and associated blood coagulation phenotypes in mice. We observed downregulation of hypoxia, inflammation, TGF-ß1, and angiogenesis genes and upregulation of adaptive immunity-related genes in the lung transcriptome. AV treatment also reduced the viral load in Vero cells infected with SARS-CoV2. CONCLUSION: Our results provide a scientific rationale for this ayurvedic herbal medicine in ameliorating the hypoxia-hyperinflammation features and highlights the repurposing potential of AV in COVID-19-like conditions.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Justicia , Lung/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Pneumonia/prevention & control , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Sepsis/drug therapy , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/isolation & purification , Bleomycin , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cecum/microbiology , Cecum/surgery , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Hypoxia/genetics , Hypoxia/metabolism , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/genetics , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/metabolism , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-Proline Dioxygenases/genetics , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-Proline Dioxygenases/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Justicia/chemistry , Ligation , Lung/metabolism , Lung/microbiology , Lung/pathology , Male , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Pneumonia/genetics , Pneumonia/metabolism , Pneumonia/microbiology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/chemically induced , Pulmonary Fibrosis/genetics , Pulmonary Fibrosis/metabolism , RNA Interference , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism , Sepsis/genetics , Sepsis/metabolism , Sepsis/microbiology , Transcriptome
7.
J Food Biochem ; 44(12): e13510, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066711

ABSTRACT

Pneumonia refers to a death-causing infection. Astragali Radix (AR) and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma (AMR) are widely used as traditional tonic and promising edible immunomodulatory herbal medicine, but the systemic mechanism is not well understood. Therefore, a strategy based on network pharmacology and molecular docking was designed to explore the systemic mechanism of AR-AMR acting on pneumonia. After a series of bioinformatics assays, seven kernel targets were obtained, including TNF, IL6, IFNG, IL1B, IL10, IL4, and TLR9. And seven key compounds were identified as the synergy components of AR-AMR acting on pneumonia, the four key compounds belonging to AR were (3R)-3-(2-hydroxy-3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-7-chromanol, formononetin, quercetin, and kaempferol, the three key compounds belonging to AMR were atractylone, 14-acetyl-12-senecioyl-2E, 8E, 10E-atractylentriol, and α-Amyrin. The crucial pathways were mainly related to three modules, including immune diseases, infectious disease, and organismal systems. Collectively, these observations strongly suggest that the molecular mechanisms of AR-AMR regulating pneumonia were closely related to the correlation between inflammation and immune response. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Astragali radix and Atractylodis macrocephalae rhizoma can be used as "medicine-food homology" for dietary supplement. AR and AMR are widely used as a traditional tonic and promising edible immunomodulatory herbal medicine. The AR-AMR herb pairs are used for compatibility many times in the recommended prescriptions in COVID-19 develop pneumonia in China. However, the ingredients and mechanisms of AR-AMR acting on Pneumonia via immunomodulation are unclear. In this paper, bioinformatics and network biology were used to systematically explore the mechanisms of the AR-AMR herb pairs in treatment of pneumonia, and further analyze the correlation mechanism between it and COVID-19 develop pneumonia. To sum up, our study reveals the interrelationships between components, targets, and corresponding biological processes of AR-AMR acting on pneumonia. Understanding these relationships may provide guidance and theoretical basis for the further application of AR-AMR herb pairs.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Pneumonia/immunology , Astragalus propinquus , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Humans , Immunomodulation/drug effects , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/genetics , Rhizome/chemistry
8.
J Cell Mol Med ; 24(20): 12054-12064, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-755303

ABSTRACT

Cell-free microRNAs (miRNAs) are transferred in disease state including inflammatory lung diseases and are often packed into extracellular vesicles (EVs). To assess their suitability as biomarkers for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and severe secondary complications such as sepsis, we studied patients with CAP (n = 30), sepsis (n = 65) and healthy volunteers (n = 47) subdivided into a training (n = 67) and a validation (n = 75) cohort. After precipitating crude EVs from sera, associated small RNA was profiled by next-generation sequencing (NGS) and evaluated in multivariate analyses. A subset of the thereby identified biomarker candidates was validated both technically and additionally by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). Differential gene expression (DGE) analysis revealed 29 differentially expressed miRNAs in CAP patients when compared to volunteers, and 25 miRNAs in patients with CAP, compared to those with sepsis. Sparse partial-least discriminant analysis separated groups based on 12 miRNAs. Three miRNAs proved as a significant biomarker signature. While expression levels of miR-1246 showed significant changes with an increase in overall disease severity from volunteers to CAP and to sepsis, miR-193a-5p and miR-542-3p differentiated patients with an infectious disease (CAP or sepsis) from volunteers. Cell-free miRNAs are potentially novel biomarkers for CAP and may help to identify patients at risk for progress to sepsis, facilitating early intervention and treatment.


Subject(s)
Circulating MicroRNA/blood , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/genetics , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Pneumonia/genetics , Sepsis/blood , Sepsis/complications , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Circulating MicroRNA/genetics , Community-Acquired Infections/blood , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/genetics , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Pneumonia/blood , Pneumonia/complications , Reproducibility of Results , Reverse Transcription/genetics , Sepsis/genetics
9.
Cytokine Growth Factor Rev ; 59: 46-61, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-957006

ABSTRACT

Macrophages represent the first line of anti-pathogen defense - they encounter invading pathogens to perform the phagocytic activity, to deliver the plethora of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and to shape the tissue microenvironment. Throughout pneumonia course, alveolar macrophages and infiltrated blood monocytes produce increasing cytokine amounts, which activates the antiviral/antibacterial immunity but can also provoke the risk of the so-called cytokine "storm" and normal tissue damage. Subsequently, the question of how the cytokine spectrum is shaped and balanced in the pneumonia context remains a hot topic in medical immunology, particularly in the COVID19 pandemic era. The diversity in cytokine profiles, involved in pneumonia pathogenesis, is determined by the variations in cytokine-receptor interactions, which may lead to severe cytokine storm and functional decline of particular tissues and organs, for example, cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Cytokines and their receptors form unique profiles in individual patients, depending on the (a) microenvironmental context (comorbidities and associated treatment), (b) lung monocyte heterogeneity, and (c) genetic variations. These multidisciplinary strategies can be proactively considered beforehand and during the pneumonia course and potentially allow the new age of personalized immunotherapy.


Subject(s)
Macrophages , Pneumonia , COVID-19 , Cytokines , Humans , Monocytes , Pneumonia/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Nat Immunol ; 21(11): 1327-1335, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-728991

ABSTRACT

Although animal models have been evaluated for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, none have fully recapitulated the lung disease phenotypes seen in humans who have been hospitalized. Here, we evaluate transgenic mice expressing the human angiotensin I-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor driven by the cytokeratin-18 (K18) gene promoter (K18-hACE2) as a model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Intranasal inoculation of SARS-CoV-2 in K18-hACE2 mice results in high levels of viral infection in lungs, with spread to other organs. A decline in pulmonary function occurs 4 days after peak viral titer and correlates with infiltration of monocytes, neutrophils and activated T cells. SARS-CoV-2-infected lung tissues show a massively upregulated innate immune response with signatures of nuclear factor-κB-dependent, type I and II interferon signaling, and leukocyte activation pathways. Thus, the K18-hACE2 model of SARS-CoV-2 infection shares many features of severe COVID-19 infection and can be used to define the basis of lung disease and test immune and antiviral-based countermeasures.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia/pathology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , COVID-19 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Interferon Type I/immunology , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Keratin-18/genetics , Leukocytes/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Monocytes/immunology , NF-kappa B/immunology , Neutrophil Infiltration/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia/genetics , Pneumonia/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/immunology
12.
J Cell Mol Med ; 24(16): 9478-9482, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635772

ABSTRACT

Recent retrospective studies of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease (COVID-19) revealed that the patients with common comorbidities of cancers and chronic diseases face significantly poorer clinical outcomes than those without. Since the expression profile of ACE2, a crucial cell entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2, could indicate the susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection, here we systematically dissected ACE2 expression using large-scale multi-omics data from 30 organs/tissues, 33 cancer types and some common chronic diseases involving >28 000 samples. It was found that sex and age could be correlated with the susceptibility of SARS-CoV-2 infection for certain tissues. Strikingly, ACE2 was up-regulated in cervical squamous cell carcinoma and endocervical adenocarcinoma, colon adenocarcinoma, oesophageal carcinoma, kidney renal papillary cell carcinoma, lung adenocarcinoma and uterine corpus endometrial carcinoma compared to controls. Furthermore, the patients with common chronic diseases regarding angiocardiopathy, type 2 diabetes, liver, pneumonia and hypertension were also with higher ACE2 expression compared to related controls, which were validated using independent data sets. Collectively, our study may reveal a novel important mechanism that the patients with certain cancers and chronic diseases may express higher ACE2 expression compared to the individuals without diseases, which could lead to their higher susceptibility to multi-organ injury of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Neoplasms/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Female , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/genetics , Gene Regulatory Networks , Humans , Hypertension/genetics , Hypertension/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/genetics , Pneumonia/genetics , Pneumonia/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Up-Regulation
13.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 17(9): 995-997, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-625131

Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Apyrase/antagonists & inhibitors , Apyrase/genetics , Apyrase/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/pathology , B7-H1 Antigen/antagonists & inhibitors , B7-H1 Antigen/genetics , B7-H1 Antigen/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Gene Expression/drug effects , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Killer Cells, Natural/drug effects , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/pathology , NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily C/antagonists & inhibitors , NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily C/genetics , NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily C/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/genetics , Pneumonia/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/antagonists & inhibitors , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/genetics , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/genetics , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/pathology
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