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1.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0286211, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232587

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cytokine storm invoked during acute and chronic lung injury promotes alveolar damage and remodeling. The current study shows that degraded elastin-targeted nanoparticles releasing doxycycline (Doxy NPs) are potent in mitigating cytokines storm, migration of immune cells in the lungs, and inhibiting inflammasome pathways in the LPS mouse model. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Cytokine storm and lung injury were induced using LPS and elastase in C57BL/6 mice (rodent model for emphysema). The mice were then treated with I.V. Doxy NPs, blank NPs, or Doxy a day before LPS administration. Cytokine levels, immune cell population, and MMP activity were analyzed in broncheo-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) 4 hours after LPS administration. Additionally, gene expression of IL-6, IL-1beta, MCP-1, NLRP3, Caspase 1 and MMPs were investigated in alveolar cells on day 3 after LPS administration. KEY RESULTS: Doxycycline NPs but not Doxycycline significantly decreased IL-6, TNF-α, IL-23 and were significantly more effective in decreasing the percentage of immune cells in the BALF. This is the first in-vivo study to demonstrate that Doxycycline can effectively inhibit inflammasome pathways in the lungs. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: IV administration of elastin antibody conjugated Doxycycline-loaded albumin NPs can effectively modulate the local immune environment in the lungs, which is not achieved by IV Doxycycline even at 100-fold higher dose. This novel method of drug delivery can effectively lead to the repurposing of traditional Doxycycline as a potential adjunct treatment for managing the cytokine storm in the lungs in COPD and viral infections.


Subject(s)
Lung Injury , Nanoparticles , Pneumonia , Mice , Animals , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Elastin/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pneumonia/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Lung Injury/metabolism
2.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 190: 247-263, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269132

ABSTRACT

Clinical studies have shown a significant positive correlation between age and the likelihood of being infected with SARS-CoV-2. This increased susceptibility is positively correlated with chronic inflammation and compromised neurocognitive functions. Postmortem analyses suggest that acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), with systemic and lung hyperinflammation, can cause significant morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Supraphysiological supplemental oxygen, also known as hyperoxia, is commonly used to treat decreased blood oxygen saturation in COVID-19 patients. However, prolonged exposure to hyperoxia alone can cause oxygen toxicity, due to an excessive increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can overwhelm the cellular antioxidant capacity. Subsequently, this causes oxidative cellular damage and increased levels of aging biomarkers, such as telomere shortening and inflammaging. The oxidative stress in the lungs and brain can compromise innate immunity, resulting in an increased susceptibility to secondary lung infections, impaired neurocognitive functions, and dysregulated hyperinflammation, which can lead to ALI/ARDS, and even death. Studies indicate that lung inflammation is regulated by the central nervous system, notably, the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAIP), which is innervated by the vagus nerve and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs) on lung cells, particularly lung macrophages. The activation of α7nAChRs attenuates oxygen toxicity in the lungs and improves clinical outcomes by restoring hyperoxia-compromised innate immunity. Mechanistically, α7nAChR agonist (e.g., GAT 107 and GTS-21) can regulate redox signaling by 1) activating Nrf2, a master regulator of the antioxidant response and a cytoprotective defense system, which can decrease cellular damage caused by ROS and 2) inhibiting the activation of the NF-κB-mediated inflammatory response. Notably, GTS-21 has been shown to be safe and it improves neurocognitive functions in humans. Therefore, targeting the α7nAChR may represent a viable therapeutic approach for attenuating dysregulated hyperinflammation-mediated ARDS and sepsis in COVID-19 patients receiving prolonged oxygen therapy.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Hyperoxia , Pneumonia , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Aging , Antioxidants/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Hyperoxia/complications , Hyperoxia/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Oxygen/metabolism , Pneumonia/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor/metabolism
3.
Inflammopharmacology ; 31(3): 1437-1447, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2258075

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI) is a life-threatening condition usually associated with poor therapeutic outcomes and a high mortality rate. Since 2019, the situation has worsened due to the COVID-19 pandemic. ALI had approximately 40% of deaths before COVID-19, mainly due to the dysfunction of the blood-gas barrier that led to lung edema, failure of gas exchange, and dyspnea. Many strategies have been taken to mitigate the disease condition, such as diuretics, surfactants, antioxidants, glucocorticoids, heparin, and ventilators with concomitant sedatives. However, until now, there is no available effective therapy for ALI. Thus, we are presenting a new compound termed Arabincoside B (AR-B), recently isolated from Caralluma arabica, to be tested in such conditions. For that, the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mice model was used to investigate the capability of the AR-B compound to control the ALI compared to standard dexamethasone. The results showed that AR-B had a significant effect on retrieving ALI. A further mechanistic study carried out in the serum, lung homogenate, histological, and immunohistochemistry sections revealed that the AR-B either in 50 mg/kg or 75 mg/kg dose inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, IL-13, NF-κB, TNFα, and NO and stimulated regulatory cytokines IL-10. Moreover, AR-B showed a considerable potential to protect the pulmonary tissue against oxidative stress by decreasing MDA and increasing catalase and Nrf2. Also, the AR-B exhibited an anti-apoptotic effect on the lung epithelium, confirmed by reducing COX and BAX expression and upregulating Bcl-2 expression. These results pave its clinical application for ALI.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Apocynaceae , COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Mice , Animals , Humans , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Signal Transduction , Pandemics , COVID-19/metabolism , Lung , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Pneumonia/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Apocynaceae/metabolism
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(23)2022 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2163435

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic progressive lung disease that steadily leads to lung architecture disruption and respiratory failure. The development of pulmonary fibrosis is mostly the result of previous acute lung inflammation, caused by a wide variety of etiological factors, not resolved over time and causing the deposition of fibrotic tissue in the lungs. Despite a long history of study and good coverage of the problem in the scientific literature, the effective therapeutic approaches for pulmonary fibrosis treatment are currently lacking. Thus, the study of the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from acute lung inflammation to pulmonary fibrosis, and the search for new molecular markers and promising therapeutic targets to prevent pulmonary fibrosis development, remain highly relevant tasks. This review focuses on the etiology, pathogenesis, morphological characteristics and outcomes of acute lung inflammation as a precursor of pulmonary fibrosis; the pathomorphological changes in the lungs during fibrosis development; the known molecular mechanisms and key players of the signaling pathways mediating acute lung inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis, as well as the characteristics of the most common in vivo models of these processes. Moreover, the prognostic markers of acute lung injury severity and pulmonary fibrosis development as well as approved and potential therapeutic approaches suppressing the transition from acute lung inflammation to fibrosis are discussed.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Humans , Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/therapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/metabolism , Prognosis , Lung/pathology , Pneumonia/metabolism , Fibrosis , Inflammation/pathology
5.
Nutrients ; 14(23)2022 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123778

ABSTRACT

In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, lung disorders have become a major health concern for humans. Allergic asthma is the most prevalent form of asthma, and its treatments target the inflammation process. Despite significant developments in the diagnosis and management of allergic asthma, side effects are a major concern. Additionally, its extreme heterogeneity impedes the efficacy of the majority of treatments. Thus, newer, safer therapeutic substances, such as natural products, are desired. Citrus junos Tanaka has traditionally been utilized as an anti-inflammatory, sedative, antipyretic, and antitoxic substance. In this study, the protective effects of Citrus junos Tanaka peel extract (B215) against lung inflammation were examined, and efforts were made to understand the underlying protective mechanism using an HDM-induced lung inflammation murine model. The administration of B215 reduced immune cell infiltration in the lungs, plasma IgE levels, airway resistance, mucus hypersecretions, and cytokine production. These favorable effects alleviated HDM-induced lung inflammation by modulating the NF-κB signaling pathway. Hence, B215 might be a promising functional food to treat lung inflammation without adverse effects.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Citrus , Pneumonia , Mice , Humans , Animals , Pandemics , Disease Models, Animal , COVID-19/metabolism , Lung , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/metabolism , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/metabolism , Immunity
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(14)2020 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934087

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) are characterized by an inflammatory response, alveolar edema, and hypoxemia. ARDS occurs most often in the settings of pneumonia, sepsis, aspiration of gastric contents, or severe trauma. The prevalence of ARDS is approximately 10% in patients of intensive care. There is no effective remedy with mortality high at 30-40%. Most functional proteins are dynamic and stringently governed by ubiquitin proteasomal degradation. Protein ubiquitination is reversible, the covalently attached monoubiquitin or polyubiquitin moieties within the targeted protein can be removed by a group of enzymes called deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs). Deubiquitination plays an important role in the pathobiology of ALI/ARDS as it regulates proteins critical in engagement of the alveolo-capillary barrier and in the inflammatory response. In this review, we provide an overview of how DUBs emerge in pathogen-induced pulmonary inflammation and related aspects in ALI/ARDS. Better understanding of deubiquitination-relatedsignaling may lead to novel therapeutic approaches by targeting specific elements of the deubiquitination pathways.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Deubiquitinating Enzymes/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , Animals , Humans , Pneumonia/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology , Ubiquitin/metabolism , Ubiquitination/physiology
7.
Chem Biol Interact ; 362: 109982, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850754

ABSTRACT

In this Letter to the Editor supportive data were presented to a recent paper published in this journal reporting the involvement of TRP channels in COVID-19 pneumonia and its role for new therapies. Since gene expression of TRP channels was found in human lung tissues the protein was not being reported so far. TRP channels are supposed to be involved in the pulmonary inflammation and its symptoms such as fever, cough and others. Here, TRPC6 was investigated in tissues of normal human lungs and of SARS-Cov-2 infected lungs in a preliminary study. Tissue was obtained post mortem from anatomical body donations during dissections and during pathological dissections (13 normal, 4 COVID-19 pneumoniae) and processed for immunohistochemistry. In normal lungs TRPC6 was found in the ciliated epithelium, in the wall of larger lung vessels and in the alveolar septa. In COVID-19 pneumonia the distribution of TRPC6 was different. Inflammatory lesions, cellular infiltrates, hyaline membranes and fibrosis were labelled intensively as well as dilated capillaries. These observations are from four patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.The observations do not elucidate the molecular mechanisms but support the view that TRPC6 channels are involved in normal physiology of normal human lungs and in COVID-19 pneumonia. TRPC6 might aggravate SARS-2 induced inflammation and could be a target for inhibiting drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Humans , Lung/pathology , Pneumonia/metabolism , Pneumonia/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , TRPC6 Cation Channel/metabolism
8.
Nature ; 606(7914): 585-593, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815563

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 is characterized by persistent lung inflammation, inflammatory cytokine production, viral RNA and a sustained interferon (IFN) response, all of which are recapitulated and required for pathology in the SARS-CoV-2-infected MISTRG6-hACE2 humanized mouse model of COVID-19, which has a human immune system1-20. Blocking either viral replication with remdesivir21-23 or the downstream IFN-stimulated cascade with anti-IFNAR2 antibodies in vivo in the chronic stages of disease attenuates the overactive immune inflammatory response, especially inflammatory macrophages. Here we show that SARS-CoV-2 infection and replication in lung-resident human macrophages is a critical driver of disease. In response to infection mediated by CD16 and ACE2 receptors, human macrophages activate inflammasomes, release interleukin 1 (IL-1) and IL-18, and undergo pyroptosis, thereby contributing to the hyperinflammatory state of the lungs. Inflammasome activation and the accompanying inflammatory response are necessary for lung inflammation, as inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway reverses chronic lung pathology. Notably, this blockade of inflammasome activation leads to the release of infectious virus by the infected macrophages. Thus, inflammasomes oppose host infection by SARS-CoV-2 through the production of inflammatory cytokines and suicide by pyroptosis to prevent a productive viral cycle.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammasomes , Macrophages , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Interleukin-1 , Interleukin-18 , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Macrophages/metabolism , Macrophages/pathology , Macrophages/virology , Mice , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Pneumonia/metabolism , Pneumonia/virology , Pyroptosis , Receptors, IgG , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
9.
Nature ; 603(7899): 145-151, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631700

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, which is caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2, is characterized by lung pathology and extrapulmonary complications1,2. Type I interferons (IFNs) have an essential role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 (refs 3-5). Although rapid induction of type I IFNs limits virus propagation, a sustained increase in the levels of type I IFNs in the late phase of the infection is associated with aberrant inflammation and poor clinical outcome5-17. Here we show that the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-stimulator of interferon genes (STING) pathway, which controls immunity to cytosolic DNA, is a critical driver of aberrant type I IFN responses in COVID-19 (ref. 18). Profiling COVID-19 skin manifestations, we uncover a STING-dependent type I IFN signature that is primarily mediated by macrophages adjacent to areas of endothelial cell damage. Moreover, cGAS-STING activity was detected in lung samples from patients with COVID-19 with prominent tissue destruction, and was associated with type I IFN responses. A lung-on-chip model revealed that, in addition to macrophages, infection with SARS-CoV-2 activates cGAS-STING signalling in endothelial cells through mitochondrial DNA release, which leads to cell death and type I IFN production. In mice, pharmacological inhibition of STING reduces severe lung inflammation induced by SARS-CoV-2 and improves disease outcome. Collectively, our study establishes a mechanistic basis of pathological type I IFN responses in COVID-19 and reveals a principle for the development of host-directed therapeutics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Interferon Type I/immunology , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cells, Cultured , DNA, Mitochondrial/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Disease Progression , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Female , Gene Expression Regulation/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Lung/immunology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Macrophages/immunology , Membrane Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/metabolism , Pneumonia/pathology , Pneumonia/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction , Skin/immunology , Skin/metabolism , Skin/pathology
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(23)2021 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560687

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are severe respiratory disorders that are caused by aspiration, sepsis, trauma, and pneumonia. A clinical feature of ALI/ARDS is the acute onset of severe hypoxemia, and the mortality rate, which is estimated at 38-50%, remains high. Although prostaglandins (PGs) are detected in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with ALI/ARDS, the role of PGF2α in ALI remains unclear. We aimed to clarify the role of PGF2α/PGF2α receptor (FP) signaling in acid-induced ALI using an FP receptor antagonist, AL8810. Intratracheal injection of hydrochloric acid (HCl) increased neutrophil migration into the lungs, leading to respiratory dysfunction. Pre-administration of AL8810 further increased these features. Moreover, pre-treatment with AL8810 enhanced the HCl-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and neutrophil migratory factors in the lungs. Administration of HCl decreased the gene expression of lung surfactant proteins, which was further reduced by co-administration of AL8810. Administration of AL8810 also increased lung edema and reduced mRNA expression of epithelial sodium channel in the lungs, indicating that AL8810 reduced fluid clearance. Furthermore, AL8810 also increased lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of adhesion molecules such as intracellular adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. These results indicate that inhibition of FP receptors by AL8810 exacerbated HCl-induced ALI.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Lung/drug effects , Pneumonia/metabolism , Receptors, Prostaglandin/antagonists & inhibitors , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced , Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Hydrochloric Acid/toxicity , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pneumonia/chemically induced , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/pathology , Prostaglandins F/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/chemically induced , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology
11.
Dis Markers ; 2021: 6803510, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443673

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is currently the most significant public health threat worldwide. Patients with severe COVID-19 usually have pneumonia concomitant with local inflammation and sometimes a cytokine storm. Specific components of the SARS-CoV-2 virus trigger lung inflammation, and recruitment of immune cells to the lungs exacerbates this process, although much remains unknown about the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Our study of lung type II pneumocyte cells (A549) demonstrated that ORF7, an open reading frame (ORF) in the genome of SARS-CoV-2, induced the production of CCL2, a chemokine that promotes the chemotaxis of monocytes, and decreased the expression of IL-8, a chemokine that recruits neutrophils. A549 cells also had an increased level of IL-6. The results of our chemotaxis Transwell assay suggested that ORF7 augmented monocyte infiltration and reduced the number of neutrophils. We conclude that the ORF7 of SARS-CoV-2 may have specific effects on the immunological changes in tissues after infection. These results suggest that the functions of other ORFs of SARS-CoV-2 should also be comprehensively examined.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Chemotaxis , Monocytes/pathology , Neutrophils/pathology , Open Reading Frames/physiology , Pneumonia/pathology , Viral Proteins/metabolism , A549 Cells , Chemokine CCL2/metabolism , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Monocytes/immunology , Monocytes/metabolism , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/metabolism , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Proteins/genetics
12.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 154, 2020 Jun 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331943

ABSTRACT

Electronic cigarette (e-cig) vaping is increasing rapidly in the United States, as e-cigs are considered less harmful than combustible cigarettes. However, limited research has been conducted to understand the possible mechanisms that mediate toxicity and pulmonary health effects of e-cigs. We hypothesized that sub-chronic e-cig exposure induces inflammatory response and dysregulated repair/extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, which occur through the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChRα7). Adult wild-type (WT), nAChRα7 knockout (KO), and lung epithelial cell-specific KO (nAChRα7 CreCC10) mice were exposed to e-cig aerosol containing propylene glycol (PG) with or without nicotine. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) and lung tissues were collected to determine e-cig induced inflammatory response and ECM remodeling, respectively. Sub-chronic e-cig exposure with nicotine increased inflammatory cellular influx of macrophages and T-lymphocytes including increased pro-inflammatory cytokines in BALF and increased SARS-Cov-2 Covid-19 ACE2 receptor, whereas nAChRα7 KO mice show reduced inflammatory responses associated with decreased ACE2 receptor. Interestingly, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), such as MMP2, MMP8 and MMP9, were altered both at the protein and mRNA transcript levels in female and male KO mice, but WT mice exposed to PG alone showed a sex-dependent phenotype. Moreover, MMP12 was increased significantly in male mice exposed to PG with or without nicotine in a nAChRα7-dependent manner. Additionally, sub-chronic e-cig exposure with or without nicotine altered the abundance of ECM proteins, such as collagen and fibronectin, significantly in a sex-dependent manner, but without the direct role of nAChRα7 gene. Overall, sub-chronic e-cig exposure with or without nicotine affected lung inflammation and repair responses/ECM remodeling, which were mediated by nAChRα7 in a sex-dependent manner.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia/metabolism , Vaping/adverse effects , alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Blood Gas Analysis , Blotting, Western , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19 , Cytokines/analysis , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Pandemics , Pneumonia/physiopathology , Random Allocation , Reference Values , Role , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Signal Transduction/genetics
13.
Cells ; 10(7)2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323124

ABSTRACT

Activation of Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels can disrupt endothelial barrier function, as their mediated Ca2+ influx activates the CaM (calmodulin)/MLCK (myosin light chain kinase)-signaling pathway, and thereby rearranges the cytoskeleton, increases endothelial permeability and thus can facilitate activation of inflammatory cells and formation of pulmonary edema. Interestingly, TRP channel subunits can build heterotetramers, whereas heteromeric TRPC1/4, TRPC3/6 and TRPV1/4 are expressed in the lung endothelium and could be targeted as a protective strategy to reduce endothelial permeability in pulmonary inflammation. An update on TRP heteromers and their role in lung inflammation will be provided with this review.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia/metabolism , Protein Multimerization , Transient Receptor Potential Channels/metabolism , Animals , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Humans , Ion Channel Gating , Models, Biological , Pneumonia/pathology , Pneumonia/physiopathology
14.
Pharmacol Res ; 157: 104820, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318923

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a huge threaten to global health, which raise urgent demand of developing efficient therapeutic strategy. The aim of the present study is to dissect the chemical composition and the pharmacological mechanism of Qingfei Paidu Decoction (QFPD), a clinically used Chinese medicine for treating COVID-19 patients in China. Through comprehensive analysis by liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (MS), a total of 129 compounds of QFPD were putatively identified. We also constructed molecular networking of mass spectrometry data to classify these compounds into 14 main clusters, in which exhibited specific patterns of flavonoids (45 %), glycosides (15 %), carboxylic acids (10 %), and saponins (5 %). The target network model of QFPD, established by predicting and collecting the targets of identified compounds, indicated a pivotal role of Ma Xing Shi Gan Decoction (MXSG) in the therapeutic efficacy of QFPD. Supportively, through transcriptomic analysis of gene expression after MXSG administration in rat model of LPS-induced pneumonia, the thrombin and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway were suggested to be essential pathways for MXSG mediated anti-inflammatory effects. Besides, changes in content of major compounds in MXSG during decoction were found by the chemical analysis. We also validate that one major compound in MXSG, i.e. glycyrrhizic acid, inhibited TLR agonists induced IL-6 production in macrophage. In conclusion, the integration of in silico and experimental results indicated that the therapeutic effects of QFPD against COVID-19 may be attributed to the anti-inflammatory effects of MXSG, which supports the rationality of the compatibility of TCM.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/analysis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/analysis , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Cells, Cultured , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Gene Expression/drug effects , Glycyrrhizic Acid/pharmacology , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lipopeptides/antagonists & inhibitors , Lipopeptides/pharmacology , Lipopolysaccharides , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia/chemically induced , Pneumonia/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Rats , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Thrombin/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptors/metabolism
15.
Immunity ; 54(7): 1463-1477.e11, 2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263294

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), an inflammatory condition with high mortality rates, is common in severe COVID-19, whose risk is reduced by metformin rather than other anti-diabetic medications. Detecting of inflammasome assembly in post-mortem COVID-19 lungs, we asked whether and how metformin inhibits inflammasome activation while exerting its anti-inflammatory effect. We show that metformin inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation and interleukin (IL)-1ß production in cultured and alveolar macrophages along with inflammasome-independent IL-6 secretion, thus attenuating lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and SARS-CoV-2-induced ARDS. By targeting electron transport chain complex 1 and independently of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) or NF-κB, metformin blocked LPS-induced and ATP-dependent mitochondrial (mt) DNA synthesis and generation of oxidized mtDNA, an NLRP3 ligand. Myeloid-specific ablation of LPS-induced cytidine monophosphate kinase 2 (CMPK2), which is rate limiting for mtDNA synthesis, reduced ARDS severity without a direct effect on IL-6. Thus, inhibition of ATP and mtDNA synthesis is sufficient for ARDS amelioration.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , DNA, Mitochondrial/biosynthesis , Inflammasomes/drug effects , Metformin/pharmacology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Pneumonia/prevention & control , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , DNA, Mitochondrial/metabolism , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/genetics , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Metformin/therapeutic use , Mice , Nucleoside-Phosphate Kinase/metabolism , Pneumonia/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/chemically induced , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
16.
Mol Ther ; 29(8): 2424-2440, 2021 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225433

ABSTRACT

Lung inflammation is a hallmark of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this study, we show that mice develop inflamed lung tissue after being administered exosomes released from the lung epithelial cells exposed to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Nsp12 and Nsp13 (exosomesNsp12Nsp13). Mechanistically, we show that exosomesNsp12Nsp13 are taken up by lung macrophages, leading to activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and the subsequent induction of an array of inflammatory cytokines. Induction of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1ß from exosomesNsp12Nsp13-activated lung macrophages contributes to inducing apoptosis in lung epithelial cells. Induction of exosomesNsp12Nsp13-mediated lung inflammation was abolished with ginger exosome-like nanoparticle (GELN) microRNA (miRNA aly-miR396a-5p. The role of GELNs in inhibition of the SARS-CoV-2-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) was further demonstrated via GELN aly-miR396a-5p- and rlcv-miR-rL1-28-3p-mediated inhibition of expression of Nsp12 and spike genes, respectively. Taken together, our results reveal exosomesNsp12Nsp13 as potentially important contributors to the development of lung inflammation, and GELNs are a potential therapeutic agent to treat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Exosomes/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Plants/metabolism , Pneumonia/metabolism , A549 Cells , Animals , Cell Line , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cytokines/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Macrophages, Alveolar/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , U937 Cells , Vero Cells
17.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 99, 2021 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169963

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pneumonia has been associated with severe acute hypoxia, sepsis-like states, thrombosis and chronic sequelae including persisting hypoxia and fibrosis. The molecular hypoxia response pathway has been associated with such pathologies and our recent observations on anti-hypoxic and anti-inflammatory effects of whole aqueous extract of Adhatoda Vasica (AV) prompted us to explore its effects on relevant preclinical mouse models. METHODS: In this study, we tested the effect of whole aqueous extract of AV, in murine models of bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis, Cecum Ligation and Puncture (CLP) induced sepsis, and siRNA induced hypoxia-thrombosis phenotype. The effect on lung of AV treated naïve mice was also studied at transcriptome level. We also determined if the extract may have any effect on SARS-CoV2 replication. RESULTS: Oral administration AV extract attenuates increased airway inflammation, levels of transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1), IL-6, HIF-1α and improves the overall survival rates of mice in the models of pulmonary fibrosis and sepsis and rescues the siRNA induced inflammation and associated blood coagulation phenotypes in mice. We observed downregulation of hypoxia, inflammation, TGF-ß1, and angiogenesis genes and upregulation of adaptive immunity-related genes in the lung transcriptome. AV treatment also reduced the viral load in Vero cells infected with SARS-CoV2. CONCLUSION: Our results provide a scientific rationale for this ayurvedic herbal medicine in ameliorating the hypoxia-hyperinflammation features and highlights the repurposing potential of AV in COVID-19-like conditions.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Drug Repositioning , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Justicia , Lung/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Pneumonia/prevention & control , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Sepsis/drug therapy , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/isolation & purification , Bleomycin , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cecum/microbiology , Cecum/surgery , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Hypoxia/genetics , Hypoxia/metabolism , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/genetics , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/metabolism , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-Proline Dioxygenases/genetics , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-Proline Dioxygenases/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Justicia/chemistry , Ligation , Lung/metabolism , Lung/microbiology , Lung/pathology , Male , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Pneumonia/genetics , Pneumonia/metabolism , Pneumonia/microbiology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/chemically induced , Pulmonary Fibrosis/genetics , Pulmonary Fibrosis/metabolism , RNA Interference , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism , Sepsis/genetics , Sepsis/metabolism , Sepsis/microbiology , Transcriptome
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1386, 2021 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114712

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is a global health crisis that poses a great challenge to the public health system of affected countries. Safe and effective vaccines are needed to overcome this crisis. Here, we develop and assess the protective efficacy and immunogenicity of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in rhesus macaques. Twenty macaques were divided into four groups of five animals each. One group was administered a placebo, while three groups were immunized with three different vaccine candidates of BBV152 at 0 and 14 days. All the macaques were challenged with SARS-CoV-2 fourteen days after the second dose. The protective response was observed with increasing SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG and neutralizing antibody titers from 3rd-week post-immunization. Viral clearance was observed from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, nasal swab, throat swab and lung tissues at 7 days post-infection in the vaccinated groups. No evidence of pneumonia was observed by histopathological examination in vaccinated groups, unlike the placebo group which exhibited interstitial pneumonia and localization of viral antigen in the alveolar epithelium and macrophages by immunohistochemistry. This vaccine candidate BBV152 has completed Phase I/II (NCT04471519) clinical trials in India and is presently in phase III, data of this study substantiates the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the vaccine candidates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Immunohistochemistry , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphocytes/metabolism , Macaca mulatta , Male , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/metabolism
20.
Molecules ; 26(1)2020 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006941

ABSTRACT

December 2019 saw the emergence of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which has spread across the globe. The high infectivity and ongoing mortality of SARS-CoV-2 emphasize the demand of drug discovery. Angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) is the functional receptor for SARS-CoV-2 entry into host cells. ACE2 exists as a membrane-bound protein on major viral target pulmonary epithelial cells, and its peptidase domain (PD) interacts SARS-CoV-2 spike protein with higher affinity. Therefore, targeting ACE2 is an important pharmacological intervention for a SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this review, we described the two-way switch role of ACE2 in the treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia and underlying comorbidities, and discussed the potential effect of the ACE inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker on a hypertension patient with the SARS-CoV-2 infection. In addition, we analyzed the S-protein-binding site on ACE2 and suggested that blocking hot spot-31 and hot spot-353 on ACE2 could be a therapeutic strategy for preventing the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Besides, the recombinant ACE2 protein could be another potential treatment option for SARS-CoV-2 induced acute severe lung failure. This review could provide beneficial information for the development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents via targeting ACE2 and the clinical usage of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) drugs for novel coronavirus pneumonia treatment.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Pneumonia/virology
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