Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 58
Filter
1.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(3): 349-359, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778317

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is beneficial in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but its effectiveness in pneumonia-associated respiratory failure is still controversial. In the current meta-analysis, we aimed to investigate whether the use of NIV before intubation in pneumonia improves the mortality and intubation rates of respiratory failure as compared to no use of NIV in adults. METHODS: We searched three databases from inception to December 2019. We included studies, in which pneumonia patients were randomized initially into either NIV-treated or non-NIV-treated groups. Five full-text publications, including 121 patients, reported eligible data for statistical analysis. RESULTS: With NIV the overall hospital mortality rate seemed lower in patients with pneumonia-associated respiratory failure, but this was not significant [odds ratio (OR) = 0.39; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.13-1.14; P = 0.085]. In the intensive care unit, the mortality was significantly lower when NIV was applied compared to no NIV treatment (OR = 0.22; 95% CI: 0.07-0.75; P = 0.015). NIV also decreased mortality compared to no NIV in patient groups, which did not exclude patients with COPD (OR = 0.25; 95% CI: 0.08-0.74; P = 0.013). The need for intubation was significantly reduced in NIV-treated patients (OR = 0.22; 95% CI: 0.09-0.53; P = 0.001), which effect was more prominent in pneumonia patient groups not excluding patients with pre-existing COPD (OR = 0.13; 95% CI: 0.03-0.46; P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: NIV markedly decreases the death rate in the intensive care unit and reduces the need for intubation in patients with pneumonia-associated respiratory failure. The beneficial effects of NIV seem more pronounced in populations that include patients with COPD. Our findings suggest that NIV should be considered in the therapeutic guidelines of pneumonia, given that future clinical trials confirm the results of our meta-analysis. AVAILABILITY OF DATA AND MATERIALS: All data and materials generated during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.


Subject(s)
Noninvasive Ventilation , Pneumonia , Respiratory Insufficiency , Adult , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Pneumonia/complications , Pneumonia/therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy
2.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(5): 1761-1764, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1754185

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In the past few years, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been increasingly used in patients with severe respiratory insufficiency in whom mechanical ventilation (MV) had failed. MV in severe COVID-19 patients is often accompanied by high respiratory pressures and high oxygen concentrations. Thus, by "placing the lungs at rest" ECMO might spare severe COVID-19 patients from being subjected to aggressive MV. Awake ECMO is another therapeutic alternative for providing extracorporeal oxygenation and ventilation by avoiding the complications of MV. CASE PRESENTATION: A 65-year-old male diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) after deteriorating to hypoxemic respiratory failure with acute respiratory distress disorder (ARDS). Awake veno-venous (VV) ECMO was considered after receiving patient consent and was successfully implemented as an attempt to avoid invasive MV. This is one of the first cases described during the COVID-19 pandemic, in which awake VV-ECMO was used in a critically ill COVID-19 patient as a replacement therapy to conventional MV. CONCLUSIONS: Under the appropriate conditions, awake ECMO might be a suitable alternative approach to avoid complications of aggressive MV in selected critically ill COVID-19 ARDS patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Hypoxia/therapy , Pneumonia/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Aged , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Humans , Male , Oxygen/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Treatment Outcome , Wakefulness
3.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 39(6): 1021-1026, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718753

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the infection of the new coronavirus (COVID-19) caused an outbreak of new coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China, and caused great public concern. Both COVID-19 and SARS-CoV belong to the coronavirus family and both invade target cells through ACE2. An in-depth understanding of ACE2 and a series of physiological and physiological changes caused by the virus invading the human body may help to discover and explain the corresponding clinical phenomena and then deal with them timely. In addition, ACE2 is a potential therapeutic target. This article will summarize the role of ACE2 in multiple organ damage caused by COVID-19 and SARS-CoV, targeted blocking drugs against ACE2, and drugs that inhibit inflammation in order to provide the basis for subsequent related research, diagnosis and treatment, and drug development.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral , Pneumonia , SARS Virus/metabolism , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Pneumonia/etiology , Pneumonia/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy
6.
Respir Med ; 191: 106714, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559656

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have poor outcomes in the setting of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The primary objective is to compare outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 CAP and non-SARS-CoV-2 CAP in patients with COPD. The secondary objective is to compare outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 CAP with and without COPD. METHODS: In this analysis of two observational studies, three cohorts were analyzed: (1) patients with COPD and SARS-CoV-2 CAP; (2) patients with COPD and non-SARS-CoV-2 CAP; and (3) patients with SARS-CoV-2 CAP without COPD. Outcomes included length of stay, ICU admission, cardiac events, and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Ninety-six patients with COPD and SARS-CoV-2 CAP were compared to 1129 patients with COPD and non-SARS-CoV-2 CAP. 536 patients without COPD and SARS-CoV-2 CAP were analyzed for the secondary objective. Patients with COPD and SARS-CoV-2 CAP had longer hospital stay (15 vs 5 days, p < 0.001), 4.98 higher odds of cardiac events (95% CI: 3.74-6.69), and 7.31 higher odds of death (95% CI: 5.36-10.12) in comparison to patients with COPD and non-SARS-CoV-2 CAP. In patients with SARS-CoV-2 CAP, presence of COPD was associated with 1.74 (95% CI: 1.39-2.19) higher odds of ICU admission and 1.47 (95% CI: 1.05-2.05) higher odds of death. CONCLUSION: In patients with COPD and CAP, presence of SARS-CoV-2 as an etiologic agent is associated with more cardiovascular events, longer hospital stay, and seven-fold increase in mortality. In patients with SARS-CoV-2 CAP, presence of COPD is associated with 1.5-fold increase in mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/physiopathology , Hospital Mortality , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia/physiopathology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/therapy , Comorbidity , Edema, Cardiac/epidemiology , Female , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Pulmonary Edema/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology
8.
Respir Investig ; 60(1): 146-153, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487946

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen treatment has been frequently used in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with acute respiratory failure after the 3rd wave of the pandemic in Japan, the usefulness of the indicators of ventilator avoidance, including respiratory rate-oxygenation (ROX) index and other parameters, namely oxygen saturation/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio and respiratory rate (RR), remain unclear. METHODS: Between January and May 2021, our institution treated 189 COVID-19 patients with respiratory failure requiring oxygen, among which 39 patients requiring HFNC treatment were retrospectively analyzed. The group that switched from HFNC treatment to conventional oxygen therapy (COT) was defined as the HFNC success group, and the group that switched from HFNC treatment to a ventilator was defined as the HFNC failure group. We followed the patients' oxygenation parameters for a maximum of 30 days. RESULTS: HFNC treatment success occurred in 24 of 39 patients (62%) treated with HFNC therapy. Compared with the HFNC failure group, the HFNC success group had a significantly higher degree of RR improvement in the univariate analysis. Logistic regression analysis of HFNC treatment success adjusting for age, respiratory improvement, and a ROX index ≥5.55 demonstrated that an improved RR was associated with HFNC treatment success. The total COT duration was significantly shorter in the HFNC success group than in the HFNC failure group. CONCLUSIONS: HFNC treatment can be useful for ventilator avoidance and allow the quick withdrawal of oxygen administration. RR improvement may be a convenient, useful, and simple indicator of HFNC treatment success.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Pneumonia , Respiratory Insufficiency , Cannula , Humans , Oxygen , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pneumonia/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Rate , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Cells ; 10(10)2021 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444117

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent adult stem cells present in virtually all tissues; they have a potent self-renewal capacity and can differentiate into multiple cell types. They also affect the ambient tissue by the paracrine secretion of numerous factors in vivo, including the induction of other stem cells' differentiation. In vitro, the culture media supernatant is named secretome and contains soluble molecules and extracellular vesicles that retain potent biological function in tissue regeneration. MSCs are considered safe for human treatment; their use does not involve ethical issues, as embryonic stem cells do not require genetic manipulation as induced pluripotent stem cells, and after intravenous injection, they are mainly found in the lugs. Therefore, these cells are currently being tested in various preclinical and clinical trials for several diseases, including COVID-19. Several affected COVID-19 patients develop induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) associated with an uncontrolled inflammatory response. This condition causes extensive damage to the lungs and may leave serious post-COVID-19 sequelae. As the disease may cause systemic alterations, such as thromboembolism and compromised renal and cardiac function, the intravenous injection of MSCs may be a therapeutic alternative against multiple pathological manifestations. In this work, we reviewed the literature about MSCs biology, focusing on their function in pulmonary regeneration and their use in COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Lung/physiology , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Regeneration/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Differentiation , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Culture Media , Extracellular Vesicles , Humans , Inflammation , Mice , Mice, SCID , Phenotype , Pneumonia/blood , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/blood , Thromboembolism/immunology , Thromboembolism/therapy
11.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 20(1): 69, 2021 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438275

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 causes COVID-19 illness which can progress to severe pneumonia. Empiric antibacterials are often employed though frequency of bacterial coinfection superinfection is debated and concerns raised about selection of bacterial antimicrobial resistance. We evaluated sputum bacterial and fungal growth from 165 intubated COVID-19 pneumonia patients. Objectives were to determine frequency of culture positivity, risk factors for and outcomes of positive cultures, and timing of antimicrobial resistance development. METHODS: Retrospective reviews were conducted of COVID-19 pneumonia patients requiring intubation admitted to a 1058-bed four community hospital system on the east coast United States, March 1 to May 1, 2020. Length of stay (LOS) was expressed as mean (standard deviation); 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was computed for overall mortality rate using the exact binomial method, and overall mortality was compared across each level of a potential risk factor using a Chi-Square Test of Independence. All tests were two-sided, and significance level was set to 0.05. RESULTS: Average patient age was 68.7 years and LOS 19.9 days. Eighty-three patients (50.3% of total) originated from home, 10 from group homes (6.1% of total), and 72 from nursing facilities (43.6% of total). Mortality was 62.4%, highest for nursing home residents (80.6%). Findings from 253 sputum cultures overall did not suggest acute bacterial or fungal infection in 73 (45%) of 165 individuals sampled within 24 h of intubation. Cultures ≥ 1 week following intubation did grow potential pathogens in 72 (64.9%) of 111 cases with 70.8% consistent with late pneumonia and 29.2% suggesting colonization. Twelve (10.8% of total) of these late post-intubation cultures revealed worsened antimicrobial resistance predominantly in Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, or Staphylococcus aureus. CONCLUSIONS: In severe COVID-19 pneumonia, a radiographic ground glass interstitial pattern and lack of purulent sputum prior to/around the time of intubation correlated with no culture growth or recovery of normal oral flora ± yeast. Discontinuation of empiric antibacterials should be considered in these patients aided by other clinical findings, history of prior antimicrobials, laboratory testing, and overall clinical course. Continuing longterm hospitalisation and antibiotics are associated with sputum cultures reflective of hospital-acquired microbes and increasing antimicrobial resistance. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not applicable as this was a retrospective chart review study without interventional arm.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/drug effects , Bacterial Infections/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Cross Infection/complications , Fungi/drug effects , Mycoses/complications , Pneumonia/therapy , Sputum/microbiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/genetics , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Cross Infection/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Fungal , Female , Fungi/genetics , Fungi/isolation & purification , Hospitalization , Humans , Intubation , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Mycoses/microbiology , Pneumonia/complications , Pneumonia/mortality , Pneumonia/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
12.
J Intensive Care Med ; 36(10): 1228-1232, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405275

ABSTRACT

We present 2 patients with rapidly escalating oxygen requirements from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection (COVID-19) treated with the Seraph100 Microbind Affinity Blood Filter under Emergency Use Authorization from the US Federal Drug Administration. The Seraph100 is an extracorporeal hemoperfusion filter previously demonstrated to remove viral particles and pro-inflammatory cytokines from the blood. Treatment with the Seraph100 filter was associated with a rapid improvement in oxygenation and both patients were discharged from the hospital without supplemental oxygen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hemoperfusion , Pneumonia , Humans , Lung , Pneumonia/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 709861, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394760

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immune hyperactivity is an important contributing factor to the morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 infection. Nasal administration of anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody downregulates hyperactive immune responses in animal models of autoimmunity through its immunomodulatory properties. We performed a randomized pilot study of fully-human nasal anti-CD3 (Foralumab) in patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 to determine if its immunomodulatory properties had ameliorating effects on disease. METHODS: Thirty-nine outpatients with mild to moderate COVID-19 were recruited at Santa Casa de Misericordia de Santos in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Patients were randomized to three cohorts: 1) Control, no Foralumab (n=16); 2) Nasal Foralumab (100ug/day) given for 10 consecutive days with 6 mg dexamethasone given on days 1-3 (n=11); and 3) Nasal Foralumab alone (100ug/day) given for 10 consecutive days (n=12). Patients continued standard of care medication. RESULTS: We observed reduction of serum IL-6 and C-reactive protein in Foralumab alone vs. untreated or Foralumab/Dexa treated patients. More rapid clearance of lung infiltrates as measured by chest CT was observed in Foralumab and Foralumab/Dexa treated subjects vs. those that did not receive Foralumab. Foralumab treatment was well-tolerated with no severe adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study suggests that nasal Foralumab is well tolerated and may be of benefit in treatment of immune hyperactivity and lung involvement in COVID-19 disease and that further studies are warranted.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pneumonia/therapy , Administration, Intranasal , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunity/drug effects , Interleukin-6/blood , Lung/drug effects , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Outpatients/statistics & numerical data , Pilot Projects , Pneumonia/prevention & control , Young Adult
14.
Respir Investig ; 59(6): 748-756, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392540

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a valuable rescue therapy to treat refractory hypoxemia caused by influenza. The present meta-analysis aimed to compare the clinical characteristics and outcomes of ECMO between COVID-19 and influenza. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, Cochrane Library, SCOPUS, and Web of Science databases from inception to May 1, 2021. The included studies compared the clinical characteristics and outcomes of ECMO between adults with COVID-19 and those with influenza. RESULTS: The study included four retrospective cohorts involving a total of 129 patients with COVID-19 and 140 with influenza who were treated using ECMO. Clinical characteristics were similar between the COVID-19 and influenza groups, including body mass index (BMI), diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and immunocompromised status. A higher proportion of patients with COVID-19 on ECMO were male (75.9% vs. 62.9%; P = 0.04). There was no difference between the groups in terms of illness severity based on sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score or serum pH. Patients with COVID-19 had a longer mean duration of mechanical ventilation before ECMO (6.63 vs. 3.38 days; P < 0.01). The pooled mortality rate was 43.8%. The mean ECMO duration (14.13 vs. 12.55 days; P = 0.25) and mortality rate (42.6% vs. 45.0%; P = 0.99) were comparable between the groups. CONCLUSION: Clinical characteristics, ECMO duration, and mortality were comparable between patients with COVID-19 and those with influenza who required ECMO to treat refractory hypoxemia. The duration of mechanical ventilation before ECMO did not influence outcomes. Patients with COVID-19 benefit from ECMO salvage therapy similarly to those with influenza.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Influenza, Human/complications , Pneumonia/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Influenza, Human/therapy , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
15.
Int J Infect Dis ; 111: 108-116, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364099

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To validate and recalibrate the CURB-65 and pneumonia severity index (PSI) in predicting 30-day mortality and critical care intervention (CCI) in a multiethnic population with COVID-19, along with evaluating both models in predicting CCI. METHODS: Retrospective data was collected for 1181 patients admitted to the largest hospital in Qatar with COVID-19 pneumonia. The area under the curve (AUC), calibration curves, and other metrics were bootstrapped to examine the performance of the models. Variables constituting the CURB-65 and PSI scores underwent further analysis using the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) along with logistic regression to develop a model predicting CCI. Complex machine learning models were built for comparative analysis. RESULTS: The PSI performed better than CURB-65 in predicting 30-day mortality (AUC 0.83, 0.78 respectively), while CURB-65 outperformed PSI in predicting CCI (AUC 0.78, 0.70 respectively). The modified PSI/CURB-65 model (respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, hematocrit, age, sodium, and glucose) predicting CCI had excellent accuracy (AUC 0.823) and good calibration. CONCLUSIONS: Our study recalibrated, externally validated the PSI and CURB-65 for predicting 30-day mortality and CCI, and developed a model for predicting CCI. Our tool can potentially guide clinicians in Qatar to stratify patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia , Critical Care , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Pneumonia/therapy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
17.
Respir Med Res ; 80: 100834, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253542

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To report a French experience in patients admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU) for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) requiring high fractional concentration of inspired oxygen supported by high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) as first-line therapy. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study conducted in two ICUs of a French university hospital. All consecutive patients admitted during 28-days after the first admission for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia were screened. Demographic, clinical, respiratory support, specific therapeutics, ICU length-of-stay and survival data were collected. RESULTS: Data of 43 patients were analyzed: mainly men (72%), median age 61 (51-69) years, median body mass index of 28 (25-31) kg/m2, median simplified acute physiology score (SAPS II) of 29 (22-37) and median PaO2/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) (P/F) ratio of 146 (100-189) mmHg. HFNC was initiated at ICU admission in 76% of patients. Median flow was 50 (45-50) L/min and median FiO2 was 0.6 (0.5-0.8). 79% of patients presented at least one comorbidity, mainly hypertension (58%). At day (D) 28, 32% of patients required invasive mechanical ventilation, 3 patients died in ICU. Risk factors for intubation were diabetes (10% vs. 43%, P=0.04) and extensive lesions on chest computed tomography (CT) (P=0.023). Patients with more than 25% of lesions on chest CT were more frequently intubated during ICU stay (P=0.012). At ICU admission (D1), patients with higher SAPS II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores (respectively 39 (28-50) vs. 27 (22-31), P=0.0031 and 5 (2-8) vs. 2 (2-2.2), P=0.0019), and a lower P/F ratio (98 (63-109) vs. 178 (126-206), P=0.0005) were more frequently intubated. Among non-intubated patients, the median lowest P/F was 131 (85-180) mmHg. Four caregivers had to stop working following coronavirus 2 contamination, but did not require hospitalization. CONCLUSION: Our clinical experience supports the use of HFNC as first line-therapy in patients with SARS-COV-2 pneumonia for whom face mask oxygen does not provide adequate respiratory support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen , Pneumonia/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Pol Arch Intern Med ; 131(7-8): 658-665, 2021 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1248498

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: A significant proportion of patients with COVID­19 present with a rapidly progressing severe acute respiratory failure. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the efficacy of high­flow nasal oxygen (HFNO) therapy in severe acute respiratory failure in the course of COVID­19 in a noncritical care setting as well as to identify predictors of HFNO failure. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This prospective observational study was conducted between March and December 2020. We enrolled all consecutive patients hospitalized with confirmed SARS­CoV­2 infection in whom HFNO therapy was used. The primary outcome was death or endotracheal intubation within 30 days from admission. RESULTS: Of the 380 patients with COVID­19 hospitalized at our tertiary center, 116 individuals (30.5%) requiring HFNO due to severe pneumonia were analyzed. The primary outcome occurred in 54 patients (46.6%). The overall 30­day mortality rates were 30.2% (35 out of 116 patients) in the entire cohort and 64.7% (34 out of 51 patients) among individuals requiring endotracheal intubation. A multivariable analysis revealed that the ROX index (the ratio of oxygen saturation / fraction of inspired oxygen to respiratory rate) below 3.85 measured within the first 12 hours of therapy was related to increased mortality (hazard ratio, 5.86; 95% CI, 3.03-11.35) compared with the ROX index of 4.88 or higher. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study suggest that nearly half of patients treated with HFNO due to severe COVID­19 pneumonia will require mechanical ventilation. The ROX index is a useful tool for predicting HFNO failure in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Respiratory Insufficiency , Humans , Oxygen , Pneumonia/complications , Pneumonia/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Scand J Public Health ; 49(1): 57-63, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207561

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pneumonia and influenza are major health concerns and constitute a high economic burden. However, few data are available on the associated risk of pneumonia and influenza and work exposure on a large population scale. AIM: This study aimed to examine the associated risk of pneumonia and influenza by type of work exposure. METHODS: By cross-linking administrative Danish registries, we classified people in 10 different profession types. The main outcome was hospitalisation with pneumonia or influenza. A multivariable Poisson regression analysis was used to assess the associated incidence rate ratio (IRR) of being hospitalised with pneumonia or influenza by type of profession. RESULTS: A total of 1,327,606 people added risk time to the analyses. In a multivariable model, work in day care, public transportation, sewers and nursing home care was associated with an increased risk of hospitalisation with pneumonia compared to work within public administration: IRR=1.20 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12-1.28), IRR=1.21 (95% CI 1.09-1.34), IRR=1.61 (95% CI 1.19-2.19) and IRR=1.10 (95% CI 1.03-1.18), respectively. In a multivariable analysis, people working within public transportation were associated with an increased risk of hospitalisation with influenza compared to people working within public administration: IRR=2.54 (95% CI 1.79-3.58). CONCLUSIONS: Working in day care, public transportation, sewers and nursing home care increased the associated risk of hospitalisation with pneumonia, and working within public transportation increased the associated risk of being hospitalised with influenza compared to working within public administration.


Subject(s)
Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Influenza, Human/therapy , Occupational Diseases/therapy , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Pneumonia/therapy , Adult , Aged , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupations/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Registries , Risk Assessment
20.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 39(2): 323-338, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1179441

ABSTRACT

Older adults are susceptible to serious illnesses, including atrial fibrillation, congestive heart failure, pneumonia, and pulmonary embolism. Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia in this age group and can cause complications such as thromboembolic events and stroke. Congestive heart failure is the most common cause of hospital admission and readmission in the older adult population. Older adults are at higher risk for pulmonary embolism because of age-related changes and comorbidities. Pneumonia is also prevalent and is one of the leading causes of death.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19/diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital , Heart Failure , Pneumonia , Pulmonary Embolism , Aged , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnosis , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/therapy , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Pneumonia/therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Radiography, Thoracic , Thrombotic Stroke/prevention & control , Ultrasonography
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL