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1.
Respir Med ; 197: 106853, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796148

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To validate the role of Macklin effect on chest CT imaging in predicting subsequent occurrence of pneumomediastinum/pneumothorax (PMD/PNX) in COVID-19 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is an observational, case-control study. Consecutive COVID-19 patients who underwent chest CT scan at hospital admission during the study time period (October 1st, 2020-April 31st, 2021) were identified. Macklin effect accuracy for prediction of spontaneous barotrauma was measured in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV). RESULTS: Overall, 981 COVID-19 patients underwent chest CT scan at hospital arrival during the study time period; 698 patients had radiological signs of interstitial pneumonia and were considered for further evaluation. Among these, Macklin effect was found in 33 (4.7%), including all 32 patients who suffered from barotrauma lately during hospital stay (true positive rate: 96.9%); only 1/33 with Macklin effect did not develop barotrauma (false positive rate: 3.1%). No barotrauma event was recorded in patients without Macklin effect on baseline chest CT scan. Macklin effect yielded a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 89.1-100), a specificity of 99.85% (95% CI: 99.2-100), a PPV of 96.7% (95% CI: 80.8-99.5), a NPV of 100% and an accuracy of 99.8% (95% CI: 99.2-100) in predicting PMD/PNX, with a mean advance of 3.2 ± 2.5 days. Moreover, all Macklin-positive patients developed ARDS requiring ICU admission and, in 90.1% of cases, invasive mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSIONS: Macklin effect has high accuracy in predicting PMD/PNX in COVID-19 patients; it is also an excellent predictor of disease severity.


Subject(s)
Barotrauma , COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Pneumothorax , Barotrauma/complications , Barotrauma/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Emphysema/epidemiology , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(11)2022 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769457

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During coronavirus pandemic, despite the increase in the number of studies on spontaneous pneumothorax (SP), there is not enough bibliometric study in the literature. In this study, it was aimed to analyze scientific articles published on SP. METHODS: Studies published on SP between 1980 and 2021 were obtained from the Web of Science database and analyzed using statistical and bibliometric methods. Spearman correlation coefficient was used for correlation studies. The exponential smoothing estimator was used to forecast publication trend for coming years. Network visualization maps were used to analyze citations and identify trending topics. RESULTS: A total of 2422 publications were found. 1403 (57.9%) of these publications were articles. The articles on SP have increased with a non-linear trend in recent years. The top 5 contributors to the literature were USA (231, 16.4%), Japan (161, 11.4%), United Kingdom (98, 6.9%), France (81, 5.7%), and Taiwan (78, 5.5%). The top 3 most active institutions were National Taiwan University Hospital (22, 1.5%), Catholic University Korea (19, 1.3%), and National Taiwan University (19, 1.3%). The top 3 journals that published the most articles were Chest (51), Annals of Thoracic Surgery (46), and Journal of Thoracic Disease (45). The most studied subjects were primary SP, recurrence, thoracoscopy, pleurodesis, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, COVID-19, video-assisted thoracic surgery, chest tube(s), and secondary spontaneous pneumothorax. According to trend topics analysis, the keywords studied in recent years are COVID-19, chest tubes, pneumonia, subcutaneous emphysema, risk factors, dyspnea, primary SP, FLCN gene, tension pneumothorax, uniportal, postoperative recurrence, secondary spontaneous pneumothorax, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and uniportal. CONCLUSION: In this comprehensive bibliometric study, we summarized 1403 articles about SP, which has an increasing trend in the number of articles during the COVID-19 pandemic process. This article can be a useful resource for clinicians and scientists through presenting a summary of worldwide studies related to SP, including the ones during COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumothorax , Bibliometrics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Pneumothorax/surgery , Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted
3.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e053398, 2022 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709529

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To study the incidence, characteristics, treatment, associated risk factors and outcome of COVID-19-associated pneumothorax in intensive care unit (ICU). DESIGN: Retrospective observational data review. SETTING: A multicentre study from ICUs of three tertiary care hospitals in Qatar. PARTICIPANTS: 1788 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia requiring ICU admission from 1 March 2020 to 1 November 2020 were enrolled in this study. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary endpoint was to identify the incidence of COVID-19-associated pneumothorax in patients requiring ICU admission. Secondary endpoints were to determine the associated risk factors, treatment, mortality and morbidity. RESULTS: 1788 patients from 3 centres were reviewed in the study. The total episodes of pneumothorax were 75. Pneumothorax occurred in 4.2% of the patients with COVID-19 pneumonia requiring ICU admission. The majority of the subjects were male (n=72, 96%). The mean age was 55.1 (±12.7 years). The majority of the subjects were nationals of South Asian countries and the Middle East and North Africa regions. 52% (n=39) of the patients were previously healthy without comorbidities before ICU admission. The recurrence rate was 9.3%. The median length of ICU stay was 28 days (20.5-45.8 days). After developing pneumothorax, the length of mechanical ventilation ranged from 6 to 32 days, with a median of 13 days. 44% of patients eventually ended up with tracheostomy. In-hospital mortality in the patients with COVID-19-related pneumothorax was 53.3% (n=40). The odds of mortality in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia with pneumothorax is 7.15 (95% CI 4.45 to 11.48, p<0.0001) compared with those who did not develop pneumothorax. This indicates pneumothorax is a potential independent risk factor associated with mortality in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia requiring ICU admission. CONCLUSIONS: Pneumothorax is a common complication in patients with COVID-19 requiring ICU admission, associated with poor prognosis and outcome. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: The study was approved by the Medical Research Centre (MRC) Qatar. (MRC-01-20-1116).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumothorax , Critical Care , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Pneumothorax/etiology , Qatar/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Drug Discov Ther ; 15(6): 310-316, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622789

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is associated with rarer extra-parenchymal manifestations, namely pneumothorax (PTX) and pneumomediastinum (PM) leading to complications and increased mortality. The study aims to describe the prevalence, risk factors for mortality, radiological characteristics and outcome of PTX/PM in patients admitted with COVID-19. This was a retrospective, single-centre, observational study in patients with confirmed COVID-19 presenting with non-iatrogenic PTX/PM from April 2020 to May 2021. Details pertaining to demographics, presentation, radiological characteristics, management and outcome were collected. Cases were classified into spontaneous and barotraumatic PTX/PM and a between-group comparison was performed using Chi-square and t-test. A total of 45 cases (mean age: 53.2 years, 82% males) out of 8,294 confirmed COVID-19 patients developed PTX/PM, the calculated incidence being 0.54%. 29 cases had spontaneous PTX/PM and the remaining 17 cases were attributed to barotrauma. The most common comorbidities were diabetes-mellitus (65.3%) and hypertension (42.3%). The majority of the cases had large PTX (62.1%) with tension in 8 cases (27.5%). There were predominant right-sided pneumothoraces and five were diagnosed with bronchopleural fistula. 37.7% of cases had associated subcutaneous emphysema. The median duration of PTX/PM from symptom onset was delayed at 22.5 and 17.6 days respectively. The mean CT severity score (CTSS) was 20.5 (± 4.9) with fibrosis (53.8%), bronchiectatic changes (50%) and cystic-cavitary changes (23%). There was no statistically significant difference between the spontaneous and barotrauma cohort. 71% of cases died and the majority belonged to the barotrauma cohort. It is imperative to consider the possibility of PTX/PM in patients having COVID-19, especially in those with deterioration in the disease course, both in spontaneously breathing and mechanically ventilated patients. These patients may also have a high incidence of death, reflecting the gravity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Pneumothorax , Female , Humans , Male , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Emphysema/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Pneumothorax/etiology , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Healthcare
5.
Turk J Med Sci ; 51(6): 2822-2826, 2021 12 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580296

ABSTRACT

Background/aim: As the number of case reports related to the new type of coronavirus (COVID-19) increases, knowledge of and experience with the virus and its complications also increase. Pleural complications are one relevant issue. We aimed in this study to analyze pleural complications, such as pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and empyema, in patients hospitalized with the diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia. Materials and methods: The files of patients who have pleural complications of COVID-19 pneumonia and were consulted about thoracic surgery between March 2020 and December 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. The data of the patients were analyzed according to age, sex, length of stay, treatment method for pleural complications, mortality, severity of COVID-19 pneumonia, tube thoracostomy duration, and presence of a mechanical ventilator. Results: A total of 31 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were included in the study. There were 11 female (35.5%) and 20 male (65.5%) patients. The most common complication was pneumothorax in 20 patients (65%). The median duration of hospitalization was 22 days and the mortality rate was 71%. Mortality was significantly higher in patients on mechanical ventilation (p = 0.04). Conclusion: The mortality rate is very high in patients with pleural complications of COVID-19 pneumonia. Pneumothorax is a fatal complication in critically ill patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Pneumothorax/etiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Mediastinal Emphysema , Middle Aged , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Pneumothorax/mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 21(6): e615-e619, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551858

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are limited data regarding the incidence of pneumothorax in COVID-19 patients as well as the impact of the same on patient outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective review of the medical records at three large tertiary care hospitals in Mumbai was performed to identify patients hospitalised with COVID-19 from March 2020 to October 2020. The presence of pneumothorax and/or pneumomediastinum was noted when chest radiographs or CT scans were performed. Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients who developed air leak were recorded. RESULTS: 4,906 patients with COVID-19 were admitted, with 1,324 (27%) having severe COVID-19 disease. The overall incidence of pneumothorax and/or pneumomediastinum in patients with severe disease was 3.2% (42/1,324). Eighteen patients had pneumothorax, 16 had pneumomediastinum and 8 patients had both. Fourteen patients (33.3%) developed this complication breathing spontaneously, 28 patients (66.6%) developed it during mechanical ventilation. Overall mortality in this cohort was 74%, compared with 17% in the COVID-19 patients without pneumothorax (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that air leaks occur with a higher frequency in patients with COVID-19 than in other ICU patients. When present, such air leaks contributed to poor outcomes with almost 74% mortality rates in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Pneumothorax , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Emphysema/epidemiology , Pneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(10): 1404-1407, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518655

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) affects mainly the lungs causing pneumonia and complications like acute respiratory distress syndrome. Pneumothorax is a rare manifestation of the disease. This report is a description of a series of patients with COVID-19 and spontaneous pneumothorax, some of them with associated pulmonary cysts. METHODOLOGY: Cases were collected retrospectively. We included clinical data from medical records and described radiologic findings. Patients that developed pneumothorax during mechanical ventilation were excluded. RESULTS: Ten cases were included in this report, nine of them were male. The median age of our series was 62 years (IQR = 57-68). The median days since the onset of symptoms until the development of pneumothorax was 27 (IQR = 17-31), most cases developed after the second week of the diagnosis of pneumonia. Two cases required invasive mechanical ventilation, but pneumothorax occurred after ventilator weaning. Three cases showed subpleural pulmonary cysts. CONCLUSIONS: Cysts and pneumothorax are rare manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia with mechanisms not completely understood. This report highlights the role of CT scan in diagnosis of COVID-19 complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cysts/etiology , Lung/pathology , Pneumothorax/etiology , Aged , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colombia/epidemiology , Cysts/diagnostic imaging , Cysts/epidemiology , Cysts/virology , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(38): e22571, 2021 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437852

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are few reports on the chest computed tomography (CT) imaging features of children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and most reports involve small sample sizes. OBJECTIVES: To systematically analyze the chest CT imaging features of children with COVID-19 and provide references for clinical practice. DATA SOURCES: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase; data published by Johns Hopkins University; and Chinese databases CNKI, Wanfang, and Chongqing Weipu. METHODS: Reports on chest CT imaging features of children with COVID-19 from January 1, 2020 to August 10, 2020, were analyzed retrospectively and a meta-analysis carried out using Stata12.0 software. RESULTS: Thirty-seven articles (1747 children) were included in this study. The heterogeneity of meta-analysis results ranged from 0% to 90.5%. The overall rate of abnormal lung CT findings was 63.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 55.8%-70.6%), with a rate of 61.0% (95% CI: 50.8%-71.2%) in China and 67.8% (95% CI: 57.1%-78.4%) in the rest of the world in the subgroup analysis. The incidence of ground-glass opacities was 39.5% (95% CI: 30.7%-48.3%), multiple lung lobe lesions was 65.1% (95% CI: 55.1%-67.9%), and bilateral lung lesions was 61.5% (95% CI: 58.8%-72.2%). Other imaging features included nodules (25.7%), patchy shadows (36.8%), halo sign (24.8%), consolidation (24.1%), air bronchogram signs (11.2%), cord-like shadows (9.7%), crazy-paving pattern (6.1%), and pleural effusion (9.1%). Two articles reported 3 cases of white lung, another reported 2 cases of pneumothorax, and another 1 case of bullae. CONCLUSIONS: The lung CT results of children with COVID-19 are usually normal or slightly atypical. The lung lesions of COVID-19 pediatric patients mostly involve both lungs or multiple lobes, and the common manifestations are patchy shadows, ground-glass opacities, consolidation, partial air bronchogram signs, nodules, and halo signs; white lung, pleural effusion, and paving stone signs are rare. Therefore, chest CT has limited value as a screening tool for children with COVID-19 and can only be used as an auxiliary assessment tool.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Blister/diagnostic imaging , Blister/epidemiology , Blister/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Data Management , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Pleural Effusion/diagnostic imaging , Pleural Effusion/epidemiology , Pleural Effusion/virology , Pneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Solitary Pulmonary Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Solitary Pulmonary Nodule/epidemiology , Solitary Pulmonary Nodule/virology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/trends
9.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e137, 2021 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260912

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus identified as severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 causes acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Our aim in this study is to assess the incidence of life-threatening complications like pneumothorax, haemothorax, pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema, probable risk factors and effect on mortality in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) ARDS patients treated with mechanical ventilation (MV). Data from 96 adult patients admitted to the intensive care unit with COVID-19 ARDS diagnosis from 11 March to 31 July 2020 were retrospectively assessed. A total of 75 patients abiding by the study criteria were divided into two groups as the group developing ventilator-related barotrauma (BG) (N = 10) and the group not developing ventilator-related barotrauma (NBG) (N = 65). In 10 patients (13%), barotrauma findings occurred 22 ± 3.6 days after the onset of symptoms. The mortality rate was 40% in the BG-group, while it was 29% in the NBG-group with no statistical difference identified. The BG-group had longer intensive care admission duration, duration of time in prone position and total MV duration, with higher max positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) levels and lower min pO2/FiO2 levels. The peak lactate dehydrogenase levels in blood were higher by statistically significant level in the BG-group (P < 0.05). The contribution of MV to alveolar injury caused by infection in COVID-19 ARDS patients may cause more frequent barotrauma compared to classic ARDS and this situation significantly increases the MV and intensive care admission durations of patients. In terms of reducing mortality and morbidity in these patients, MV treatment should be carefully maintained within the framework of lung-protective strategies and the studies researching barotrauma pathophysiology should be increased.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hemothorax/etiology , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , Pneumothorax/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Subcutaneous Emphysema/etiology , Adult , Aged , Barotrauma/epidemiology , Barotrauma/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hemothorax/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Lung Injury/epidemiology , Lung Injury/etiology , Male , Mediastinal Emphysema/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Subcutaneous Emphysema/epidemiology
10.
Respir Med ; 184: 106464, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230753

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical features and outcomes of mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19 infection who develop a pneumothorax has not been rigorously described or compared to those who do not develop a pneumothorax. PURPOSE: To determine the incidence, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of critically ill patients with COVID-19 infection who developed pneumothorax. In addition, we compared the clinical characteristics and outcomes of mechanically ventilated patients who developed a pneumothorax with those who did not develop a pneumothorax. METHODS: This study was a multicenter retrospective analysis of all adult critically ill patients with COVID-19 infection who were admitted to intensive care units in 4 tertiary care centers in the United States. RESULTS: A total of 842 critically ill patients with COVID-19 infection were analyzed, out of which 594 (71%) were mechanically ventilated. The overall incidence of pneumothorax was 85/842 (10%), and 80/594 (13%) in those who were mechanically ventilated. As compared to mechanically ventilated patients in the non-pneumothorax group, mechanically ventilated patients in the pneumothorax group had worse respiratory parameters at the time of intubation (mean PaO2:FiO2 ratio 105 vs 150, P<0.001 and static respiratory system compliance: 30ml/cmH2O vs 39ml/cmH2O, P = 0.01) and significantly higher in-hospital mortality (63% vs 49%, P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: The overall incidence of pneumothorax in mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19 infection was 13%. Mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19 infection who developed pneumothorax had worse gas exchange and respiratory mechanics at the time of intubation and had a higher mortality compared to those who did not develop pneumothorax.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , Pneumothorax/etiology , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Pneumothorax/mortality , Pneumothorax/physiopathology , Prognosis , Pulmonary Gas Exchange , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
11.
Heart Lung ; 50(5): 599-608, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213255

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pneumothorax has been frequently described as a complication of COVID-19 infections. OBJECTIVE: In this systematic review, we describe the incidence, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of COVID-19-related pneumothorax. METHODS: Studies were identified through MEDLINE, Pubmed, and Google Scholar databases using keywords of "COVID-19," "SARS-CoV-2," "pneumothorax," "pneumomediastinum," and "barotrauma" from January 1st, 2020 to January 30th, 2021. RESULTS: Among the nine observational studies, the incidence of pneumothorax is low at 0.3% in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. However, the incidence of pneumothorax increases to 12.8-23.8% in those requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) with a high mortality rate up to 100%. COVID-19-related pneumothorax tends to be unilateral and right-sided. Age, pre-existing lung diseases, and active smoking status are not shown to be risk factors. The time to pneumothorax diagnosis is around 9.0-19.6 days from admission and 5.4 days after IMV initiation. COVID-19-related pneumothoraces are associated with prolonged hospitalization, increased likelihood of ICU admission and death, especially among the elderly. CONCLUSION: COVID-19-related pneumothorax likely signify greater disease severity. With the high variability of COVID-19-related pneumothorax incidence described, a well-designed study is required to better assess the significance of COVID-19-related pneumothorax.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Pneumothorax , Aged , Humans , Incidence , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Pneumothorax/etiology , Pneumothorax/therapy , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Turk J Med Sci ; 51(6): 2822-2826, 2021 12 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1200171

ABSTRACT

Background/aim: As the number of case reports related to the new type of coronavirus (COVID-19) increases, knowledge of and experience with the virus and its complications also increase. Pleural complications are one relevant issue. We aimed in this study to analyze pleural complications, such as pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and empyema, in patients hospitalized with the diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia. Materials and methods: The files of patients who have pleural complications of COVID-19 pneumonia and were consulted about thoracic surgery between March 2020 and December 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. The data of the patients were analyzed according to age, sex, length of stay, treatment method for pleural complications, mortality, severity of COVID-19 pneumonia, tube thoracostomy duration, and presence of a mechanical ventilator. Results: A total of 31 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were included in the study. There were 11 female (35.5%) and 20 male (65.5%) patients. The most common complication was pneumothorax in 20 patients (65%). The median duration of hospitalization was 22 days and the mortality rate was 71%. Mortality was significantly higher in patients on mechanical ventilation (p = 0.04). Conclusion: The mortality rate is very high in patients with pleural complications of COVID-19 pneumonia. Pneumothorax is a fatal complication in critically ill patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Pneumothorax/etiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Mediastinal Emphysema , Middle Aged , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Pneumothorax/mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1100117

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a global pandemic and a burden to global health at the turn of 2019 and 2020. No targeted treatment for COVID-19 infection has been identified so far, thus supportive treatment, invasive and non-invasive oxygen support, and corticosteroids remain a common therapy. High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC), a non-invasive oxygen support method, has become a prominent treatment option for respiratory failure during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. HFNC reduces the anatomic dead space and increases positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), allowing higher concentrations and higher flow of oxygen. Some studies suggest positive effects of HFNC on mortality and avoidance of intubation. Spontaneous pneumothorax has been observed in patients suffering from SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Although the viral infection itself contributes to its development, higher PEEP generated by both HFNC and mechanical ventilation is another risk factor for increased alveoli damage and air-leak. Herein, we present three cases of patients with no previous history of lung diseases who were diagnosed with COVID-19 viral pneumonia. All of them were supported with HFNC, and all of them presented spontaneous pneumothorax.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/adverse effects , Pneumothorax , Respiratory Insufficiency , Aged, 80 and over , Cannula , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Pneumothorax/etiology , Pneumothorax/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy
15.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 35(12): 3642-3651, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065998

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence, predictors, and outcome of pneumothorax (PNX)/pneumomediastinum (PMD) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Tertiary-care university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred sixteen consecutive critically ill, invasively ventilated patients with COVID-19 ARDS. INTERVENTIONS: The authors collected demographic, mechanical ventilation, imaging, laboratory, and outcome data. Primary outcome was the incidence of PNX/PMD. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of PNX/PMD. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: PNX/PMD occurred in a total of 28 patients (24.1%), with 22 patients developing PNX (19.0%) and 13 developing PMD (11.2%). Mean time to development of PNX/PMD was 14 ± 11 days from intubation. The authors found no significant difference in mechanical ventilation parameters between patients who developed PNX/PMD and those who did not. Mechanical ventilation parameters were within recommended limits for protective ventilation in both groups. Ninety-five percent of patients with PNX/PMD had the Macklin effect (linear collections of air contiguous to the bronchovascular sheaths) on a baseline computed tomography scan, and tended to have a higher lung involvement at intensive care unit (ICU) admission (Radiographic Assessment of Lung Edema score 32.2 ± 13.4 v 18.7 ± 9.8 in patients without PNX/PMD, p = 0.08). Time from symptom onset to intubation and time from total bilirubin on day two after ICU admission were the only independent predictors of PNX/PMD. Mortality was 60.7% in patients who developed PNX/PMD versus 38.6% in those who did not (p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: PNX/PMD occurs frequently in COVID-19 patients with ARDS requiring mechanical ventilation, and is associated with increased mortality. Development of PNX/PMD seems to occur despite use of protective mechanical ventilation and has a radiologic predictor sign.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Pneumothorax , Humans , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Emphysema/epidemiology , Pneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Pneumothorax/etiology , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Chest ; 159(3): 1241-1255, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-996768

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent reports of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) developing pneumothorax correspond mainly to case reports describing mechanically ventilated patients. The real incidence, clinical characteristics, and outcome of spontaneous pneumothorax (SP) as a form of COVID-19 presentation remain to be defined. RESEARCH QUESTION: Do the incidence, risk factors, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of SP in patients with COVID-19 attending EDs differ compared with COVID-19 patients without SP and non-COVID-19 patients with SP? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This case-control study retrospectively reviewed all patients with COVID-19 diagnosed with SP (case group) in 61 Spanish EDs (20% of Spanish EDs) and compared them with two control groups: COVID-19 patients without SP and non-COVID-19 patients with SP. The relative frequencies of SP were estimated in COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients in the ED, and annual standardized incidences were estimated for both populations. Comparisons between case subjects and control subjects included 52 clinical, analytical, and radiologic characteristics and four outcomes. RESULTS: We identified 40 occurrences of SP in 71,904 patients with COVID-19 attending EDs (0.56‰; 95% CI, 0.40‰-0.76‰). This relative frequency was higher than that among non-COVID-19 patients (387 of 1,358,134, 0.28‰; 95% CI, 0.26‰-0.32‰; OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.41-2.71). The standardized incidence of SP was also higher in patients with COVID-19 (34.2 vs 8.2/100,000/year; OR, 4.19; 95% CI, 3.64-4.81). Compared with COVID-19 patients without SP, COVID-19 patients developing SP more frequently had dyspnea and chest pain, low pulse oximetry readings, tachypnea, and increased leukocyte count. Compared with non-COVID-19 patients with SP, case subjects differed in 19 clinical variables, the most prominent being a higher frequency of dysgeusia/anosmia, headache, diarrhea, fever, and lymphopenia (all with OR > 10). All the outcomes measured, including in-hospital death, were worse in case subjects than in both control groups. INTERPRETATION: SP as a form of COVID-19 presentation at the ED is unusual (< 1‰ cases) but is more frequent than in the non-COVID-19 population and could be associated with worse outcomes than SP in non-COVID-19 patients and COVID-19 patients without SP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Pneumothorax , Respiration, Artificial , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Pneumothorax/etiology , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Risk Adjustment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Symptom Assessment/methods , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data
18.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg ; 32(3): 351-355, 2021 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-933856

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to evaluate the prevalence of and risk factors for pneumothorax in patients with invasive mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit (ICU) diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia. METHODS: The prevalence of pneumothorax was retrospectively reviewed in 107 patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia and treated in an ICU in Turkey between 11 March 2020 and 30 April 2020. RESULTS: The patients were aged 19-92 years; 37 (34.6%) were women. Pneumothorax developed in 8 (7.5%) of the intubated patients. Four (50%) of the patients with pneumothorax and 68 (68.7%) of those without it died. In the univariable logistic regression analysis of the presence of comorbid diseases (P = 0.91), positive end-expiratory pressure (P = 0.18), compliance (P = 0.93), peak pressure (P = 0.41) and the Horowitz index (P = 0.13) did not show statistically significant effects in increasing the risk of pneumothorax. CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant increase or decrease in the risk of pneumothorax in patients treated with invasive mechanical ventilation after the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019-related pneumonia/acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, consideration of the risk of pneumothorax in these individuals may have the potential to improve the prognoses in such settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Pneumothorax/etiology , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumothorax/diagnosis , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Radiography, Thoracic , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Turkey/epidemiology
19.
Heart Lung ; 50(1): 37-43, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-856729

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical characteristics of the patients with COVID-19 complicated by pneumothorax have not been clarified. OBJECTIVES: To determine the epidemiology and risks of pneumothorax in the critically ill patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Retrospectively collecting and analysing medical records, laboratory findings, chest X-ray and CT images of 5 patients complicated by pneumothorax. RESULTS: The incidence of pneumothorax was 10% (5/49) in patients with ARDS, 24% (5/21) in patients receiving mechanical ventilation, and 56% (5/9) in patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation, with 80% (4/5) patients died. All the 5 patients were male and aged ranging from 54 to 79 years old. Pneumothorax was most likely to occur 2 weeks after the beginning of dyspnea and associated with reduction of neuromuscular blockers, recruitment maneuver, severe cough, changes of lung structure and function. CONCLUSIONS: Pneumothorax is a frequent and fatal complication of critically ill patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumothorax , Aged , Critical Illness , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Pneumothorax/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 236, 2020 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-768484

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous pneumothorax is an uncommon complication of COVID-19 viral pneumonia. The exact incidence and risk factors are still unknown. Herein we review the incidence and outcomes of pneumothorax in over 3000 patients admitted to our institution for suspected COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of COVID-19 cases admitted to our hospital. Patients who were diagnosed with a spontaneous pneumothorax were identified to calculate the incidence of this event. Their clinical characteristics were thoroughly documented. Data regarding their clinical outcomes were gathered. Each case was presented as a brief synopsis. RESULTS: Three thousand three hundred sixty-eight patients were admitted to our institution between March 1st, 2020 and June 8th, 2020 for suspected COVID 19 pneumonia, 902 patients were nasopharyngeal swab positive. Six cases of COVID-19 patients who developed spontaneous pneumothorax were identified (0.66%). Their baseline imaging showed diffuse bilateral ground-glass opacities and consolidations, mostly in the posterior and peripheral lung regions. 4/6 cases were associated with mechanical ventilation. All patients required placement of a chest tube. In all cases, mortality (66.6%) was not directly related to the pneumothorax. CONCLUSION: Spontaneous pneumothorax is a rare complication of COVID-19 viral pneumonia and may occur in the absence of mechanical ventilation. Clinicians should be vigilant about the diagnosis and treatment of this complication.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Cause of Death , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Fatal Outcome , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Philadelphia/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pneumothorax/diagnosis , Pneumothorax/therapy , Pneumothorax/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
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