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1.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(7): 2569-2571, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1811977

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 infection which causes pneumonic infiltration in both lungs. This research paper is meant to present our case of a 31-year-old male who experienced bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax. The rarity of this condition cannot be underestimated considering pneumothorax from COVID-19 is quite uncommon.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumothorax , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Pneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Pneumothorax/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(5): 1765-1769, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1754186

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Few data are available on the ICU management and on the possible respiratory complications of invasively ventilated pregnant patients affected by COVID-19 pneumonia, especially in the early phase of pregnancy. Tension pneumothorax has been previously described as a rare cause of respiratory failure after delivery, but its occurrence in the postpartum of COVID-19 patient has not been reported yet. We hereby describe the ICU management of a 23rd gestational week pregnant woman who underwent invasive mechanical ventilation, prone positioning, and cesarean delivery during her ICU stay for COVID-19 related pneumonia. Moreover, we focused on the occurrence and management of recurrent tension pneumothorax after the cesarean delivery. CASE REPORT: A 23rd gestational week pregnant woman was admitted to the ICU for a COVID-19 bilateral pneumonia and underwent invasive mechanical ventilation and prone positioning. Cesarean delivery was planned during the ICU stay, while the patient was receiving invasive mechanical ventilation. After delivery, the patient experienced a recurrent pneumothorax that required the positioning of multiple chest drains. CONCLUSIONS: In pregnant critically ill COVID-19 patients, mechanical ventilation management is particularly challenging, especially in the postpartum period. Prone positioning is feasible and can improve oxygenation and respiratory system compliance, while tension pneumothorax must be suspected if the respiratory function suddenly deteriorates after delivery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cesarean Section , Critical Illness , Pneumothorax/etiology , Postoperative Complications/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Adult , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Postoperative Complications/diagnostic imaging , Pregnancy , Prone Position , Recurrence , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Treatment Outcome
4.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e053398, 2022 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709529

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To study the incidence, characteristics, treatment, associated risk factors and outcome of COVID-19-associated pneumothorax in intensive care unit (ICU). DESIGN: Retrospective observational data review. SETTING: A multicentre study from ICUs of three tertiary care hospitals in Qatar. PARTICIPANTS: 1788 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia requiring ICU admission from 1 March 2020 to 1 November 2020 were enrolled in this study. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary endpoint was to identify the incidence of COVID-19-associated pneumothorax in patients requiring ICU admission. Secondary endpoints were to determine the associated risk factors, treatment, mortality and morbidity. RESULTS: 1788 patients from 3 centres were reviewed in the study. The total episodes of pneumothorax were 75. Pneumothorax occurred in 4.2% of the patients with COVID-19 pneumonia requiring ICU admission. The majority of the subjects were male (n=72, 96%). The mean age was 55.1 (±12.7 years). The majority of the subjects were nationals of South Asian countries and the Middle East and North Africa regions. 52% (n=39) of the patients were previously healthy without comorbidities before ICU admission. The recurrence rate was 9.3%. The median length of ICU stay was 28 days (20.5-45.8 days). After developing pneumothorax, the length of mechanical ventilation ranged from 6 to 32 days, with a median of 13 days. 44% of patients eventually ended up with tracheostomy. In-hospital mortality in the patients with COVID-19-related pneumothorax was 53.3% (n=40). The odds of mortality in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia with pneumothorax is 7.15 (95% CI 4.45 to 11.48, p<0.0001) compared with those who did not develop pneumothorax. This indicates pneumothorax is a potential independent risk factor associated with mortality in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia requiring ICU admission. CONCLUSIONS: Pneumothorax is a common complication in patients with COVID-19 requiring ICU admission, associated with poor prognosis and outcome. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: The study was approved by the Medical Research Centre (MRC) Qatar. (MRC-01-20-1116).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumothorax , Critical Care , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Pneumothorax/etiology , Qatar/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Med Case Rep ; 16(1): 88, 2022 Feb 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700364

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 has been associated with a plethora of different manifestations of systems affected (including pulmonary, gastrointestinal, and thrombotic disease) and time to presentation of complications. Pneumothorax has been established as a complication in the literature. However, tension pneumothorax remains a rare presentation with higher mortality. We report a case of secondary tension pneumothorax in a patient following apparent recovery from coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonitis. CASE PRESENTATION: Eight days after resolution of coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonitis symptoms, a 51-year-old Caucasian man with no pre-existing pulmonary disease was brought into the emergency department following 48 hours of progressive shortness of breath. Further clinical assessment revealed reduced breath sounds in the right lung, blood pressure was 116/95 mmHg, and jugular venous pressure was not elevated. Chest x-ray showed right-sided tension pneumothorax with mediastinal shift. Insertion of a chest drain led to rapid resolution of symptoms, and the patient was discharged following full re-expansion of the lung. CONCLUSIONS: The period of recovery from coronavirus disease 2019 is variable. Clinicians should consider tension pneumothorax as a possible complication of coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonitis in patients presenting with type 1 respiratory failure, even after resolution of pneumonitis symptoms and a considerable time period following initial contraction of coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumothorax , Chest Tubes/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumothorax/complications , Pneumothorax/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
6.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 32(2): 230-232, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675597

ABSTRACT

Spontaneous pneumomediastinum with COVID pneumonia is a rare occurrence with or without accompanying subcutaneous emphysema or pneumothorax. The aim of this study was to establish relation of this complication to severity of lung disease and its clinical outcome. The study was conducted for a period of seven months from April to October 2020 in the CT Department of Armed Forces Institute of Radiology and Imaging (AFIRI), Rawalpindi, Pakistan. All COVID positive patients having spontaneous pneumomediastinum on high resolution CT (HRCT) chest were included (n=14). These patients were assessed for severity of lung disease as per CT severity score (CTSS), and were followed up for their clinical outcome. All patients with spontaneous pneumomediastinum had moderate to severe degree of COVID pneumonia; mortality in patients with pneumomediastinum was 50%; and was seen in those patients who had greater severity of lung disease as per the CTSS. Key Words: Spontaneous, Pneumomediastinum, COVID, Pneumothorax, Subcutaneous, Emphysema.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Pneumothorax , Subcutaneous Emphysema , Humans , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , Pneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Pneumothorax/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Subcutaneous Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Subcutaneous Emphysema/etiology
7.
Drug Discov Ther ; 15(6): 310-316, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622789

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is associated with rarer extra-parenchymal manifestations, namely pneumothorax (PTX) and pneumomediastinum (PM) leading to complications and increased mortality. The study aims to describe the prevalence, risk factors for mortality, radiological characteristics and outcome of PTX/PM in patients admitted with COVID-19. This was a retrospective, single-centre, observational study in patients with confirmed COVID-19 presenting with non-iatrogenic PTX/PM from April 2020 to May 2021. Details pertaining to demographics, presentation, radiological characteristics, management and outcome were collected. Cases were classified into spontaneous and barotraumatic PTX/PM and a between-group comparison was performed using Chi-square and t-test. A total of 45 cases (mean age: 53.2 years, 82% males) out of 8,294 confirmed COVID-19 patients developed PTX/PM, the calculated incidence being 0.54%. 29 cases had spontaneous PTX/PM and the remaining 17 cases were attributed to barotrauma. The most common comorbidities were diabetes-mellitus (65.3%) and hypertension (42.3%). The majority of the cases had large PTX (62.1%) with tension in 8 cases (27.5%). There were predominant right-sided pneumothoraces and five were diagnosed with bronchopleural fistula. 37.7% of cases had associated subcutaneous emphysema. The median duration of PTX/PM from symptom onset was delayed at 22.5 and 17.6 days respectively. The mean CT severity score (CTSS) was 20.5 (± 4.9) with fibrosis (53.8%), bronchiectatic changes (50%) and cystic-cavitary changes (23%). There was no statistically significant difference between the spontaneous and barotrauma cohort. 71% of cases died and the majority belonged to the barotrauma cohort. It is imperative to consider the possibility of PTX/PM in patients having COVID-19, especially in those with deterioration in the disease course, both in spontaneously breathing and mechanically ventilated patients. These patients may also have a high incidence of death, reflecting the gravity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Pneumothorax , Female , Humans , Male , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Emphysema/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Pneumothorax/etiology , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Healthcare
8.
Turk J Med Sci ; 51(6): 2822-2826, 2021 12 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580296

ABSTRACT

Background/aim: As the number of case reports related to the new type of coronavirus (COVID-19) increases, knowledge of and experience with the virus and its complications also increase. Pleural complications are one relevant issue. We aimed in this study to analyze pleural complications, such as pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and empyema, in patients hospitalized with the diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia. Materials and methods: The files of patients who have pleural complications of COVID-19 pneumonia and were consulted about thoracic surgery between March 2020 and December 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. The data of the patients were analyzed according to age, sex, length of stay, treatment method for pleural complications, mortality, severity of COVID-19 pneumonia, tube thoracostomy duration, and presence of a mechanical ventilator. Results: A total of 31 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were included in the study. There were 11 female (35.5%) and 20 male (65.5%) patients. The most common complication was pneumothorax in 20 patients (65%). The median duration of hospitalization was 22 days and the mortality rate was 71%. Mortality was significantly higher in patients on mechanical ventilation (p = 0.04). Conclusion: The mortality rate is very high in patients with pleural complications of COVID-19 pneumonia. Pneumothorax is a fatal complication in critically ill patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Pneumothorax/etiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Mediastinal Emphysema , Middle Aged , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Pneumothorax/mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 113(1): e1-e3, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568515

ABSTRACT

Pneumothorax and persistent air leak are documented complications of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. Patients who fall into this category are often poor candidates for invasive thoracic surgical intervention. Endobronchial valves offer an effective and less invasive treatment option and can successfully treat persistent air leak and support the weaning of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pneumonia off ventilation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pneumothorax/etiology , Pneumothorax/surgery , Prostheses and Implants , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
10.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(12)2021 Dec 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560891

ABSTRACT

We report a case of an adult patient with COVID-19 pneumonia presenting as pneumatoceles as a late complication. These pneumatoceles are steroid-resistant and can predispose to cavitary lesions. These cystic lesions need close follow-up with repeat imaging as these can increase the risk of pneumothorax. It can take up to around 12 weeks for the spontaneous resolution of pneumatoceles.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cysts , Pneumothorax , Adult , Humans , Pneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Pneumothorax/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J ; 21(4): 660-663, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551955

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel coronavirus, represents an unprecedented global threat. We report a 78-year-old male patient who presented to the Emergency Department at a tertiary care hospital in Muscat, Oman, in June 2020 with a one-day history of right chest pain and severe breathlessness. The patient was an ex-smoker and known to have idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) with two previous pneumothoraces in the left lung. On presentation, the patient was breathless with an oxygen saturation of 90% on room air. Chest X-ray demonstrated bilateral lung infiltrates and right-sided pneumothorax. The patient tested positive for SARS CoV 2. A chest drain was placed which resulted in good resolution of the pneumothorax. The patient's condition improved remarkably and he was discharged after 17 days of hospitalisation. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this was the first case of pneumothorax reported in a patient infected with COVID-19 who was known to have underlying IPF.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumothorax , Aged , Humans , Male , Pneumothorax/diagnosis , Pneumothorax/etiology , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim (Engl Ed) ; 68(9): 552, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540930
13.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(11)2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526473

ABSTRACT

Patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia can suffer from pneumothorax and persistent air leak (PAL). The pneumothorax occurs with or without pre-existing lung disease. PAL refers to air leak lasting more than 5-7 days and arises due to bronchopleural or alveolopleural fistula. The management of PAL can be challenging as a standard management guideline is lacking. Here we present the case of a 42-year-old smoker with COVID-19 who presented to the hospital with fever, cough, acute left-sided chest pain and shortness of breath. He suffered from a large left-sided pneumothorax requiring immediate chest tube drainage. Unfortunately, the air leak persisted for 13 days before one-way endobronchial valve (EBV) was used with complete resolution of the air leak. We also review the literature regarding other cases of EBV utilisation for PAL in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emphysema , Pneumothorax , Adult , Bronchoscopy , Humans , Male , Pneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Pneumothorax/etiology , Pneumothorax/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(10): 1404-1407, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518655

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) affects mainly the lungs causing pneumonia and complications like acute respiratory distress syndrome. Pneumothorax is a rare manifestation of the disease. This report is a description of a series of patients with COVID-19 and spontaneous pneumothorax, some of them with associated pulmonary cysts. METHODOLOGY: Cases were collected retrospectively. We included clinical data from medical records and described radiologic findings. Patients that developed pneumothorax during mechanical ventilation were excluded. RESULTS: Ten cases were included in this report, nine of them were male. The median age of our series was 62 years (IQR = 57-68). The median days since the onset of symptoms until the development of pneumothorax was 27 (IQR = 17-31), most cases developed after the second week of the diagnosis of pneumonia. Two cases required invasive mechanical ventilation, but pneumothorax occurred after ventilator weaning. Three cases showed subpleural pulmonary cysts. CONCLUSIONS: Cysts and pneumothorax are rare manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia with mechanisms not completely understood. This report highlights the role of CT scan in diagnosis of COVID-19 complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cysts/etiology , Lung/pathology , Pneumothorax/etiology , Aged , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colombia/epidemiology , Cysts/diagnostic imaging , Cysts/epidemiology , Cysts/virology , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
16.
Crit Care Med ; 50(3): 491-500, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462522

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: There are concerns of a high barotrauma rate in coronavirus disease 2019 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome receiving invasive mechanical ventilation. However, a few studies were published, and reported rates were highly variable. We performed a systematic literature review to identify rates of barotrauma, pneumothorax, and pneumomediastinum in coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation. DATA SOURCE: PubMed and Scopus were searched for studies reporting barotrauma event rate in adult coronavirus disease 2019 patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation. STUDY SELECTION: We included all studies investigating adult patients with coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring mechanical ventilation. Case reports, studies performed outside ICU setting, and pediatric studies were excluded. Two investigators independently screened and selected studies for inclusion. DATA EXTRACTION: Two investigators abstracted data on study characteristics, rate of pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum and overall barotrauma events, and mortality. When available, data from noncoronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome patients were also collected. Pooled estimates for barotrauma, pneumothorax, and pneumomediastinum were calculated. DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 13 studies with 1,814 invasively ventilated coronavirus disease 2019 patients and 493 noncoronavirus disease 2019 patients were included. A total of 266/1,814 patients (14.7%) had at least one barotrauma event (pooled estimates, 16.1% [95% CI, 11.8-20.4%]). Pneumothorax occurred in 132/1,435 patients (pooled estimates, 10.7%; 95% CI, 6.7-14.7%), whereas pneumomediastinum occurred in 162/1,432 patients (pooled estimates, 11.2%; 95% CI, 8.0-14.3%). Mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 patients who developed barotrauma was 111/198 patients (pooled estimates, 61.6%; 95% CI, 50.2-73.0%). In noncoronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome patients, barotrauma occurred in 31/493 patients (6.3%; pooled estimates, 5.7%; 95% CI, -2.1% to 13.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Barotrauma occurs in one out of six coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation and is associated with a mortality rate of about 60%. Barotrauma rate may be higher than noncoronavirus disease 2019 controls.


Subject(s)
Barotrauma/etiology , COVID-19/therapy , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , Pneumothorax/etiology , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Barotrauma/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Mediastinal Emphysema/mortality , Pneumothorax/mortality , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Infection ; 50(2): 525-529, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1460518

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) may result not only in acute symptoms such as severe pneumonia, but also in persisting symptoms after months. Here we present a 1 year follow-up of a patient with a secondary tension pneumothorax due to COVID-19 pneumonia. CASE PRESENTATION: In May 2020, a 47-year-old male was admitted to the emergency department with fever, dry cough, and sore throat as well as acute chest pain and shortness of breath. Sputum testing (polymerase chain reaction, PCR) and computed tomography (CT) confirmed infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Eleven days after discharge, the patient returned to the emergency department with pronounced dyspnoea after coughing. CT showed a right-sided tension pneumothorax, which was relieved by a chest drain (Buelau) via mini open thoracotomy. For a period of 3 months following resolution of the pneumothorax the patient complained of fatigue with mild joint pain and dyspnoea. After 1 year, the patient did not suffer from any persisting symptoms. The pulmonary function and blood parameters were normal, with the exception of slightly increased levels of D-Dimer. The CT scan revealed only discrete ground glass opacities (GGO) and subpleural linear opacities. CONCLUSION: Tension pneumothorax is a rare, severe complication of a SARS-CoV-2 infection but may resolve after treatment without negative long-term sequelae. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: V.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumothorax , COVID-19/complications , Chest Tubes/adverse effects , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumothorax/diagnosis , Pneumothorax/etiology , Pneumothorax/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 92(2)2021 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444411

ABSTRACT

Contralateral pneumothorax after percutaneous central venous catheter placement has not been previously reported. Three patients who required intubation and mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19 were identified with a new pneumothorax on routine post-placement chest roentgenogram on the side opposite the catheter placement.  Retrospective review of charts, radiographs, and laboratory studies.  No causative relationship was identified between the percutaneous placement of the central venous catheters and the subsequent pneumothoraces identified on the contralateral side, other than the presence of active COVID-19 viral pneumonia. The timing of the contralateral pneumothoraces were coincidental the placement of the central venous catheters.  We believe these pneumothoraces were a consequence of the pulmonary pathology of the COVID-19 virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Catheterization, Central Venous , Pneumothorax , COVID-19/complications , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Humans , Pneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Pneumothorax/etiology , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies
20.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(9)2021 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435026

ABSTRACT

Although, cardiac injury, pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum are associated with COVID-19, differentiation of their symptoms and signs from those of COVID-19 itself is challenging. Without a high index of suspicion, cardiomyopathy and anterior pneumothorax are easily missed. These complications may be underdiagnosed in patients with COVID-19. Cardiomyopathy and pneumothorax may cause or exacerbate respiratory failure. If their management is delayed, cardiac arrest can occur. To increase the awareness of these issues, we describe the course and imaging of a 39-year-old woman with severe COVID-19 who developed cardiomyopathy and a small anterior pneumothorax with pneumomediastinum. Transthoracic echocardiography is technically challenging in the presence of anterior pneumothorax. Furthermore, although CT is the gold standard for the diagnosis of pneumothorax, this is not always feasible in critically ill patients. Lateral decubitus chest X-rays and lung ultrasound may facilitate the diagnosis of pneumothorax at the bedside of patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiomyopathies , Mediastinal Emphysema , Pneumothorax , Adult , Female , Humans , Pneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Pneumothorax/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
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