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4.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e062509, 2022 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137737

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Recent evidence shows that point-of-care (POC) testing is a more feasible alternative for diagnosis of COVID-19 in settings that have poor access to laboratory diagnostic services. Equitable access to POC testing can be optimised through well-established supply chain management (SCM) systems. The proposed study aims to develop a novel approach for improving SCM for COVID-19 POC diagnostic services in resource-limited settings with poor access to laboratory diagnostic services, using Mopani District in Limpopo Province, South Africa as a study setting. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study was guided by results of the scoping review. Following the scoping review, we propose a mixed-methods study, which will be implemented in three phases. First, we will perform a geospatial analysis to investigate the spatial distribution of COVID-19 testing services. Second, we will perform an audit of POC diagnostic services including its supply chain to evaluate the effect of SCM on accessibility of COVID-19 POC diagnostic services and reveal SCM barriers and enablers of accessibility of COVID-19 POC diagnostic services. Third, we will perform a nominal group technique to collaborate with key stakeholders in co-creation of a novel approach for improving SCM systems for COVID-19 POC diagnostic services. For the geospatial analysis, we will employ the ArcGIS Software. For the analysis of quantitative and qualitative data that will be generated from the audit and nominal group discussion, we will employ Stata software and NVivo software, respectively. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study has been ethically reviewed and approved by two institutional review boards: University of Pretoria Faculty of Health Sciences Research Ethics Committee (approval number 655/2021) and Limpopo Department of Health Research Ethics Committee (approval number LP-2021-12-007). The results of this study will be disseminated through national and international presentations and peer-reviewed publications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Point-of-Care Systems , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , South Africa , Diagnostic Services , Point-of-Care Testing
6.
Clin Lab Med ; 42(2): 223-236, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2130438

ABSTRACT

Laboratories faced many challenges throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. Point-of-care (POC) SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) provided a key solution to the need for rapid turnaround time in select patient populations and were implemented at the POC but also within laboratories to supplement traditional molecular assays. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments-waived rapid POC SARS-CoV-2 NAATs offer the benefit of reduced educational requirements for operators and can be performed by non-laboratory-trained individuals. However, these methods must be validated to ensure the manufacturer's performance specifications are met and they are found to be fit-for-purpose in the clinical workflows they are implemented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Pandemics , Point-of-Care Systems , Point-of-Care Testing
7.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7230, 2022 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133434

ABSTRACT

Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been adapted for many applications, e.g., bioassays for the detection of biomarkers such as antibodies, by controlled engineering of specific surface properties. Specific measurement of such binding states is of high interest but currently limited to highly sensitive techniques such as ELISA or flow cytometry, which are relatively inflexible, difficult to handle, expensive and time-consuming. Here we report a method named COMPASS (Critical-Offset-Magnetic-Particle-SpectroScopy), which is based on a critical offset magnetic field, enabling sensitive detection to minimal changes in mobility of MNP ensembles, e.g., resulting from SARS-CoV-2 antibodies binding to the S antigen on the surface of functionalized MNPs. With a sensitivity of 0.33 fmole/50 µl (≙7 pM) for SARS-CoV-2-S1 antibodies, measured with a low-cost portable COMPASS device, the proposed technique is competitive with respect to sensitivity while providing flexibility, robustness, and a measurement time of seconds per sample. In addition, initial results with blood serum demonstrate high specificity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Magnetite Nanoparticles , Humans , Magnetite Nanoparticles/chemistry , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Spectrum Analysis , Antibodies, Viral , Point-of-Care Testing , Magnetic Phenomena
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116048

ABSTRACT

Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, over 610 million cases have been diagnosed and it has caused over 6.5 million deaths worldwide. The crisis has forced the scientific community to develop tools for disease control and management at a pace never seen before. The control of the pandemic heavily relies in the use of fast and accurate diagnostics, that allow testing at a large scale. The gold standard diagnosis of viral infections is the RT-qPCR. Although it provides consistent and reliable results, it is hampered by its limited throughput and technical requirements. Here, we discuss the main approaches to rapid and point-of-care diagnostics based on RT-qPCR and isothermal amplification diagnostics. We describe the main COVID-19 molecular diagnostic tests approved for self-testing at home or for point-of-care testing and compare the available options. We define the influence of specimen selection and processing, the clinical validation, result readout improvement strategies, the combination with CRISPR-based detection and the diagnostic challenge posed by SARS-CoV-2 variants for different isothermal amplification techniques, with a particular focus on LAMP and recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA). Finally, we try to shed light on the effect the improvement in molecular diagnostics during the COVID-19 pandemic could have in the future of other infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , Pandemics , Point-of-Care Systems , Point-of-Care Testing
9.
Lancet ; 396(10250): 535-544, 2020 08 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106188

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Spain is one of the European countries most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Serological surveys are a valuable tool to assess the extent of the epidemic, given the existence of asymptomatic cases and little access to diagnostic tests. This nationwide population-based study aims to estimate the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Spain at national and regional level. METHODS: 35 883 households were selected from municipal rolls using two-stage random sampling stratified by province and municipality size, with all residents invited to participate. From April 27 to May 11, 2020, 61 075 participants (75·1% of all contacted individuals within selected households) answered a questionnaire on history of symptoms compatible with COVID-19 and risk factors, received a point-of-care antibody test, and, if agreed, donated a blood sample for additional testing with a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Prevalences of IgG antibodies were adjusted using sampling weights and post-stratification to allow for differences in non-response rates based on age group, sex, and census-tract income. Using results for both tests, we calculated a seroprevalence range maximising either specificity (positive for both tests) or sensitivity (positive for either test). FINDINGS: Seroprevalence was 5·0% (95% CI 4·7-5·4) by the point-of-care test and 4·6% (4·3-5·0) by immunoassay, with a specificity-sensitivity range of 3·7% (3·3-4·0; both tests positive) to 6·2% (5·8-6·6; either test positive), with no differences by sex and lower seroprevalence in children younger than 10 years (<3·1% by the point-of-care test). There was substantial geographical variability, with higher prevalence around Madrid (>10%) and lower in coastal areas (<3%). Seroprevalence among 195 participants with positive PCR more than 14 days before the study visit ranged from 87·6% (81·1-92·1; both tests positive) to 91·8% (86·3-95·3; either test positive). In 7273 individuals with anosmia or at least three symptoms, seroprevalence ranged from 15·3% (13·8-16·8) to 19·3% (17·7-21·0). Around a third of seropositive participants were asymptomatic, ranging from 21·9% (19·1-24·9) to 35·8% (33·1-38·5). Only 19·5% (16·3-23·2) of symptomatic participants who were seropositive by both the point-of-care test and immunoassay reported a previous PCR test. INTERPRETATION: The majority of the Spanish population is seronegative to SARS-CoV-2 infection, even in hotspot areas. Most PCR-confirmed cases have detectable antibodies, but a substantial proportion of people with symptoms compatible with COVID-19 did not have a PCR test and at least a third of infections determined by serology were asymptomatic. These results emphasise the need for maintaining public health measures to avoid a new epidemic wave. FUNDING: Spanish Ministry of Health, Institute of Health Carlos III, and Spanish National Health System.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Immunoassay , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Point-of-Care Testing , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spain/epidemiology , Young Adult
10.
Mikrochim Acta ; 189(12): 443, 2022 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2103917

ABSTRACT

The epidemic of infectious diseases caused by contagious pathogens is a life-threatening hazard to the entire human population worldwide. A timely and accurate diagnosis is the critical link in the fight against infectious diseases. Aptamer-based biosensors, the so-called aptasensors, employ nucleic acid aptamers as bio-receptors for the recognition of target pathogens of interest. This review focuses on the design strategies as well as state-of-the-art technologies of aptasensor-based diagnostics for infectious pathogens (mainly bacteria and viruses), covering the utilization of three major signal transducers, the employment of aptamers as recognition moieties, the construction of versatile biosensing platforms (mostly micro and nanomaterial-based), innovated reporting mechanisms, and signal enhancement approaches. Advanced point-of-care testing (POCT) for infectious disease diagnostics are also discussed highlighting some representative ready-to-use devices to address the urgent needs of currently prevalent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Pressing issues in aptamer-based technology and some future perspectives of aptasensors are provided for the implementation of aptasensor-based diagnostics into practical application.


Subject(s)
Aptamers, Nucleotide , Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Point-of-Care Testing , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis
11.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e064038, 2022 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097994

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This body of work aimed to elicit ambulance service staff's perceptions on the barriers and facilitators to adoption, and clinical utility of incorporating rapid SARS-CoV-2 testing during ambulance assessments. DESIGN: A mixed-methods survey-based project using a framework analysis method to organise qualitative data. SETTING: Emergency and non-emergency care ambulatory services in the UK were approached to take part. PARTICIPANTS: Current, practising members of the UK ambulance service (paramedics, technicians, assistants and other staff) were included in this body of work. RESULTS: Survey 1: 226 responses were collected between 3 December 2020 and 11 January 2021, 179 (79.2%) of which were completed in full. While the majority of respondents indicated that an ambulance-based testing strategy was feasible in concept (143/190, 75.3%), major barriers to adoption were noted. Many open-ended responses cited concerns regarding misuse of the service by the general public and other healthcare services, timing and conveyance issues, and increased workloads, alongside training and safety concerns. Survey 2: 26 responses were received between 8 February 2021 and 22 February 2021 to this follow-up survey. Survey 2 revealed conveyance decision-making, and risk stratification to be the most frequently prioritised use cases among ambulance service staff. Optimal test characteristics for clinical adoption according to respondents were; accuracy (above 90% sensitivity and specificity), rapidity (<30 min time to results) and ease of sample acquisition. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of commercially available lateral flow devices are unlikely to be supported by paramedics as their duty of care requires both rapid and accurate results that can inform clinical decision making in an emergency situation. Further investigation is needed to define acceptable test characteristics and criteria required for ambulance service staff to be confident and supportive of deployment of a SARS-CoV-2 test in an emergency care setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services , Humans , Ambulances , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Feasibility Studies , COVID-19/diagnosis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Point-of-Care Testing
12.
Acta Clin Belg ; 77(3): 647-652, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077515

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In the context of the current COVID-19 pandemic, multiple serological assays for the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immune response are currently being developed. This study compares the FRENDTM COVID-19 IgG/IgM Duo (NanoEntec) a point of care (POCT) assay with the automated Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2 electrochemiluminescent assay (Roche Diagnostics). METHODS: Serum samples (n = 81) from PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 positive patients at different time points after the onset of symptoms were analyzed with both assays. An additional 24 serum samples with cross reactivity potential were also included. RESULTS: The sensitivity of the COVID-19 IgG/IgM Duo assay was higher as compared to the Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2 assay, especially when using the combined IgM/IgG result in samples analyzed within 6 days after the onset of symptoms (46.2% vs. 15.4%). The sensitivity of both assays increased with increasing time interval after the onset of symptoms and reached 100% for the COVID-19 IgG/IgM Duo assay in samples taken 14 days or more after symptom onset. Specificity of the COVID-19 IgG/IgM Duo assay was 95.8% for IgM, 91.7% for IgG and 87.5% for the combination of both. CONCLUSION: This study shows that the sensitivity of both assays was highly dependent on the time interval between the onset of the COVID-19 symptoms and serum sampling. Furthermore, rapid serological testing for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies by means of the FRENDTM COVID-19 IgG/IgM Duo POCT assay showed a comparable diagnostic performance as the reference automated immunoassay.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Immunoassay , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Pandemics , Point-of-Care Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(19)2022 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066350

ABSTRACT

Due to the recent pandemic caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the lateral flow immunoassay used for its rapid antigen test is more popular than ever before. However, the history of the lateral flow immunoassay is about 60 years old, and its original purpose of use, such as a COVID-19 rapid antigen test or a pregnancy test, was the qualitative detection of a target analyte. Recently, the demand for quantitative analysis of lateral flow immunoassays is increasing in various fields. Lateral flow immunoassays for quantitative detection using various materials and sensor technologies are being introduced, and readers for analyzing them are being developed. Quantitative analysis readers are highly anticipated for their future development in line with technological advancements such as optical, magnetic field, photothermal, and electrochemical sensors and trends such as weight reduction, miniaturization, and cost reduction of systems. In addition, the sensing, processing, and communication functions of portable personal devices such as smartphones can be used as tools for the quantitative analysis of lateral flow immunoassays. As a result, lateral flow immunoassays can efficiently achieve the goal of rapid diagnosis by point-of-care testing. Readers used for the quantification of lateral flow immunoassays were classified according to the adopted sensor technology, and the research trends in each were reviewed in this paper. The development of a quantitative analysis system was often carried out in the assay aspect, so not only the readers but also the assay development cases were reviewed if necessary. In addition, systems for quantitative analysis of COVID-19, which have recently been gaining importance, were introduced as a separate section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Immunologic Tests , Middle Aged , Miniaturization , Point-of-Care Systems , Point-of-Care Testing
14.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4902, 2022 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031823

ABSTRACT

A lab-on-a-chip system with Point-of-Care testing capability offers rapid and accurate diagnostic potential and is useful in resource-limited settings where biomedical equipment and skilled professionals are not readily available. However, a Point-of-Care testing system that simultaneously possesses all required features of multifunctional dispensing, on-demand release, robust operations, and capability for long-term reagent storage is still a major challenge. Here, we describe a film-lever actuated switch technology that can manipulate liquids in any direction, provide accurate and proportional release response to the applied pneumatic pressure, as well as sustain robustness during abrupt movements and vibrations. Based on the technology, we also describe development of a polymerase chain reaction system that integrates reagent introduction, mixing and reaction functions all in one process, which accomplishes "sample-in-answer-out" performance for all clinical nasal samples from 18 patients with Influenza and 18 individual controls, in good concordance of fluorescence intensity with standard polymerase chain reaction (Pearson coefficients > 0.9). The proposed platform promises robust automation of biomedical analysis, and thus can accelerate the commercialization of a range of Point-of-Care testing devices.


Subject(s)
Lab-On-A-Chip Devices , Microfluidic Analytical Techniques , Automation , Humans , Point-of-Care Systems , Point-of-Care Testing , Polymerase Chain Reaction
15.
Clin Chim Acta ; 536: 104-111, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031182

ABSTRACT

Over the past two years, SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus 2) infection has spread globally causing multi-organ disease and severely impacting the healthcare systems of all countries. Accordingly, the development of easy-to-access diagnostic devices has become essential to limit the effect of the virus worldwide. Real-Time PCR is considered the gold standard to identify SARS-CoV-2 infection due to high sensitivity, affordability, and capacity to detect low viral loads at early disease stage. Advances in lab on a chip technology has led to the development of some Point-of-Care (POC) devices using Real-Time PCR and approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration. We provide an overview on recently developed POC tests for the rapid diagnosis of COVID-19 infection. Practical applications of miniaturized devices based on viral genome amplification as well as favorable features such as reduced sample processing time, ease of use by non-specialized personnel, and the potential of PCR-based POC technologies will be highlighted and reviewed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Point-of-Care Systems , Point-of-Care Testing , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(16)2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023736

ABSTRACT

Current procedures for the assessment of chronic wound infection are time-consuming and require complex instruments and trained personnel. The incidence of chronic wounds worldwide, and the associated economic burden, urge for simple and cheap point-of-care testing (PoCT) devices for fast on-site diagnosis to enable appropriate early treatment. The enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO), whose activity in infected wounds is about ten times higher than in non-infected wounds, appears to be a suitable biomarker for wound infection diagnosis. Herein, we develop a single-component foldable paper-based device for the detection of MPO in wound fluids. The analyte detection is achieved in two steps: (i) selective immunocapture of MPO, and (ii) reaction of a specific dye with the captured MPO, yielding a purple color with increasing intensity as a function of the MPO activity in infected wounds in the range of 20-85 U/mL. Ex vivo experiments with wound fluids validated the analytic efficiency of the paper-based device, and the results strongly correlate with a spectrophotometric assay.


Subject(s)
Body Fluids , Wound Infection , Colorimetry , Coloring Agents , Humans , Paper , Point-of-Care Testing , Wound Infection/diagnosis
17.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(8)2022 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023152

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a long-term neurodegenerative disease that poses a serious threat to human life and health. It is very important to develop a portable quantitative device for AD diagnosis and personal healthcare. Herein, we develop a portable electrochemical sensing platform for the point-of-care detection of AD biomarkers in the blood. Such a portable platform integrates nanoAu-modified vertical graphene (VG@Au) into a working electrode, which can significantly improve sensitivity and reduce detection limit due to the large specific surface, excellent electrical conductivity, high stability, and good biocompatibility. The tau protein, as an important factor in the course of AD, is selected as a key AD biomarker. The results show that the linear range of this sensing platform is 0.1 pg/mL to 1 ng/mL, with a detection limit of 0.034 pg/mL (S/N = 3), indicating that this portable sensing platform meets the demand for the detection of the tau protein in the blood. This work offers great potential for AD diagnosis and personal healthcare.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Biosensing Techniques , Graphite , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Electrodes , Gold , Humans , Limit of Detection , Point-of-Care Testing , tau Proteins
18.
Expert Rev Mol Diagn ; 22(8): 797-809, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017392

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been critical to support and management of the COVID-19 pandemic. Point of care testing (POCT) for SARS-CoV-2 has been a widely used tool for detection of SARS-CoV-2. AREAS COVERED: POCT nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) and rapid antigen tests (RATs) have been the most readily used POCT for SARS-CoV-2. Here, current knowledge on the utility of POCT NAATs and RATs for SARS-CoV-2 are reviewed and discussed alongside aspects of quality assurance factors that must be considered for successful and safe implementation of POCT. EXPERT OPINION: Use cases for implementation of POCT must be evidence based, regardless of the test used. A quality assurance framework must be in place to ensure accuracy and safety of POCT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Pandemics , Point-of-Care Systems , Point-of-Care Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
19.
Expert Rev Mol Diagn ; 22(8): 775-781, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008442

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has been a huge public health challenge that has led to significant morbidity and mortality across the globe. Given the high prevalence and continued circulation of SARS-CoV-2 infection globally, accurate and rapid point-of-care testing is critical. AREAS COVERED: Knowledge of role of digital technology including smart and connected devices in rapid diagnosis of COVID-19 is an evolving area of scientific investigation. This review discusses the importance of rapid at-home point-of-care testing, highlighting the possible role of smart and connected device-based molecular diagnostics for COVID-19. EXPERT OPINION: Accurate and rapid diagnostic modalities have the potential to improve accessibility and efficiency of diagnosis of symptomatic and asymptomatic patients and could be instrumental in timely implementation of appropriate therapeutic interventions as well as public health measures to mitigate spread of infection. With emerging challenges like newer viral variants, global vaccine shortages and vaccine hesitancy, accurate diagnostic testing with the ability to rapidly identify infection remains critical. Digital technologies are likely to become important tools in future of healthcare and technological advancements may play a crucial role in response to COVID-19 with the goal of ultimately overcoming this pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Humans , Point-of-Care Systems , Point-of-Care Testing , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
20.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 56(3): 580-591, 2022 Jul.
Article in Turkish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1988336

ABSTRACT

Molecular point of care tests has become promising methods for the global control of infectious diseases in recent years. Different kinds of point of care testing devices have been introduced into the market in the last decade. They are mainly based on miniaturization and integration of sample processing, nucleic acid amplification, and detection systems. These devices must offer a low-cost, sensitive, specific, and practical analysis to be used especially in low-resource settings. Microfluidics has high potential for handling very small volumes of fluids on a single platform. The key design features for molecular point of care tests in resource-limited settings include isothermal nucleic acid amplification methods to eliminate the need for a thermocycler, lyophilized reagents for long-term stability at high temperature and relatively simple test procedures. CRISPR-Cas-based new generation molecular point of care tests have been developed in recent years. In these tests Cas enzymes are used as highly specific target sequence recognition elements. Collateral cleavage activity of these enzymes cleaves both target sequence and labeled RNA in the mixture and a signal is generated. The ongoing Coronavirus 2019 pandemic has shown the importance of rapid diagnostic tests for the prevention of further spread. Although real-time polymerase chain reaction method was used successfully for the rapid diagnosis during the pandemic, additional rapid and practical tests that could be performed outside the laboratories would provide even faster diagnosis and lighten the burden of test load in large central laboratories. Molecular point of care tests are considered to be one of the best candidates to fill the this gap in the near future. The future technology challenges will be the standardization of the methods and further miniaturization of the system components. In this review article, point-of-care tests adapted from nucleic acid amplification methods with a large number of studies in the literature and tests based on the CRISPR-Cas system which constitutes the newest group and which is among the point-of-care molecular tests based on new nextgeneration sequencing have been discussed.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Nucleic Acids , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Point-of-Care Systems , Point-of-Care Testing
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