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1.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 414(8): 2607-2618, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653432

ABSTRACT

The lateral flow assay (LFA) is one of the most popular technologies on the point-of-care diagnostics market due to its low cost and ease of use, with applications ranging from pregnancy to environmental toxins to infectious disease. While the use of these tests is relatively straightforward, significant development time and effort are required to create tests that are both sensitive and specific. Workflows to guide the LFA development process exist but moving from target selection to an LFA that is ready for field testing can be labor intensive, resource heavy, and time consuming. To reduce the cost and the duration of the LFA development process, we introduce a novel development platform centered on the flexibility, speed, and throughput of an automated robotic liquid handling system. The system comprises LFA-specific hardware and software that enable large optimization experiments with discrete and continuous variables such as antibody pair selection or reagent concentration. Initial validation of the platform was demonstrated during development of a malaria LFA but was readily expanded to encompass development of SARS-CoV-2 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis LFAs. The validity of the platform, where optimization experiments are run directly on LFAs rather than in solution, was based on a direct comparison between the robotic system and a more traditional ELISA-like method. By minimizing hands-on time, maximizing experiment size, and enabling improved reproducibility, the robotic system improved the quality and quantity of LFA assay development efforts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoassay/instrumentation , Malaria/diagnosis , Point-of-Care Testing , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , COVID-19 Serological Testing/economics , COVID-19 Serological Testing/instrumentation , Equipment Design , Humans , Immunoassay/economics , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Plasmodium/isolation & purification , Point-of-Care Testing/economics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Time Factors
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648333

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is currently the most serious challenge to global public health. Its emergence has severely disrupted the functioning of health services and the economic and social situation worldwide. Therefore, new diagnostic and therapeutic tools are urgently needed to allow for the early detection of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and appropriate treatment, which is crucial for the effective control of the COVID-19 disease. The ideal solution seems to be the use of aptamers-short fragments of nucleic acids, DNA or RNA-that can bind selected proteins with high specificity and affinity. They can be used in methods that base the reading of the test result on fluorescence phenomena, chemiluminescence, and electrochemical changes. Exploiting the properties of aptamers will enable the introduction of rapid, sensitive, specific, and low-cost tests for the routine diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2. Aptamers are excellent candidates for the development of point-of-care diagnostic devices and are potential therapeutic tools for the treatment of COVID-19. They can effectively block coronavirus activity in multiple fields by binding viral proteins and acting as carriers of therapeutic substances. In this review, we present recent developments in the design of various types of aptasensors to detect and treat the SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Aptamers, Nucleotide/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/therapy , Aptamers, Nucleotide/pharmacology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing/economics , Genetic Therapy/methods , Genetic Therapy/trends , Humans , Point-of-Care Testing/economics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity
3.
PLoS Med ; 18(11): e1003867, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599642

ABSTRACT

Zibusiso Ndlovu and Tom Ellman discuss the potential value of task sharing in provision of testing for HIV and other infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Health Personnel , Health Services , Point-of-Care Testing , Cost-Benefit Analysis , HIV Infections/economics , Health Planning Guidelines , Health Policy , Health Services/economics , Humans , Point-of-Care Testing/economics
4.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(6): e2215, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573992

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease-2019 (Covid-19) public health emergency has caused enormous loss around the world. This pandemic is a concrete example of the existing gap between availability of advanced diagnostics and current need for cost-effective methodology. The advent of the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay provided an innovative tool for establishing a rapid diagnostic technique based on the molecular amplification of pathogen RNA or DNA. In this review, we explore the applications, diagnostic effectiveness of LAMP test for molecular diagnosis and surveillance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Our results show that LAMP can be considered as an effective point-of-care test for the diagnosis of Covid-19 in endemic areas, especially for low- and middle-income countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Point-of-Care Testing/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Bibliometrics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/economics , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/instrumentation , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/economics , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/instrumentation , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/economics , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/instrumentation , Point-of-Care Testing/economics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sensitivity and Specificity
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15176, 2021 07 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327219

ABSTRACT

There is currently a high level of demand for rapid COVID-19 tests, that can detect the onset of the disease at point of care settings. We have developed an ultra-portable, self-contained, point-of-care nucleic acid amplification test for diagnosis of active COVID-19 infection, based on the principle of loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). The LAMP assay is 100% sensitive and specific to detect a minimum of 300 RNA copies/reaction of SARS-CoV-2. All of the required sample transportation, lysing and amplification steps are performed in a standalone disposable cartridge, which is controlled by a battery operated, pocket size (6x9x4cm3) unit. The test is easy to operate and does not require skilled personnel. The total time from sample to answer is approximately 35 min; a colorimetric readout indicates positive or negative results. This portable diagnostic platform has significant potential for rapid and effective testing in community settings. This will accelerate clinical decision making, in terms of effective triage and timely therapeutic and infection control interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19/diagnosis , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/instrumentation , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/instrumentation , Point-of-Care Testing , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/economics , Equipment Design , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/economics , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/economics , Point-of-Care Testing/economics , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Time Factors
8.
Expert Rev Mol Diagn ; 21(8): 751-755, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269466

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Pharmacy-based point-of-care testing has long had the potential to improve patient access to timely care, but adoption has been slowed by financial and regulatory barriers. The COVID-19 pandemic reduced or temporarily eliminated many of the barriers to pharmacy-based testing. This review examines how the changes brought on by may impact pharmacy-based testing after the pandemic.Areas covered: This review searched peer-reviewed, lay, and regulatory literature to explore the implementation of pharmacy-based COVID-19 testing. This includes a review of regulatory and financial changes that removed barriers to testing. Additionally, it reviews the literature related to the growth of pharmacy-based testing.Expert opinion: It is clear that the COVID-19 pandemic created an awareness and opportunity for pharmacy-based point-of-care testing. The changes made in response to the pandemic have the potential to increase the role of pharmacy-based testing, but additional regulatory changes and wider pharmacy adoption are still needed to maximize the value of such services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , Community Pharmacy Services , Point-of-Care Testing/organization & administration , COVID-19/epidemiology , Community Pharmacy Services/economics , Community Pharmacy Services/legislation & jurisprudence , Humans , Point-of-Care Testing/economics , Point-of-Care Testing/legislation & jurisprudence , Reimbursement Mechanisms
9.
Curr Opin Virol ; 49: 111-116, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260705

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has entailed simultaneous revolutions in virology diagnostics, clinical trials management, and antiviral therapy and vaccinology. Over the past year, SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic testing has moved from highly centralized laboratories to at-home and even over the-counter. This transition has been lionized for its potential public health impact via isolation, but has been less examined for its effect on individual health and therapeutics. Since early initiation of antiviral therapy routinely has been associated with greater treatment efficacy for viral infections, these diagnostic testing innovations offer new opportunities for both clinical testing as well as clinical trials for antiviral therapy. Given a rapidly growing antiviral therapeutic pipeline and the profound impact of individual beneficiary outcomes on sculpting reimbursement policy, the therapeutic benefits associated with rapid viral testing may lead to significant adoption beyond potential public health impacts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Point-of-Care Testing , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Testing/economics , COVID-19 Testing/standards , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Clinical Trials as Topic , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Point-of-Care Testing/economics , Point-of-Care Testing/standards , Point-of-Care Testing/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sequence Analysis , Viral Load
11.
J Med Imaging Radiat Sci ; 52(2): 186-190, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171127

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Portable chest radiography through glass (TG-CXR) is a novel technique, particularly useful during the COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic. The purpose of this study was to understand the cost and benefit of adopting TG-CXR in quantifiable terms. METHODS: Portable or bedside radiographs are typically performed by a team of two technologists. The TG-CXR method has the benefit of allowing one technologist to stay outside of the patient room while operating the portable radiography machine, reducing PPE use, decreasing the frequency of radiography machine sanitization and decreasing technologists' exposures to potentially infectious patients. The cost of implementing this technique during the current COVID-19 pandemic was obtained from our department's operational database. The direct cost of routinely used PPE and sanitization materials and the cost of the time taken by the technologists to clean the machine was used to form a quantitative picture of the benefit associated with TG-CXR technique. RESULTS: Technologists were trained on the TG-CXR method during a 15 min shift change briefing. This translated to a one-time cost of $424.88 USD. There was an average reduction of portable radiography machine downtime of 4 min and 48 s per study. The benefit of adopting the TG-CXR technique was $9.87 USD per patient imaged. This will result in a projected net cost savings of $51,451.84 USD per annum. CONCLUSION: Adoption of the TG-CXR technique during the COVID-19 pandemic involved minimal one-time cost, but is projected to result in a net-benefit of over $51,000 USD per annum in our emergency department.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Radiography, Thoracic/economics , Glass , Humans , Point-of-Care Testing/economics , Radiography, Thoracic/instrumentation , Tertiary Care Centers
12.
Health Technol Assess ; 25(21): 1-68, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150683

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019. At the time of writing (October 2020), the number of cases of COVID-19 had been approaching 38 million and more than 1 million deaths were attributable to it. SARS-CoV-2 appears to be highly transmissible and could rapidly spread in hospital wards. OBJECTIVE: The work undertaken aimed to estimate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of viral detection point-of-care tests for detecting SARS-CoV-2 compared with laboratory-based tests. A further objective was to assess occupancy levels in hospital areas, such as waiting bays, before allocation to an appropriate bay. PERSPECTIVE/SETTING: The perspective was that of the UK NHS in 2020. The setting was a hypothetical hospital with an accident and emergency department. METHODS: An individual patient model was constructed that simulated the spread of disease and mortality within the hospital and recorded occupancy levels. Thirty-two strategies involving different hypothetical SARS-CoV-2 tests were modelled. Recently published desirable and acceptable target product profiles for SARS-CoV-2 point-of-care tests were modelled. Incremental analyses were undertaken using both incremental cost-effectiveness ratios and net monetary benefits, and key patient outcomes, such as death and intensive care unit care, caused directly by COVID-19 were recorded. RESULTS: A SARS-CoV-2 point-of-care test with a desirable target product profile appears to have a relatively small number of infections, a low occupancy level within the waiting bays, and a high net monetary benefit. However, if hospital laboratory testing can produce results in 6 hours, then the benefits of point-of-care tests may be reduced. The acceptable target product profiles performed less well and had lower net monetary benefits than both a laboratory-based test with a 24-hour turnaround time and strategies using data from currently available SARS-CoV-2 point-of-care tests. The desirable and acceptable point-of-care test target product profiles had lower requirement for patients to be in waiting bays before being allocated to an appropriate bay than laboratory-based tests, which may be of high importance in some hospitals. Tests that appeared more cost-effective also had better patient outcomes. LIMITATIONS: There is considerable uncertainty in the values for key parameters within the model, although calibration was undertaken in an attempt to mitigate this. The example hospital simulated will also not match those of decision-makers deciding on the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of introducing SARS-CoV-2 point-of-care tests. Given these limitations, the results should be taken as indicative rather than definitive, particularly cost-effectiveness results when the relative cost per SARS-CoV-2 point-of-care test is uncertain. CONCLUSIONS: Should a SARS-CoV-2 point-of-care test with a desirable target product profile become available, this appears promising, particularly when the reduction on the requirements for waiting bays before allocation to a SARS-CoV-2-infected bay, or a non-SARS-CoV-2-infected bay, is considered. The results produced should be informative to decision-makers who can identify the results most pertinent to their specific circumstances. FUTURE WORK: More accurate results could be obtained when there is more certainty on the diagnostic accuracy of, and the reduction in time to test result associated with, SARS-CoV-2 point-of-care tests, and on the impact of these tests on occupancy of waiting bays and isolation bays. These parameters are currently uncertain. FUNDING: This report was commissioned by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Evidence Synthesis programme as project number 132154. This project was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 25, No. 21. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 is highly infectious, and this can cause problems in hospitals, where the virus can spread quickly. Laboratory-based tests can determine whether or not a patient has SARS-CoV-2, but these tests are not perfect and can require a considerable time to provide a result. Point-of-care tests to detect SARS-CoV-2 are being developed that may have much shorter times to a test result, although these are likely to be less accurate than laboratory-based tests. The benefit of quicker tests is that a decision to put a patient in a SARS-CoV-2-infected bay or in a non-SARS-CoV-2-infected bay can be made sooner, limiting contact between patients with SARS-CoV-2 and patients without SARS-CoV-2 and reducing the risk of infection transmission. The disadvantage of reduced accuracy is that some patients may be allocated to the wrong bay, increasing the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. A computer model was built to explore the impact of using SARS-CoV-2 point-of-care tests for people admitted to hospital. This model estimated the number of infections and deaths due to COVID-19, the costs of testing, and the number of people waiting to be put in an appropriate bay. Strategies were run using different values, including the time to get a test result, the accuracy of tests and whether or not staff who do not have symptoms should be tested. The results of the model indicated that point-of-care tests could be good if there was a large reduction in the time to get a test result and if accuracy was high. However, it is not certain whether or not such tests will become available. When newer SARS-CoV-2 tests are available, the model will allow an estimate of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the test to be made.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Patient Admission , Point-of-Care Testing/economics , Point-of-Care Testing/standards , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Emergency Service, Hospital/economics , Emergency Service, Hospital/standards , False Negative Reactions , False Positive Reactions , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , State Medicine , United Kingdom
13.
Epidemiol Prev ; 44(5-6 Suppl 2): 193-199, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068139

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: facing the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic requires intensive testing on the population to early identify and isolate infected subjects. Although RT-PCR is the most reliable technique to detect ongoing infections, serological tests are frequently proposed as tools in heterogeneous screening strategies. OBJECTIVES: to analyse the performance of a screening strategy proposed by the local government of Tuscany (Central Italy), which first uses qualitative rapid tests for antibody detection, and then RT-PCR tests on the positive subjects. METHODS: a simulation study is conducted to investigate the number of RT-PCR tests required by the screening strategy and the undetected ongoing infections in a pseudo-population of 500,000 subjects, under different prevalence scenarios and assuming a sensitivity of the serological test ranging from 0.50 to 0.80 (specificity 0.98). A compartmental model is used to predict the number of new infections generated by the false negatives two months after the screening, under different values of the infection reproduction number. RESULTS: assuming a sensitivity equal to 0.80 and a prevalence of 0.3%, the screening procedure would require on average 11,167 RT-PCR tests and would produce 300 false negatives, responsible after two months of a number of contagions ranging from 526 to 1,132, under the optimistic scenario of a reproduction number between 0.5 to 1. Resources and false negatives increase with the prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: the analysed screening procedure should be avoided unless the prevalence and the rate of contagion are very low. The cost and effectiveness of the screening strategies should be evaluated in the actual context of the epidemic, accounting for the fact that it may change over time.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Computer Simulation , Mass Screening/methods , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Basic Reproduction Number , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing/economics , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Cost-Benefit Analysis , False Negative Reactions , False Positive Reactions , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Mass Screening/economics , Monte Carlo Method , Point-of-Care Testing/economics , Prevalence , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity
14.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0243712, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024413

ABSTRACT

To respond to the urgent need for COVID-19 testing, countries perform nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in centralized laboratories. Real-time RT-PCR (Reverse transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction), used to amplify and detect the viral RNA., is considered, as the current gold standard for diagnostics. It is an efficient process, but the complex engineering required for automated RNA extraction and temperature cycling makes it incompatible for use in point of care settings [1]. In the present work, by harnessing progress made in the past two decades in isothermal amplification and paper microfluidics, we created a portable test, in which SARS-CoV-2 RNA is extracted, amplified isothermally by RT-LAMP (Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification), and detected using intercalating dyes or fluorescent probes. Depending on the viral load in the tested samples, the detection takes between twenty minutes and one hour. Using a set of 16 pools of naso-pharyngal swab eluates, we estimated a limit of detection comparable to real-time RT-PCR (i.e. 1 genome copies per microliter of clinical sample) and no cross-reaction with eight major respiratory viruses currently circulating in Europe. We designed and fabricated an easy-to-use portable device called "COVIDISC" to carry out the test at the point of care. The low cost of the materials along with the absence of complex equipment will expedite the widespread dissemination of this device. What is proposed here is a new efficient tool to help managing the pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19/diagnosis , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/instrumentation , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/instrumentation , Point-of-Care Testing , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19 Testing/economics , Equipment Design , Humans , Limit of Detection , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/economics , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/economics , Point-of-Care Testing/economics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Time Factors
15.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242255, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-949088

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Our objective was to assess the cost-effectiveness of novel rapid diagnostic tests: rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDT), digital immunoassays (DIA), rapid nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT), and other treatment algorithms for influenza in high-risk patients presenting to hospital with influenza-like illness (ILI). METHODS: We developed a decision-analytic model to assess the cost-effectiveness of diagnostic test strategies (RIDT, DIA, NAAT, clinical judgement, batch polymerase chain reaction) preceding treatment; no diagnostic testing and treating everyone; and not treating anyone. We modeled high-risk 65-year old patients from a health payer perspective and accrued outcomes over a patient's lifetime. We reported health outcomes, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), healthcare costs, and net health benefit (NHB) to measure cost-effectiveness per cohort of 100,000 patients. RESULTS: Treating everyone with no prior testing was the most cost-effective strategy, at a cost-effectiveness threshold of $50,000/QALY, in over 85% of simulations. This strategy yielded the highest NHB of 15.0344 QALYs, but inappropriately treats all patients without influenza. Of the novel rapid diagnostics, NAAT resulted in the highest NHB (15.0277 QALYs), and the least number of deaths (1,571 per 100,000). Sensitivity analyses determined that results were most impacted by the pretest probability of ILI being influenza, diagnostic test sensitivity, and treatment effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our model, treating high-risk patients presenting to hospital with influenza-like illness, without performing a novel rapid diagnostic test, resulted in the highest NHB and was most cost-effective. However, consideration of whether treatment is appropriate in the absence of diagnostic confirmation should be taken into account for decision-making by clinicians and policymakers.


Subject(s)
Cost-Benefit Analysis , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Point-of-Care Testing/economics , Aged , Canada , Emergency Service, Hospital/economics , Female , Health Care Costs , Humans , Immunoassay/economics , Influenza, Human/mortality , Influenza, Human/therapy , Male , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/economics , Quality-Adjusted Life Years
17.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 170: 112673, 2020 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-807919

ABSTRACT

Currently the world is being challenged by a public health emergency caused by the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19). Extensive efforts in testing for coronavirus infection, combined with isolating infected cases and quarantining those in contact, have proven successful in bringing the epidemic under control. Rapid and facile screening of this disease is in high demand. This review summarises recent advances in strategies reported by international researchers and engineers concerning how to tackle COVID-19 via rapid testing, mainly through nucleic acid- and antibody- testing. The roles of biosensors as powerful analytical tools are emphasized for the detection of viral RNAs, surface antigens, whole viral particles, antibodies and other potential biomarkers in human specimen. We critically review in depth newly developed biosensing methods especially for in-field and point-of-care detection of SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, this review describes possible future strategies for virus rapid detection. It helps researchers working on novel sensor technologies to tailor their technologies in a way to address the challenge for effective detection of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Biosensing Techniques , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Point-of-Care Testing , Animals , Biosensing Techniques/economics , Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/economics , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/instrumentation , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Equipment Design , Humans , Pandemics , Point-of-Care Testing/economics , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
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