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1.
medrxiv; 2024.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2024.01.14.24301291

ABSTRACT

The impact of Covid-19 on mortality includes both direct effects of the virus and indirect effects mediated through other causal pathways. In the United States, the indirect effects, particularly from suicides, overdoses and alcohol-induced causes (i.e. deaths of despair) (1) are understudied. Here, we estimated excess non-Covid deaths and deaths of despair, in the US overall, in each state and in 72 demographic strata. Nationally, 114,230 (127,597) excess non-Covid deaths, 19,074 (33,559) excess poisoning deaths and 8,746 (13,771) excess alcohol-induced deaths were estimated during 2020 (2021). Excess poisoning and alcohol-induced mortality were highest among the 35-44 and the 55-64 year groups, respectively. The Black and the American Indian/Alaskan Native populations had the highest excess poisoning and alcohol-induced mortality, respectively. Fewer suicides than expected occurred nationally, but excess suicides were estimated among Black youth. These findings suggest that additional resources need to be mobilized to limit increases in deaths of despair.


Subject(s)
Drug Overdose , Death , COVID-19 , Poisoning
3.
Forensic Sci Int ; 347: 111683, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320335

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Knowing and analyzing the characteristics and trends of forensic toxicology cases in a certain area is particularly important for a local government to establish an effective prevention and control system. The purpose of this work was to summarize data from forensic toxicology cases received by the Academy of Forensic Sciences (AFS) in 2021. METHODS: As requested by the police or according to the details of cases, samples were systematically screened or analyzed by various methods. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to identify medicinal drugs, drugs of abuse, pesticides, poison gases, etc. RESULTS: AFS received a total of 17,758 cases in 2021, of which 314 cases underwent autopsy. The main cause of death was sudden death, and the manner of death was mainly accident. Among 13,744 drug abuse cases, the number of positive cases was 1721, with a positive rate of 12.5%, and synthetic cannabinoids were the most frequently detected substances. In 3640 traffic cases, 85.3% of drivers were suspected of drunk driving. In 103 poisoning cases, hydrogen sulfide poisoning and pesticide suicide account for a large proportion. In drug-facilitated crimes, zolpidem was the most frequently tested component. In 55 case of dog poisonings, the main poisons were cyanides and succinylcholine, and the main poisoning tools were poisonous baits and poisonous syringe darts. CONCLUSIONS: This study profiles the toxicological characteristics of forensic toxicological cases conducted at the AFS in 2021 and provides a scientific basis for poisoning cases and drug abuse prevention.


Subject(s)
Pesticides , Poisoning , Substance-Related Disorders , Suicide , Animals , Dogs , Forensic Toxicology/methods , Retrospective Studies , Forensic Medicine , Poisoning/diagnosis
4.
Environ Res ; 228: 115886, 2023 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297095

ABSTRACT

Intoxication with methanol most commonly occurs as a consequence of ingesting, inhaling, or coming into contact with formulations that include methanol as a base. Clinical manifestations of methanol poisoning include suppression of the central nervous system, gastrointestinal symptoms, and decompensated metabolic acidosis, which is associated with impaired vision and either early or late blindness within 0.5-4 h after ingestion. After ingestion, methanol concentrations in the blood that are greater than 50 mg/dl should raise some concern. Ingested methanol is typically digested by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and it is subsequently redistributed to the body's water to attain a volume distribution that is about equivalent to 0.77 L/kg. Moreover, it is removed from the body as its natural, unchanged parent molecules. Due to the fact that methanol poisoning is relatively uncommon but frequently involves a large number of victims at the same time, this type of incident occupies a special position in the field of clinical toxicology. The beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in an increase in erroneous assumptions regarding the preventative capability of methanol in comparison to viral infection. More than 1000 Iranians fell ill, and more than 300 of them passed away in March of this year after they consumed methanol in the expectation that it would protect them from a new coronavirus. The Atlanta epidemic, which involved 323 individuals and resulted in the deaths of 41, is one example of mass poisoning. Another example is the Kristiansand outbreak, which involved 70 people and resulted in the deaths of three. In 2003, the AAPCC received reports of more than one thousand pediatric exposures. Since methanol poisoning is associated with high mortality rates, it is vital that the condition be addressed seriously and managed as quickly as feasible. The objective of this review was to raise awareness about the mechanism and metabolism of methanol toxicity, the introduction of therapeutic interventions such as gastrointestinal decontamination and methanol metabolism inhibition, the correction of metabolic disturbances, and the establishment of novel diagnostic/screening nanoparticle-based strategies for methanol poisoning such as the discovery of ADH inhibitors as well as the detection of the adulteration of alcoholic drinks by nanoparticles in order to prevent methanol poisoning. In conclusion, increasing warnings and knowledge about clinical manifestations, medical interventions, and novel strategies for methanol poisoning probably results in a decrease in the death load.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Poisoning , Humans , Child , Methanol/metabolism , Methanol/toxicity , Pandemics , Iran , Poisoning/therapy
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 72(16): 426-430, 2023 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294871

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a global pandemic on March 11, 2020 (1). As strategies to mitigate the pandemic were implemented, concerns were raised that the containment efforts through quarantine and social distancing practices were negatively affecting the mental and physical health of children and adolescents (2). Suicide is a growing public health problem in the United States. In 2020, suicide was the second leading cause of death among persons aged 10-14 years and the third leading cause among those aged 15-24 years (3). The National Poison Data System (NPDS) database was used to examine trends in suspected suicide attempts by self-poisoning among persons aged 10-19 years before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Compared with 2019 (prepandemic), during 2021, the overall rate of suspected suicide attempts by self-poisoning increased by 30.0% (95% CI = 28.6%-30.9%), rates among children aged 10-12 years, adolescents aged 13-15 years, and females increased 73.0% (67.4%-80.0%), 48.8% (46.7%-50.9%), and 36.8% (35.4%-38.2%), respectively, and these trends continued into the third quarter of 2022. Substances most frequently involved in overdoses were acetaminophen, ibuprofen, sertraline, fluoxetine, and diphenhydramine. Acetaminophen-involved overdoses increased 71% (67.4%-74.9%) in 2021 and 58.0% (54.5%-61.6%) in 2022. Diphenhydramine-involved overdoses increased 24.2% (19.9%-28.7%) in 2021 and 35.8% (31.2%-40.5%) in 2022. A comprehensive public health approach to suicide prevention, focused on children and adolescents and involving a partnership between families, school teachers, mental health professionals, and public health leadership is needed. The 9-8-8 Suicide and Crisis Lifeline provides crisis support for persons experiencing mental health-related distress and assists community members who are concerned about persons experiencing a mental health crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Overdose , Poisoning , Suicide, Attempted , Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Pandemics , Suicide Prevention , United States/epidemiology , Drug Overdose/epidemiology , Poisoning/epidemiology
6.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 60(12): 1381-1643, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261532

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACTINTRODUCTION: This is the 39th Annual Report of America's Poison Centers' National Poison Data System (NPDS). As of 1 January, 2021, all 55 of the nation's poison centers (PCs) uploaded case data automatically to NPDS. The upload interval was 4.87 [4.38, 8.62] (median [25%, 75%]) minutes, effectuating a near real-time national exposure and information database and surveillance system. METHODS: We analyzed the case data tabulating specific indices from NPDS. The methodology was similar to that of previous years. Where changes were introduced, the differences are identified. Cases with medical outcomes of death were evaluated by a team of medical and clinical toxicologist reviewers using an ordinal scale of 1-6 to assess the Relative Contribution to Fatality (RCF) of the exposure. RESULTS: In 2021, 2,851,166 closed encounters were logged by NPDS: 2,080,917 human exposures, 62,189 animal exposures, 703,086 information requests, 4,920 human confirmed nonexposures, and 54 animal confirmed nonexposures. Total encounters showed a 14.0% decrease from 2020, and human exposure cases decreased by 2.22%, while health care facility (HCF) human exposure cases increased by 7.20%. All information requests decreased by 37.0%, medication identification (Drug ID) requests decreased by 20.8%, and medical information requests showed a 61.1% decrease, although these remain about 13-fold higher than before the COVID-19 pandemic. Drug Information requests showed a 146% increase, reflecting COVID-19 vaccine calls to PCs. Human exposures with less serious outcomes have decreased 1.80% per year since 2008, while those with more serious outcomes (moderate, major or death) have increased 4.56% per year since 2000.Consistent with the previous year, the top 5 substance classes most frequently involved in all human exposures were analgesics (11.2%), household cleaning substances (7.49%), cosmetics/personal care products (5.88%), antidepressants (5.61%), and sedatives/hypnotics/antipsychotics (4.73%). As a class, antidepressant exposures increased most rapidly, by 1,663 cases/year (5.30%/year) over the past 10 years for cases with more serious outcomes.The top 5 most common exposures in children age 5 years or less were cosmetics/personal care products (10.8%), household cleaning substances (10.7%), analgesics (8.16%), dietary supplements/herbals/homeopathic (7.00%), and foreign bodies/toys/miscellaneous (6.51%). Drug identification requests comprised 3.64% of all information contacts. NPDS documented 4,497 human exposures resulting in death; 3,809 (84.7%) of these were judged as related (RCF of 1-Undoubtedly responsible, 2-Probably responsible, or 3-Contributory). CONCLUSIONS: These data support the continued value of PC expertise and the need for specialized medical toxicology information to manage more serious exposures. Unintentional and intentional exposures continue to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the US. The near real-time status of NPDS represents a national public health resource to collect and monitor US exposure cases and information contacts. The continuing mission of NPDS is to provide a nationwide infrastructure for surveillance for all types of exposures (e.g., foreign body, infectious, venomous, chemical agent, or commercial product), and the identification and tracking of significant public health events. NPDS is a model system for the near real-time surveillance of national and global public health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Foreign Bodies , Poisoning , Poisons , Animals , Child , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Child, Preschool , COVID-19 Vaccines , Pandemics , Poison Control Centers , COVID-19/epidemiology , Databases, Factual , Analgesics , Antidepressive Agents , Foreign Bodies/complications , Poisoning/epidemiology , Poisoning/therapy , Poisoning/etiology
7.
researchsquare; 2023.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-2859185.v1

ABSTRACT

Purpose Poisoning remains a major health problem worldwide. Most non-intentional acute exposures are non- or minimally toxic, but occasionally highly toxic substances need specific medical interventions. The COVID-19 pandemic with the lockdown that followed had a negative impact on the poisoning incidence.Methods This was a retrospective study including data from 103 children that were examined during the period 2019–2021 at the Penteli Children’s General Hospital.Results The most common poisons were drugs (N = 39, 37.9%) and cigarettes (N = 33, 32.0%). Detergents and insecticides followed with 5.9% (N = 6) and 4.9% (N = 5), respectively. The number of poisoned children was lower in 2019 (N = 25) compared to 2020 (N = 46). The majority were observed in 2020 (44.7%), during the Covid19 lockdown.Conclusion Pediatric poisoning constitutes a global emergency. Despite the overall decrease in the pediatric visits, an increase in the poisonings was noted during the lockdown. Prevention should focus on adult supervision and proper storage of chemicals.


Subject(s)
Pediatric Obesity , COVID-19 , Poisoning
8.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3)set-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2205389

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A violência contra à mulher é caracterizada especialmente pela desigualdade de gênero, diferença hierárquica, subordinação e pela agressividade do parceiro ou ex-parceiro. Entre os principais subtipos, cita-se; a violência física, psicológica, sexual, patrimonial e moral. Com o surgimento da pandemia de coronavírus em 2020 na tentativa de contenção da doença, medidas protetivas como o isolamento social aumentaram o convívio familiar. Dessa forma, as vítimas de violência passaram a ficar ainda mais tempo expostas aos seus agressores e consequentemente com maiores dificuldades para denunciar os abusos sofridos, pois a prestação dos serviços públicos, instituições de segurança e judiciais também foram restringidas. Objetivo: Caracterizar os casos de violência contra a mulher em tempos de pandemia de coronavírus em um município do Sudoeste do Paraná. Materiais e métodos: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, documental e transversal com abordagem quantitativa realizada em um município do Sudoeste do Paraná a partir da coleta de dados, por meio das fichas de notificação de violência contra a mulher entre 2019 e 2021. Resultados e discussão: O estudo demonstrou prevalência de notificações no ano de 2019 em mulheres com idade de 12 a 18 anos (27,2%), brancas (71,3%), com ensino médio (21,9%), sendo ainda estudantes (23,1%) ou desempregadas (17,2%), sem companheiro (52,4%), residentes da área urbana (74%), heterossexuais (50,6%), sem possuir algum tipo de deficiência (51,8%). Ao verificar a tipologia da agressão com maior incidência, observou-se a lesão autoprovocada (53,6%) por meio da intoxicação /envenenamento (41,4%). Quanto a violência interpessoal, notou-se que a maioria das agressões foram ocasionadas pelo próprio cônjuge da vítima (12,4%), utilizando da força física (29,3%), salienta-se que o álcool não estava presente na maior parte das agressões. Conclusão: Evidencia-se a prevalência de violência autoprovocada (53,6%), em adolescentes com ensino médio, brancas, sem companheiro, residentes da área urbana, agredidas em ambiente domiciliar, motivadas por conflitos geracionais, sendo as violências mais incidentes a física por meio de envenenamento/intoxicação. Diante do exposto é importante abordar o fato de que é necessário realizar capacitações com os profissionais de saúde referente a ficha de notificação e orientá-los da importância de preenchê-la de forma correta, para haja a tomada de providências de acordo com cada necessidade.


Introduction: Introduction: Violence against women is characterized especially by gender inequality, hierarchical difference, subordination and aggressiveness of the partner or ex partner. Among the main subtypes are physical, psychological, sexual, patrimonial and moral violence. With the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 in an attempt to contain the disease, protective measures such as social isolation increased family coexistence. As a result, the victims of violence have been exposed to their aggressors for even longer and consequently find it more difficult to report the abuse they have suffered, since the provision of public services, security and judicial institutions have also been restricted. Objective: To characterize the cases of violence against women during the COVID-19 pandemic in a municipality in the southwest of Paraná. Materals and methods: This is a descriptive, documentary, and cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach carried out in a municipality in the Southwest of Paraná from data collection performed through the notification forms of violence against women notified between 2019 and 2021. Results and discussion: The study showed a prevalence of notifications in the year 2019 in women aged 12 to 18 years (27.2%), white (71.3%), with high school education (21.9%), being still students (23.1%) or unemployed (17.2%), without a partner (52.4%), residents of the urban area (74%), more specifically the Padre Ulrico neighborhood (12.4%), heterosexual (50.6%), without having any type of disability (51.8%). When checking the type of aggression with the highest incidence, we observed self-harm (53.6%) through intoxication/ poisoning (41.4%). As for interpersonal violence, it was noted that most aggressions were caused by the victim's own spouse (12.4%), using physical force (29.3%), and alcohol was not present in most aggressions. Conclusion: The prevalence of self- inflicted violence (53.6%) is evident in adolescents with high school education, white, without a partner, urban residents, assaulted in the home environment, motivated by generational conflicts, with the most incident violence being physical violence through poisoning/intoxication. Given the above, it is important to address the fact that it is necessary to conduct training with health professionals regarding the notification form and guide them on the importance of filling it out correctly, so that there is taking action according to each need.


Introducción: La violencia contra las mujeres se caracteriza especialmente por la desigualdad de género, la diferencia jerárquica, la subordinación y la agresividad de la pareja o ex pareja. Entre los principales subtipos, se menciona; la violencia física, psicológica, sexual, patrimonial y moral. Con la aparición de la pandemia de coronavirus en 2020 en un intento de contener la enfermedad, las medidas de protección como el aislamiento social han aumentado la convivencia familiar. Así, las víctimas de la violencia han quedado aún más expuestas a sus agresores y, en consecuencia, tienen mayores dificultades para denunciar los abusos sufridos, ya que también se ha restringido la prestación de servicios públicos, de seguridad y de instituciones judiciales. Objetivo: Caracterizar los casos de violencia contra la mujer en tiempos de pandemia de coronavirus en un municipio del sudoeste de Paraná. Materiales y métodos: Se trata de un estudio descriptivo, documental y transversal con enfoque cuantitativo realizado en un municipio del suroeste de Paraná a partir de la recolección de datos a través de las formas de notificación de la violencia contra las mujeres entre 2019 y 2021. Resultados y discusión: El estudio mostró una prevalencia de notificaciones en 2019 en mujeres de 12 a 18 años (27,2%), de raza blanca (71,3%), con estudios secundarios (21,9%), siendo aún estudiantes (23,1%) o desempleadas (17,2%), sin pareja (52,4%), residentes en el área urbana (74%), heterosexuales (50,6%), sin tener algún tipo de discapacidad (51,8%). Al verificar el tipo de agresión con mayor incidencia, se observó la lesión autoinfligida (53,6%) a través de la intoxicación / envenenamiento (41,4%). En cuanto a la violencia interpersonal, se observó que la mayoría de las agresiones fueron causadas por el propio cónyuge de la víctima (12,4%), utilizando la fuerza física (29,3%), se destaca que el alcohol no estuvo presente en la mayoría de las agresiones. Conclusión: Se evidencia la prevalencia de la violencia autoprovocada (53,6%), en adolescentes con educación médica, brancas, sin compañía, residentes del área urbana, agredidos en ambiente domiciliario, motivados por conflictos geracionales, siendo las violencias más incidentes a la física por medio de envenenamiento/intoxicación. Dado lo anterior es importante abordar el hecho de que es necesario realizar una capacitación con los profesionales de la salud respecto a la ficha de notificación y orientarlos sobre la importancia de llenarla correctamente, para que exista la toma de acciones de acuerdo a cada necesidad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Health Profile , Violence Against Women , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Poisoning , Social Isolation , Women , Wounds and Injuries , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Health Personnel , Health Personnel/education , Crime Victims/statistics & numerical data , Notification/statistics & numerical data , Aggression/psychology , Professional Training , Physical Abuse/statistics & numerical data
9.
researchsquare; 2022.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-2324070.v1

ABSTRACT

Phosgene, a highly dangerous chemical warfare agent, is widely used as an industrial chemical. Phosgene inhalation causes acute lung injury (ALI), which may further progress into pulmonary edema. Currently, there is no known antidote for phosgene poisoning. Alpha-1 antitrypsin (α1-AT) is a protease inhibitor that has been used to treat emphysema patients, who are deficient in α1-AT, for decades. Recent studies have shown that α1-AT has both anti-inflammatory and anti-SARS-CoV-2 effects. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of α1-AT in phosgene-induced ALI. We observed a time-dependent increase in α1-AT expression and secretion in the lungs of rats exposed to phosgene. Interestingly, α1-AT was derived from neutrophils, but not from macrophages or alveolar type II cells, and α1-AT knockdown aggravated phosgene- and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation and cell death in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). Conversely, α1-AT administration suppressed the inflammatory response and prevented death in LPS- and phosgene-exposed BEAS-2B cells. Furthermore, α1-AT treatment increased the expression of the inhibitor of DNA binding (ID1) gene, which suppressed NF-κB pathway activation, reduced inflammation, and inhibited cell death. These data demonstrate that neutrophil-derived α1-AT protects against phosgene-induced ALI by activating the ID1-dependent anti-inflammatory response. This study may provide novel strategies for the treatment of patients with phosgene-induced ALI.


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Edema , Acute Lung Injury , Emphysema , Poisoning , Adenocarcinoma, Bronchiolo-Alveolar , Inflammation
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9741, 2022 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890271

ABSTRACT

A methanol poisoning outbreak occurred in Iran during the initial months of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We aimed to evaluate the epidemiology of the outbreak in terms of hospitalizations and deaths. A cross-sectional linkage study was conducted based on the hospitalization data collected from thirteen referral toxicology centers throughout Iran as well as mortality data obtained from the Iranian Legal Medicine Organization (LMO). Patient data were extracted for all cases aged > 19 years with toxic alcohol poisoning during the study period from February until June 2020. A total of 795 patients were hospitalized due to methanol poisoning, of whom 84 died. Median [interquartile ratio; IQR] age was 32 [26, 40] years (range 19-91 years). Patients had generally ingested alcohol for recreational motives (653, 82.1%) while 3.1% (n = 25) had consumed alcohol-based hand sanitizers to prevent or cure COVID-19 infection. Age was significantly lower in survivors than in non-survivors (P < 0.001) and in patients without sequelae vs. with sequelae (P = 0.026). Twenty non-survivors presented with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score > 8, six of whom were completely alert on presentation to the emergency departments. The time from alcohol ingestion to hospital admission was not significantly different between provinces. In East Azerbaijan province, where hemodialysis was started within on average 60 min of admission, the rate of sequelae was 11.4% (compared to 19.6% average of other provinces)-equivalent to a reduction of the odds of sequelae by 2.1 times [95% CI 1.2, 3.7; p = 0.009]. Older patients were more prone to fatal outcome and sequelae, including visual disturbances. Early arrival at the hospital can facilitate timely diagnosis and treatment and may reduce long-term morbidity from methanol poisoning. Our data thus suggest the importance of raising public awareness of the risks and early symptoms of methanol intoxication.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , COVID-19 , Poisoning , Adult , Alcoholism/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Methanol , Pandemics
11.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(5)2022 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854261

ABSTRACT

Superwarfarin (long-acting anticoagulant rodenticide) poisoning should be suspected in unexplained bleeding with prolonged prothrombin time, especially in the absence of another explanation. Diagnosis and treatment of this intoxication remain a challenge as the direct analysis of superwarfarin in serum is not always possible. Therefore, toxin bioavailability remains unknown and close monitoring and treatment for long periods are required to avoid serious bleeding complications. Here, we discuss a case of suspected superwarfarin poisoning to highlight the challenges in early diagnosis and the challenges we encountered in treatment management and ensuring compliance for long periods.


Subject(s)
4-Hydroxycoumarins , Blood Coagulation Disorders , Poisoning , Rodenticides , Anticoagulants , Blood Coagulation Disorders/chemically induced , Humans , Poisoning/therapy
12.
Int J Occup Med Environ Health ; 35(5): 527-535, 2022 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847754

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study included evaluating and reporting on the initial impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and preventive measures in the form of a lockdown on self-poisoning tendencies in northern Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The authors retrospectively analyzed medical records of all patients (N = 2990) admitted to the Pomeranian Center of Toxicology in 2018-2020. Of those, further analysis included 2140 patients who had been admitted because of a suicide attempt by self-poisoning. The authors also selected a group of 40 patients on the basis of a self-reported direct relationship of the suicide attempt with the COVID-19 pandemic or the imposed lockdown. RESULTS: The rates of suicide attempts in toxicological patients over the years ranged 68.18-75.3%. The patients were predominantly female, with age between M±SD 33.2±16.9 and 36.0±16.4. Each year, over 60% of patients were admitted during their first attempt and were treated psychiatrically prior to their attempt, with differences observed in the COVID-19-related group. The alcohol intoxication during the suicide attempt was confirmed in 37.40-43.53% of the patients, with a higher rate of 52.50% observed in the COVID-19-related group. The main self-reported reason for the suicide was a romantic relationship conflict or breakup, and a conflict and/or violence in the family. The most frequent agents were over-the-counter painkillers, antidepressants, antipsychotics and benzodiazepines or Z-drugs. CONCLUSIONS: During the initial year of the COVID-19 pandemic, there was a fall of suicide attempts by self-poisonings in northern Poland, significant only in the case of women. The self-reported reasons were similar in all years, with mainly minor changes. There was also an increase in attempts made using benzodiazepines or Z-drugs seen in 2020 and in the COVID-19-related group. The authors believe that there is a need for multi-center, large-scale prospective studies that would provide better insight into the pandemic-related suicidal trends. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2022;35(5):527-35.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents , COVID-19 , Poisoning , Benzodiazepines , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Poisoning/epidemiology , Poland/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
13.
Am J Ind Med ; 65(7): 556-566, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1843845

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Incidence of drug poisoning deaths has increased during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Previous research has established that risks differ for drug poisoning death according to occupation, and that workers also have a different risk for exposure to and death from COVID-19. This study sought to determine whether workers in certain occupations had drug poisoning mortality rates that increased in 2020 (the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic) compared to the average mortality rate for workers in those occupations during the previous 3 years. METHODS: Death certificates of Massachusetts residents who died from drug poisonings in 2017-2020 were obtained. Average mortality rates of drug poisoning according to occupation during the 2017-2019 period were compared to mortality rates in 2020. RESULTS: Between the 2017-2019 period and 2020, mortality rates of drug poisoning increased significantly for workers in three occupational groups: food preparation and serving; healthcare support; and transportation and material moving. In these occupations, most of the increases in 2020 compared to 2017-2019 occurred in months after COVID-19 pandemic cases and deaths increased in Massachusetts. CONCLUSION: Mortality rates from drug poisonings increased substantially in several occupations in 2020 compared to previous years. Further research should examine the role of occupational factors in this increase in drug poisoning mortality rates during the COVID-19 pandemic. Particular attention should be given to determine the role that exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, work stress, and financial stress due to job insecurity played in these increases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Poisoning , Humans , Massachusetts/epidemiology , Occupations , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Am J Emerg Med ; 54: 184-195, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748319

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Increasing use of the internet for health information has decreased utilization of traditional telephone-based poison centers in the United States. webPOISONCONTROL®, a browser-based tool and app was launched to meet the growing demand for online, personalized recommendations for human poison exposures. This study was conducted to characterize webPOISONCONTROL cases and highlight its potential for real-time monitoring of poisoning. METHODS: Case data for all completed, nonduplicated public cases entered in 2020 were analyzed using a custom Qlik Sense dashboard. RESULTS: Of the 156,202 cases, 52.9% occurred in children younger than 4 years. Most cases (109,057, 69.8%) were initially triaged to home, 28.4% were advised to call Poison Control, and 1.7% were referred to the ED. Follow-up was available for 33.3% of home-triaged cases; 1.7% of those had a change in triage recommendation. Pharmaceuticals were implicated in 41.5% of cases (nonpharmaceuticals in 58.5%). Ingestion was the most common route (88.4%, 138,012). One-time double dose therapeutic error cases were implicated in 17,901 cases (27.6% of pharmaceutical cases). Cosmetics (13.9%) and cleaning substances (12.9%) were the most frequent substance categories. Melatonin was the most frequently implicated generic substance (4.5% of cases). Most (72.0%) cases had no effect (21.4%), a minor effect (3.9%) or were minimally toxic with unknown outcome (46.7%). There were no deaths, 17 major outcomes (0.01%), and 26.7% of cases had potentially toxic exposures with no outcome determination. In 2020, webPOISONCONTROL handled 7.3% as many human poison exposure cases as were reported to U.S. phone-based poison centers. Online cases are skewed towards younger ages (53% in children younger than 4 years vs 37% of phone-based cases) and towards nonpharmaceuticals (58.5% vs 43.5%). Near real-time data visualizations enabled detection of COVID-19-related increases in exposures to hand sanitizers and cleaners, illustrating the public health surveillance and hazard detection capabilities of webPOISONCONTROL. CONCLUSION: The webPOISONCONTROL tool provides a safe, quick and fully-automated alternative to those who are unable or unwilling to use the telephone to call a traditional poison center.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Poisoning , Child , Child, Preschool , Databases, Factual , Humans , Poison Control Centers , Poisoning/diagnosis , Telephone , Triage , United States/epidemiology
15.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e053028, 2021 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566366

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the effect of the COVID-19 lockdown in Jordan (21 March 2020-21 May 2020) on the incidence and patterns of toxic exposures and poisoning as compared with the same period from the previous year (21 March 2019-21 May 2019). DESIGN: A retrospective descriptive study. METHODS: Call data sourced from Pharmacy One Poison Center from the lockdown period (21 March 2020-21 May 2020) and the same period during 2019 (21 March 2019-21 May 2019) were revised. In addition, a database was established and analysed. RESULTS: We noticed that not only did calls increased, but there was also a noticeable change in call patterns. Calls increased by 91% (544 vs 285 calls) during the lockdown period. Drugs were the most common among types of exposure, and the most prevalent route of exposure was ingestion. There was a notable increase in ocular exposure by 550% (13 vs 2 cases). The majority of exposures were at home and there were no occupational exposures. We found an increase in household cleaner exposure among males and an increase in alcohol exposure in females. Children aged below 5 years are the most affected. Even though there is an increase in the total number of cases, severe cases decreased. CONCLUSION: The lockdown effect on rates of toxic exposures was prominent, whether through the increase in calls or the change in patterns. As people spent more time at home, their exposure to toxic agents increased. Furthermore, cleaning recommendations led to the misuse of cleaning and disinfectant products, increasing exposures related to abating the COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Poisoning , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Incidence , Jordan/epidemiology , Male , Poison Control Centers , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Arch Dis Child ; 106(11): 1050-1055, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501685

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Globally, injuries cause >5 million deaths annually and children and young people are particularly vulnerable. Injuries are the leading cause of death in people aged 5-24 years and a leading cause of disability. In most low-income and middle-income countries where the majority of global child injury burden occurs, systems for routinely collecting injury data are limited. METHODS: A new model of injury surveillance for use in emergency departments in Nepal was designed and piloted. Data from patients presenting with injuries were collected prospectively over 12 months and used to describe the epidemiology of paediatric injury presentations. RESULTS: The total number of children <18 years of age presenting with injury was 2696, representing 27% of all patients presenting with injuries enrolled. Most injuries in children presenting to the emergency departments in this study were unintentional and over half of children were <10 years of age. Falls, animal bites/stings and road traffic injuries accounted for nearly 75% of all injuries with poisonings, burns and drownings presenting proportionately less often. Over half of injuries were cuts, bites and open wounds. In-hospital child mortality from injury was 1%. CONCLUSION: Injuries affecting children in Nepal represent a significant burden. The data on injuries observed from falls, road traffic injuries and injuries related to animals suggest potential areas for injury prevention. This is the biggest prospective injury surveillance study in Nepal in recent years and supports the case for using injury surveillance to monitor child morbidity and mortality through improved data.


Subject(s)
Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Global Burden of Disease/economics , Public Health Surveillance/methods , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Accidental Falls/statistics & numerical data , Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Animals , Bites and Stings/epidemiology , Burns/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Drowning/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Female , Humans , Male , Nepal/epidemiology , Poisoning/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Trauma Severity Indices , Wounds and Injuries/mortality , Wounds and Injuries/prevention & control
17.
Geneva; World Health Organization; 2021.
in English | WHOIRIS | ID: gwh-348060
18.
Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol ; 130(1): 200-207, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488179

ABSTRACT

The transfer of a chemical product from its original container to an unlabelled secondary container by consumers is a potential health hazard that may result in unintentional exposures and intoxications. The aim of this study was to describe the pattern of prevalence of exposures to transferred products in Italy from year 2017, when the new European labelling regulation for chemicals became fully operative, to 2020, year of the coronavirus 19 disease first outbreak. Calls to the Poison Control Centre (PCC) of Policlinico Umberto I Hospital - Sapienza University of Rome were analysed retrospectively for characteristics, clinical presentation and circumstances related to the event. We registered 198 cases of interest. There was a reduction in cases from 2017 (4.9%) to 2019 (2.2%), followed by an increased prevalence in 2020 (4.2%) mainly due to the months "post-lockdown." The transferred product was very frequently diluted, and an empty drinking bottle was usually used as secondary container. Exposures were mostly of minor severity, and no deaths occurred. The study highlights the importance of PCCs data in the evaluation of the hazard communication to users through labels and advises for public campaigns to promote safe behaviours during future lockdowns to prevent exposures at a later period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Hazardous Substances/toxicity , Poisoning/epidemiology , Product Labeling/legislation & jurisprudence , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Poison Control Centers , Product Packaging , Retrospective Studies , Rome
19.
J Med Toxicol ; 17(4): 333-362, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415107

ABSTRACT

The Toxicology Investigators Consortium (ToxIC) Registry was established by the American College of Medical Toxicology in 2010. The registry collects data from participating sites with the agreement that all bedside and telehealth medical toxicology consultation will be entered. This eleventh annual report summarizes the Registry's 2020 data and activity with its additional 6668 cases. Cases were identified for inclusion in this report by a query of the ToxIC database for any case entered from January 1 to December 31, 2020. Detailed data was collected from these cases and aggregated to provide information which included demographics, reason for medical toxicology evaluation, agent and agent class, clinical signs and symptoms, treatments and antidotes administered, mortality, and whether life support was withdrawn. Gender distribution included 50.6% cases in females, 48.4% in males, and 1.0% identifying as transgender. Non-opioid analgesics were the most commonly reported agent class, followed by opioid and antidepressant classes. Acetaminophen was once again the most common agent reported. There were 80 fatalities, comprising 1.2% of all registry cases. Major trends in demographics and exposure characteristics remained similar to past years' reports. Sub-analyses were conducted to describe race and ethnicity demographics and exposures in the registry, telemedicine encounters, and cases related to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Congresses as Topic , Hazardous Substances/toxicity , Poisoning/diagnosis , Poisoning/therapy , Registries/statistics & numerical data , Research Report , Toxicology/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Canada , Female , Humans , Israel , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Thailand , United States
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