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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(11)2022 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884139

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccination, apart from the sanitary regime, is the most efficient strategy to limit the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and significantly reduce the severity of the disease following infection. A cross-sectional survey was conducted during the fourth wave of the COVID-19 pandemic among pregnant Polish women and women who have already given birth to evaluate the level and attitude to vaccination. Briefly, 1196 women (256 pregnant and 940 mothers) participated in the study; 68.0% of pregnant women and 66.2% of mothers declared that they had received COVID-19 vaccination. The most frequently stated reasons not to get vaccinated were possible adverse effects on the mother, fetus or breastfed child, post-vaccination complications and limited scientific evidence on the safety of the COVID-19 vaccine. The identified predictors of avoiding COVID-19 vaccination are young age, residing in small cities or rural areas, cohabitation, low anxiety level regarding SARS-CoV-2 infection, and little knowledge concerning maternal vaccine-induced immune protection delivered to offspring. Despite the unlimited access to COVID-19 vaccination, the declared level of vaccination is worryingly low. The knowledge concerning the benefits of vaccination to mothers and their offspring is not satisfactory and requires urgent educational action, particularly among young women living outside big cities and single motherhood.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Poland/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
2.
Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med ; 41(3): 101062, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1881591
3.
Med Sci Monit ; 28: e936962, 2022 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879650

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Education was significantly affected by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Online learning affects the quality of learning as well as the mental health status of students. Regular screening for COVID-19 may be crucial to provide practical classes during the pandemic. The present study aimed to analyze the usefulness of rapid antigen tests for on-campus COVID-19 screening in real-life conditions at a medical university in Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS This screening study was carried out among students attending practical classes at the Medical University of Warsaw, Poland between November 15 and December 10, 2021, during which a series of rapid antigen tests (Panbio™ COVID-19 Ag Rapid Test Device, nasal) were performed by healthcare professionals (nurses). Out of 104 student groups selected for the study (n=1847 students), 423 individuals from 63 student groups were tested at least once (22.9% response rate). A total of 2295 samples were collected. RESULTS Among the participants, 3.4% (n=15) had positive test results. Out of 15 COVID-19 cases, 14 were vaccinated. At least 1 positive COVID-19 case was detected in 8 student groups. In 3 student groups, we observed ≥2 infections that occurred at intervals, which may suggest student-to-student SARS-CoV-2 transmission. CONCLUSIONS This study produced real-world data from a COVID-19 screening study and confirmed the usefulness of the rapid antigen test (Panbio™ COVID-19 Ag Rapid Test Device nasal) for on-campus COVID-19 screening prior to practical classes. Maintaining a high percentage of participants is crucial to ensuring the effectiveness of on-campus COVID-19 screening.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Universities
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(8)2022 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875555

ABSTRACT

Pregnant women are more susceptible to influenza virus infections due to the immunological and physiological changes in the course of pregnancy. Vaccination during pregnancy is a safe and effective method for protecting both the mothers and the infants from influenza and its complications. This study was conducted in order to determine the knowledge and attitudes of Polish pregnant women towards influenza vaccination during the COVID-19 pandemic. A questionnaire-based and self-administered study was carried out fully online and a total of 515 women participated. A total of 52% (n = 268) of surveyed women answered that vaccination against influenza during pregnancy was safe. However, only 21% (n = 108) were vaccinated against influenza during their current pregnancy and 17.5% (n = 90) intended to be vaccinated. The participants indicated many concerns about getting vaccinated during pregnancy, but also many benefits that come with the vaccination. General knowledge about influenza, its complications, and vaccination was quite high in the study group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Poland/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnant Women , Vaccination
5.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(10): 3771-3786, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1876426

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The two-year long epidemic situation around the world has resulted in an increasing number of people experiencing "pandemic fatigue". The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between a sense of self-efficacy and fatigue experienced in everyday life by nursing students in Poland, Spain and Slovakia during the COVID-19 pandemic. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study was conducted by the diagnostic survey method on a group of 756 nursing students of the first-cycle degree program, from 20 March to 15 May 2021, in the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin (Poland), as well as in Murcia University (Spain) and in the Catholic University in Ruzomberok (Slovakia). RESULTS: The sense of self-efficacy was significantly lower among the students in Poland than in those in Spain (p < 0.0001) and in Slovakia (p < 0.0001). Students in Slovakia showed symptoms of general, physical, cognitive and psychosocial fatigue much less frequently than those in Poland (p < 0.001) and Spain (p < 0.001). Especially students in Spain acutely felt physical health issues as a result of COVID-19 pandemic-imposed restrictions. CONCLUSIONS: A high level of a generalized sense of self-efficacy among the nursing students participating in the study was identified. However, it was significantly differentiated with respect to the country of residence. The fatigue severity experienced by the students during the COVID-19 pandemic was determined by a sense of self-efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Nursing , COVID-19/epidemiology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , Self Efficacy , Slovakia/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology , Students, Nursing/psychology
6.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869806

ABSTRACT

The only knowledge of the molecular structure of European turkey coronaviruses (TCoVs) comes from France. These viruses have a quite distinct S gene from North American isolates. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of TCoV strains in a Polish turkey farm during a twelve-year period, between 2008 and 2019, and to characterize their full-length S gene. Out of the 648 flocks tested, 65 (10.0%, 95% CI: 7.9-12.6) were positive for TCoV and 16 of them were molecularly characterized. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these strains belonged to two clusters, one formed by the early isolates identified at the beginning of the TCoV monitoring (from 2009 to 2010), and the other, which was formed by more recent strains from 2014 to 2019. Our analysis of the changes observed in the deduced amino acids of the S1 protein suggests the existence of three variable regions. Moreover, although the selection pressure analysis showed that the TCoV strains were evolving under negative selection, some sites of the S1 subunit were positively selected, and most of them were located within the proposed variable regions. Our sequence analysis also showed one TCoV strain had recombined with another one in the S1 gene. The presented investigation on the molecular feature of the S gene of TCoVs circulating in the turkey population in Poland contributes interesting data to the current state of knowledge.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus, Turkey , Enteritis, Transmissible, of Turkeys , Animals , Coronavirus, Turkey/genetics , Molecular Epidemiology , Phylogeny , Poland/epidemiology , Turkeys
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(11)2022 May 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869607

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Psychedelics represent a unique subset of psychoactive substances that can induce an aberrant state of consciousness principally via the neuronal 5-HT2A receptor. There is limited knowledge concerning the interest in these chemicals in Poland and how they changed during the pandemic. Nonetheless, these interests can be surveyed indirectly via the web. OBJECTIVES: We aim to conduct a spatial-temporal mapping of online information-seeking behavior concerning cannabis and the most popular psychedelics before and during the pandemic. METHODS: We retrieved online information search data via Google Trends concerning twenty of the most popular psychedelics from 1 January 2017 to 1 January 2022 in Poland. We conducted Holt-Winters exponential smoothing for time series analysis to infer potential seasonality. We utilized hierarchical clustering analysis based on Ward's method to find similarities of psychedelics' interest within Poland's voivodships before and during the pandemic. RESULTS: Twelve (60%) psychedelics had significant seasonality; we proved that psilocybin and ayahuasca had annual seasonality (p-value = 0.0120 and p = 0.0003, respectively), and four substances-LSD, AL-LAD, DXM, and DOB-exhibited a half-yearly seasonality, while six psychedelics had a quarterly seasonal pattern, including cannabis, dronabinol, ergine, NBOMe, phencyclidine, and salvinorin A. Further, the pandemic influenced a significant positive change in the trends for three substances, including psilocybin, ergine, and DXM. CONCLUSIONS: Different seasonal patterns exist for psychedelics, and some might correlate with school breaks or holidays in Poland. The pandemic induced some changes in the temporal and spatial trends. The spatial-temporal trends could be valuable information to health authorities and policymakers responsible for monitoring and preventing addictions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cannabis , Hallucinogens , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Lysergic Acid Diethylamide/pharmacology , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , Psilocybin/pharmacology
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(11)2022 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869579

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has dominated health, economic, and geopolitical issues for many months, but it also has great influence on individuals and families. The aim of this study was to verify whether the pandemic of COVID-19 changed religious practices and how religiosity moderated the influence of the pandemic on family interactions and attitudes towards health issues in adolescents. METHODS: The study groups included 561 adolescent high school students (314 females and 247 males) from two kinds of high schools: public and Catholic. RESULTS: Most Catholic school students have not changed their religious practices during the pandemic or just changed the form of attendance to TV or internet (59.7%). Moreover, 8.6% of them stopped the practices, in comparison with 12.9% of public school students, most of whom had not attended a mass before and during the pandemic. The results showed that in adolescents' opinions the pandemic caused family relations to be stronger, however this effect was modified by religiosity. CONCLUSION: Attending Catholic school and being a practicing believer influenced some aspects of faith and family relations during the pandemic, but in most aspects, they did not influence attitudes toward health issues. The results of the study highlight the need to secure, especially for non-believing adolescents, family support during the pandemic, while in believers faith may provide such support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Catholicism , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , Religion , Students
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(11)2022 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869578

ABSTRACT

Religiousness has a positive effect on the mental health of an individual and social groups in many difficult situations. In the conducted research, we wanted to check, inter alia, whether religiosity and social support are positively related to the mental health of students during the COVID-19 pandemic in Poland and Ukraine. The research was conducted at a time (August 2021) when the very contagious Delta variant was spreading over Europe, and numerous pandemic-related personal restrictions and obligations (such as using facemasks in selected places, social distancing, and obligatory self-isolation of the ill or those who had contact with the pathogen) were in force in both countries. For this purpose, a representative survey was carried out using the CAPI technique on a sample of 1000 students in Poland (50% boys and 50% girls in the age range 10-19) and 1022 in Ukraine (51% boys and 49% girls in the age range 10-18). The results of the research shows that depression measured by the PHQ-9 scale was experienced by 20% of students in Poland, and 13% in Ukrainian. Anxiety, measured with the GAD-7 scale, was experienced by 9% of the Polish and 6% of the Ukrainian students. The performed regression analysis showed that religiosity had no effect on the mental health of students. The main risk factor for mental disorders was the lack of social support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support , Students/psychology , Ukraine/epidemiology , Young Adult
10.
J Hematol Oncol ; 14(1): 163, 2021 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869090

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) currently constitutes the leading and overwhelming health issue worldwide. In comparison with adults, children present milder symptoms, with most having an asymptomatic course. We hypothesized that COVID-19 infection has a negative impact on the continuation of chemotherapy and increases nonrelapse mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was performed to assess the course of SARS-CoV-2 among children with hematological or oncological malignancies and its impact on cancer therapy. Records of SARS-CoV-2 infection in 155 children with malignancies from 14 Polish centers for pediatric hematology and oncology were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 replication was observed in 155 patients. Forty-nine patients were symptomatic, with the following being the most common manifestations: fever (31 patients), gastrointestinal symptoms (10), coryza (13), cough (13) and headache (8). In children who were retested, the median time of a positive PCR result was 16 days (range 1-70 days), but 12.7% of patients were positive beyond day + 20. The length of viral PCR positivity correlated with the absolute neutrophil count at diagnosis. Seventy-six patients did not undergo further SARS-CoV-2 testing and were considered convalescents after completion of isolation. Antibiotic therapy was administered in 15 children, remdesivir in 6, convalescent plasma in 4, oxygen therapy in 3 (1-mechanical ventilation), steroids in 2, intravenous immunoglobulins in 2, and heparin in 4. Eighty patients were treated with chemotherapy within 30 days after SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosis or were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection during 30 days of chemotherapy administration. Respiratory symptoms associated with COVID-19 and associated with oxygen therapy were present in 4 patients in the study population, and four deaths were recorded (2 due to COVID-19 and 2 due to progressive malignancy). The probability of 100-day overall survival was 97.3% (95% CI 92.9-99%). Delay in the next chemotherapy cycle occurred in 91 of 156 cases, with a median of 14 days (range 2-105 days). CONCLUSIONS: For the majority of pediatric cancer patients, SARS-CoV-2 infection does not result in a severe, life-threatening course. Our data show that interruptions in therapy are common and can result in suboptimal therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Management , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Infant , Male , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
11.
Med Sci Monit ; 28: e936495, 2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1856335

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to determine the level of anti-hemagglutinin antibodies in the serum of recovered patients during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in the 2019/2020 epidemic season in Poland, and the course of COVID-19. MATERIAL AND METHODS The material for the study consisted of the sera of COVID-19 convalescents obtained from the following 9 Regional Blood Donation and Blood Supply Centers located in 8 voivodeships. The hemagglutination inhibition reaction assay (HAI) using 8 viral hemagglutination units was used to determine antibody levels, in accordance with WHO recommendations. RESULTS This research confirms that a patient's declared severity of the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection is influenced by the patient's age and concomitant diseases. There was no statistically significant correlation between the level of anti-hemagglutinin antibodies and the severity of the course of a SARS-CoV-2 infection. Based on the serological tests conducted, it can be unequivocally concluded that both vaccinated and influenza-infected patients had a response rate in line with the requirements of the European Commission and the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use hemagglutinin antibodies for 4 influenza virus antigens tested. CONCLUSIONS Patients who confirmed their antibody levels with the Commission of the European Communities and the Committee for Propriety Medicinal Products (CPMP) requirements had a mild COVID-19 course. The results of our research emphasize the role of anti-hemagglutinin antibodies in the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection. COVID-19 convalescents have a higher response rate against all 4 types of anti-hemagglutinin antibodies analyzed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hemagglutinins , Humans , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 8445, 2022 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852498

ABSTRACT

Although anxiety is common because of the transitional nature of the perinatal period, particularly high levels of anxiety have been observed in some studies of pregnant women during the pandemic. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the severity of anxiety among pregnant women during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Poland, and factors associated with it. Cross-sectional study with a total of 1050 pregnant women recruited via social media in Poland during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, from March 1 until June 1, 2020. The survey included validated psychological measures: the GAD-7 (anxiety), the PREPS (pandemic stress), with two subscales: preparedness and infection stress, and obstetric, sociodemographic and COVID-19 related variables. T-tests, ANOVAs, and hierarchical binary logistic regression for dichotomized GAD-7 scores (minimal or mild vs. moderate or severe) were used. Over a third of respondents experienced moderate or severe levels of anxiety. Predictors of moderate or severe anxiety were non-pandemic related factors like unplanned pregnancy and emotional and psychiatric problems, as well as pandemic related pregnancy stress. Levels of anxiety among pregnant women during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Poland exceeded pre-pandemic norms. Findings suggest that prior psychiatric conditions, unplanned pregnancy, and elevated pandemic-related pregnancy stress due to concerns about infection or poor preparation for birth contributed to the risk of high anxiety in Polish pregnant women during the pandemic onset. Given the harmful effects of antenatal anxiety on the health and well-being of mothers and their children, psychotherapeutic interventions, efforts to alleviate pregnant women's stress, and training in adaptive ways to cope with stress are vital to reduce the prevalence of maternal anxiety and its potential consequences during this global crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Parturition , Poland/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(10)2022 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847328

ABSTRACT

The aim of this cross-national longitudinal study was to identify a change in mental health indicators: coronavirus-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), perceived stress, and fear of vaccination (FoVac). The first measurement (T1) took place in February 2021, and the second (T2) took place in May-June 2021. The sample consisted of 1723 participants across Germany, Israel, Poland, and Slovenia, between the age of 20 and 40 (M = 30.74, SD = 5.74). A paired-samples Student's t-test was used for testing the differences between T1 and T2. A repeated measures two-way ANOVA was performed to examine changes over time (T) and across the countries (C). A significant although small decrease at T2 was found for coronavirus-related PTSD, perceived stress, and FoVac. A significant main effect was found for T, C, and TxC for all variables, except the interaction effect for coronavirus-related PTSD and perceived stress. A medium effect size was found for coronavirus-related PTSD and FoVac across countries as well as perceived stress over time. A small effect size was revealed for coronavirus-related PTSD and FoVac over time, perceived stress across countries, and interaction for FoVac. A significant improvement in mental health was demonstrated across the four countries (particularly in Israel); however, there were still differences among each of them. Therefore, the cross-national context should be taken into consideration when analyzing the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , Slovenia/epidemiology , Young Adult
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 03 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847296

ABSTRACT

The article aims to show social capital resources in coping with distance education during the COVID-19 pandemic of Polish teachers working at different educational stages. The sample consisted of 1104 women (91.2%) and 107 men (8.8%) who described their remote professional experiences as valued positively during the pandemic. The collected verbal material was analyzed with quantitative content analysis based on theory-driven categories of social capital: Relationships, trust, commitment, and fulfilling obligations. Then, the frequency of words belonging to the categories in each participant's utterance was assessed. The results indicate that when describing positive experiences (situations and events) during distance education, teachers referred mainly to social capital resources in terms of relationships and fulfilling obligations. The results indicate that teachers working in secondary schools in Poland put less emphasis on building social capital during distance education, especially in terms of relationships, than teachers working with younger children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Social Capital , Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Poland
15.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 991, 2022 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846822

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic had a colossal impact on human society globally. There were similarities and differences in the public health and social measures taken by countries, and comparative analysis facilitates cross-country learning of contextual practices and sharing lessons to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic impact. Our aim is to conduct a situational analysis of the public health and social measures to mitigate the health and economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in Turkey, Egypt, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Poland during 2020-2021. METHODS: We conducted a situational analysis of the COVID-19 pandemic response in Turkey, Egypt, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Poland from the perspectives of the health system and health finance, national coordination, surveillance, testing capacity, health infrastructure, healthcare workforce, medical supply, physical distancing and non-pharmaceutical interventions, health communication, impact on non-COVID-19 health services, impact on the economy, education, gender and civil liberties, and COVID-19 vaccination. RESULTS: Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, Turkey, Egypt, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Poland have expanded COVID-19 testing and treatment capacity over time. However, they faced a shortage of healthcare workforce and medical supplies. They took population-based quarantine measures rather than individual-based isolation measures, which significantly burdened their economies and disrupted education. The unemployment rate increased, and economic growth stagnated. Economic stimulus policy was accompanied by high inflation. Despite the effort to sustain essential health services, healthcare access declined. Schools were closed for 5-11 months. Gender inequality was aggravated in Turkey and Ukraine, and an issue was raised for balancing public health measures and civil liberties in Egypt and Poland. Digital technologies played an important role in maintaining routine healthcare, education, and public health communication. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed weaknesses in healthcare systems in the emerging economies of Turkey, Egypt, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Poland, and highlighted the intricate link between health and economy. Individual-level testing, isolation, and contact tracing are effective public health interventions in mitigating the health and economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in comparison to population-level measures of lockdowns. Smart investments in public health, including digital health and linking health security with sustainable development, are key for economic gain, social stability, and more equitable and sustainable development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Communicable Disease Control , Egypt/epidemiology , Humans , Kazakhstan/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Poland/epidemiology , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Turkey/epidemiology , Ukraine/epidemiology
17.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 75(4): 484-489, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1841826

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The highly contagious novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged recently as a global pandemic. An efficient way to mitigate the spread of the disease is lockdown and quarantine. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the Iranian population's mental health under lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) was utilized to assess the mental health and psychosocial wellbeing of Iranian residents through an online survey. The questionnaire was sent on April 3, 2020, and remained open to responses until April 10, 2020. This period was the time of complete lockdown in Iran. Inclusion criteria included either gender, reading Farsi, internet access, and being between the ages of 18 and 65. Respondents with scores ≥ 24 were classified as having psychiatric problems. RESULTS: Of 35,529 completed surveys, 28,790 were eligible for analysis. 73.4% of the respondents were female. The majority of the participants were between the ages of 26 to 45. Of the participants, 35.5% had scores in the pathological range. We found that females, younger residents, singles, and individuals with lower education had higher levels of psychopathology. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that the psychological impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and quarantine are wide-ranging, substantial, and can be long-lasting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Poland , Young Adult
18.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 75(4): 471-483, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1841825

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Socioeconomic determinants along with genetic status may affect fatality rate of COVID-19. We intend to investigate the adjusted effects of the HLA-DRB1 alleles and socioeconomic determinants including gross domestic product per capita (GDP cap) and health expenditure per capita (HE cap) in fatality of COVID-19 during the early phase of epidemic in a group of countries. METHODS: As an ecological study, early exposure to epidemics was defined as having more than 5000 confirmed cases of COVID-19 from 1 March 2020 to 1 April 2020. Poisson regression was used to report adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) for case fatality rate in this constant time period. RESULTS: Fourteen countries were eligible. Among the alleles, DR7 showed the strongest risk factor (IRR=112.535, P<0.001). Having GDP cap more than 40000$ or having HE cap more than 3000$ was a protecting factor (IRR=0.899, P<0.001, adjusted with allele DR7). Having GDP cap more than 40000$ along with having HE cap more than 3000$ was a protecting factor (IRR=0.471, P<0.001, adjusted with allele DR7). CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic status of the countries may compensate the probable harmful effect of some HLA-DRB1 alleles. This conclusion was limited to a period that all the selected countries had almost similar governmental intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Alleles , COVID-19/genetics , HLA-DRB1 Chains/genetics , Humans , Poland , Socioeconomic Factors
19.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 75(4): 463-470, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1841824

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the status of anxiety, quality of work life, and fatigue of healthe care providers in six educational and medical centers of Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences in the southwest of Iran in the Covid-19 pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study was a cross-sectional study and included the statistical population of healthcare providers in six educational and medical centers of Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences in the southwest of Iran. Using random sampling method, 181 people who had direct involvement with patients with Covid-19 were selected and compared with 261 staff in other wards who had no direct contact with patients with Covid-19. For data collection, demographic information (demographic characteristics questionnaire), Covid-19 Anxiety Questionnaire, quality of work life and Rhoten fatigue questionnaires were used by self-administered online questionnaires. RESULTS: The results showed that the quality of life in both groups decreased and fatigue and anxiety caused by Covid-19 increased, but there was no statistically significant difference between anxiety derived fatigues of personnel involved with Covid-19 with personnel of other wards which were no directly faced Covid-19 patients. Regarding the quality of work life, no significant difference was observed in other components except in the component of human resource development. The results also showed that there was a statistically significant relationship between the level of anxiety caused by Covid-19 with quality of work life and fatigue. CONCLUSION: According to the results of the present study, Covid-19 had a negative effect on physical, mental and various aspects of quality of life of health care staff and led to increased fatigue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Depression/epidemiology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Pandemics , Poland , Quality of Life , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1841374

ABSTRACT

Social media have become mainstream online tools that allow individuals to connect and share information. Such platforms also influence people's health behavior in the way they communicate about personal health, treatment, or physicians. Individuals' ability to find and apply online health information on specific health problems can be measured using a valid and reliable instrument, the eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS). The objective of this study was to evaluate the psychometric aspects of the Polish version of this instrument (eHEALS-Pl) among social media users, which has not been explored so far. We examined the translated version of the eHEALS in a representative sample of Polish social media users (n = 1527). CAWI (computer-assisted web interviews) was a method to collect data. The reliability of the eHEALS-Pl was measured by calculating the Cronbach alpha coefficients and analyzing the principal components. Exploratory factor analysis and hypothesis testing was used to assess the construct validity of the instrument. The internal consistency of the eHEALS-Pl was sufficient: Cronbach alpha = 0.84. The item-to-total correlations ranged from r = 0.514 to 0.666. EFA revealed a single structure explaining 47.42% of the variance, with high factor loadings of the item ranging from 0.623 to 0.769. Hypothesis testing also supported the validity of eHEALS-Pl. The eHEALS-Pl evaluation supported by social media users reviled its equivalence to the original instrument developed by Norman and Skinner in 2006 and it can be used to measure e-health literacy. Since there is no prior validation of the eHEALS among social media users, these findings may indicate important directions in evaluating digital skills, especially in relation to the current challenges related to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Literacy , Social Media , Telemedicine , Health Literacy/methods , Humans , Internet , Pandemics , Poland , Psychometrics/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine/methods
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