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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2122260, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1391521

ABSTRACT

Importance: Domestic violence (DV) has become a growing public health concern during the COVID-19 pandemic because individuals may be sheltering in place with abusers and facing mounting economic and health-related stresses. Objective: To analyze associations of the 2020 COVID-19 stay-at-home (SH) order with DV police reporting and resource availability, including differences by community area racial/ethnic composition. Design, Setting, and Participants: This longitudinal cohort study assessed DV police reports (January-June 2020) obtained from the Chicago, Illinois, Police Department and DV resource availability (March and August 2020) obtained from the NowPow community resource database, both for 77 community areas in Chicago. Data were analyzed July through December 2020. Exposures: The COVID-19 SH order effective March 21, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Monthly rates of DV police reports and DV resource availability per 100 000 persons. Results: Of 77 community areas in Chicago, 28 (36.4%) were majority Black, 19 (24.7%) majority Hispanic/Latinx, 18 (23.4%) majority White, and 12 (15.6%) a different or no majority race/ethnicity, representing an estimated population of 2 718 555 individuals. For each community area, the SH order was associated with a decrease in the rate of DV police reports by 21.8 (95% CI, -30.48 to -13.07) crimes per 100 000 persons per month relative to the same months in 2019. Compared with White majority community areas, Black majority areas had a decrease in the rate of DV police reports by 40.8 (95% CI, -62.93 to -18.75) crimes per 100 000 persons per month relative to the same months in 2019. The SH order was also associated with a decrease in DV resource availability at a rate of 5.1 (95% CI, -7.55 to -2.67) resources per 100 000 persons, with the largest decreases for mental health (-4.3 [95% CI, -5.97 to -2.66] resources per 100 000 persons) and personal safety (-2.4 [95% CI, -4.40 to -0.41] resources per 100 000 persons). The Black majority south side of Chicago had a larger decrease in resource availability (-6.7 [95% CI, -12.92 to -0.46] resources per 100 000 persons) than the White majority north side. Conclusions and Relevance: In this longitudinal cohort study, the rate of DV police reports decreased after the SH order was implemented in Chicago. This decrease was largely observed in Black majority communities, whereas there was no significant change in White majority communities. These findings may reflect decreased DV incidence but may also reflect an exacerbation of underreporting. In addition, DV resource availability decreased disproportionately on the predominantly Black south side of Chicago.


Subject(s)
Domestic Violence/statistics & numerical data , Police/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chicago/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Domestic Violence/ethnology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Residence Characteristics/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2
2.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253208, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269921

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Carceral facilities are epicenters of the COVID-19 pandemic, placing incarcerated people at an elevated risk of COVID-19 infection. Due to the initial limited availability of COVID-19 vaccines in the United States, all states have developed allocation plans that outline a phased distribution. This study uses document analysis to compare the relative prioritization of incarcerated people, correctional staff, and other groups at increased risk of COVID-19 infection and morbidity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a document analysis of the vaccine dissemination plans of all 50 US states and the District of Columbia using a triple-coding method. Documents included state COVID-19 vaccination plans and supplemental materials on vaccine prioritization from state health department websites as of December 31, 2020. We found that 22% of states prioritized incarcerated people in Phase 1, 29% of states in Phase 2, and 2% in Phase 3, while 47% of states did not explicitly specify in which phase people who are incarcerated will be eligible for vaccination. Incarcerated people were consistently not prioritized in Phase 1, while other vulnerable groups who shared similar environmental risk received this early prioritization. States' plans prioritized in Phase 1: prison and jail workers (49%), law enforcement (63%), seniors (65+ years, 59%), and long-term care facility residents (100%). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that states' COVID-19 vaccine allocation plans do not prioritize incarcerated people and provide little to no guidance on vaccination protocols if they fall under other high-risk categories that receive earlier priority. Deprioritizing incarcerated people for vaccination misses a crucial opportunity for COVID-19 mitigation. It also raises ethical and equity concerns. As states move forward with their vaccine distribution, further work must be done to prioritize ethical allocation and distribution of COVID-19 vaccines to incarcerated people.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Care Rationing/organization & administration , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/standards , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Family , Health Care Rationing/standards , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Police/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology , Vulnerable Populations/statistics & numerical data
3.
Indian J Med Ethics ; VI(1): 1-5, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1257354

ABSTRACT

Violence against medical professionals and destruction of hospital property by frustrated patients and their relatives occur frequently in India (1) and in other countries (2, 3). However, harassment of healthcare workers by the police has, so far, not been an issue in the Indian healthcare system. Now, cases of harassment of medical professionals by the police have emerged during the Covid-19 pandemic. Ironically, both doctors and police personnel have been considered "frontline heroes" against the pandemic in India. We present some cases of such attacks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Patients/psychology , Police/psychology , Workplace Violence/psychology , Adult , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , India , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Police/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Workplace Violence/statistics & numerical data
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 199, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219770

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: the current pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by a novel strain (SARS-CoV-2) is enormous and continues to pose a threat to the lives of people. In Nigeria, as of 21st April 2020, 668 confirmed cases, 22 deaths and 188 recoveries have been reported. Police officers are at the forefront of enforcing advisories to ensure public compliance. However, there is a paucity of data on knowledge, risk perception, and adherence to COVID-19 advisories issued by the Health authorities particularly among the police officers. We, therefore, assessed the knowledge, risk perceptions and adherence to NCDC recommended advisory on COVID-19. METHODS: we conducted a two-stage sampling cross-sectional study among different cadres of police officers in Benue State, Nigeria using a pretested, semi-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. The results of the study were presented in frequencies and proportions. Chi-square test was used for an association between variables at p-value < 0.05. RESULTS: the mean age of the 305 participants was 39.1 ± 8.4 years and most, 124 (40.7%) of the participants were within age-group 30-39 years, 19 (64.3%.8) were male, 250 (82.0%) were married and 160 (52.5%) had secondary education as the highest qualification. Majority of the participants, 301 (98.7%) have heard about COVID-19 and the commonest source of information was via television/radio, 230 (76.4%). Most participants demonstrate a good knowledge of COVID-19 infection, 302 (99.0%) and positive risk perception of COVID-19, 303 (99.3%) but few demonstrated good adherences on COVID-19 prevention practices, 133 (43.6%). Participants' academic qualification (X2 = 10.98, p = 0.001) and cadre (X2 = 112.5, p = 0.001) were found to be associated with good adherence. CONCLUSION: while most participants had a good knowledge of COVID-19 transmission dynamics, and positive risk perception about COVID-19, good adherence to public health advisories were low. We recommended periodic training, provision of adequate PPE and personal hand-sanitizers as a strategy to improve adherence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Police/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nigeria , Perception , Public Health , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
5.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(1): 58-63, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-949653

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Deaths by suicide can increase during infectious disease outbreaks. This study analysed suspected suicide rates in 2020 relative to 2015-19 to assess any early effects of the COVID-19 pandemic in Queensland, Australia. METHODS: We analysed data from the interim Queensland Suicide Register (iQSR), a state-wide real-time suicide surveillance system, using an interrupted time-series design. The data source for the iQSR is the Form 1 police report of a death to a coroner. Two QSR staff independently classed the probability of a death by suicide as possible, probable, or beyond reasonable doubt. The analysis included the probable or beyond reasonable doubt categories as suspected suicides. The primary outcome was the monthly suspected suicide rate. We applied Poisson and negative binomial regressions to assess whether Queensland's Public Health Emergency Declaration on Jan 29, 2020, affected suspected suicides from Feb 1 to Aug 31, 2020. Secondary outcomes included absolute or relative changes in police-reported motives of recent unemployment, financial problems, domestic violence, and relationship breakdown. FINDINGS: 3793 suspected suicides were recorded with an unadjusted monthly rate of 14·85 deaths per 100 000 people (from Jan 1, 2015, to Jan 31, 2020) before the declaration, and 443 suspected suicides were recorded with an unadjusted monthly rate of 14·07 deaths per 100 000 people (Feb 1, 2020, onwards) after the declaration. An interrupted time-series Poisson regression model unadjusted (rate ratio [RR] 0·94, 95% CI 0·82-1·06) and adjusted for overdispersion, seasonality, and pre-exposure trends (RR 1·02, 95% CI 0·83-1·25) indicated no evidence of a change in suspected suicide rates. We found no absolute or relative increases in the motives for suspected suicides, including recent unemployment, financial problems, relationship breakdown, or domestic violence from February to August, 2020, compared with the pre-exposure period. INTERPRETATION: There does not yet appear to be an overall change in the suspected suicide rate in the 7 months since Queensland declared a public health emergency. Despite this, COVID-19 has contributed to some suspected suicides in Queensland. Ongoing community spread and increasing death rates of COVID-19, and its impact on national economies and mental health, reinforces the need for governments to maintain the monitoring and reporting of suicide mortality in real time. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cause of Death , Registries/statistics & numerical data , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Cause of Death/trends , Female , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Police/statistics & numerical data , Queensland
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