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1.
J Health Organ Manag ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2022 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626719

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This illustrative case study describes and evaluates drivers of effective inter-organizational collaboration to mitigate the impact and spread of COVID-19 among homeless people in two cities in the Netherlands. The aims of this study are: (1) to explore the strategic and operational policy responses in two local integrated care settings at the start of the crisis, (2) to identify best policy practices and lessons learned. The authors interpret and evaluate the findings by combining insights from the population health management (PHM) and collaborative governance literature. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: The authors describe and illustrate the experiences of two Dutch municipalities, Rotterdam and The Hague, in the early policy responses to sudden operational challenges around the impact of COVID-19 on homeless people as experienced by local decision-makers, medical doctors and clients. FINDINGS: The authors show that best policy practices revolve around (1) using data and risk stratification methods for identifying and targeting populations at-risk in local policy making, and (2) having an inter-organizational data sharing architecture in place ex ante. These two factors were clear prerequisites for tailor-made policy responses for newly-defined groups at risk with the existing and well-documented vulnerable population, and executing crisis-induced tasks efficiently. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: This paper is among the first to illustrate the potential of combining collaborative governance and PHM perspectives to identify key drivers of effective local governance responses to a healthcare crisis in an integrated care setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Health Policy , Humans , Policy , Policy Making , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(1): 153, 2021 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1577205

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Globally, policy-makers face challenges to using evidence in health decision-making, particularly lack of interaction between research and policy. Knowledge-brokering mechanisms can fill research-policy gaps and facilitate evidence-informed policy-making. In Myanmar, the need to promote evidence-informed policy is significant, and thus a mechanism was set up for this purpose. This paper discusses lessons learned from the development of the Knowledge Broker Group-Myanmar (KBG-M), supported by the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health's Applied Mental Health Research Group (JHU) and Community Partners International (CPI). METHODS: Sixteen stakeholders were interviewed to explore challenges in formulating evidence-informed policy. Two workshops were held: the first to further understand the needs of policy-makers and discuss knowledge-brokering approaches, and the second to co-create the KBG-M structure and process. The KBG-M was then envisioned as an independent body, with former officials of the Ministry of Health and Sports (MoHS) and representatives from the nongovernmental sector actively engaging in the health sector, with an official collaboration with the MoHS. RESULTS: A development task force that served as an advisory committee was established. Then, steps were taken to establish the KBG-M and obtain official recognition from the MoHS. Finally, when the technical agreement with the MoHS was nearly complete, the process stopped because of the military coup on 1 February 2021, and is now on hold indefinitely. CONCLUSIONS: Learning from this process may be helpful for future or current knowledge-brokering efforts, particularly in fragile, conflict-affected settings. Experienced and committed advisory committee members enhanced stakeholder relationships. Responsive coordination mechanisms allowed for adjustments to a changing bureaucratic landscape. Coordination with similar initiatives avoided overlap and identified areas needing technical support. Recommendations to continue the work of the KBG-M itself or similar platforms include the following: increase resilience to contextual changes by ensuring diverse partnerships, maintain advisory committee members experienced and influential in the policy-making process, ensure strong organizational and funding support for effective functioning and sustainability, have budget and timeline flexibility to allow sufficient time and resources for establishment, organize ongoing needs assessments to identify areas needing technical support and to develop responsive corrective approaches, and conduct information sharing and collaboration between stakeholders to ensure alignment.


Subject(s)
Health Policy , Policy Making , Administrative Personnel , Humans , Myanmar , Public Health
3.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248387, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573672

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The study aims to investigate GPs' experiences of how UK COVID-19 policies have affected the management and safety of complex elderly patients, who suffer from multimorbidity, at the primary care level in North West London (NWL). DESIGN: This is a service evaluation adopting a qualitative approach. SETTING: Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted between 6 and 22 May 2020, 2 months after the introduction of the UK COVID-19 Action Plan, allowing GPs to adapt to the new changes and reflect on their impact. PARTICIPANTS: Fourteen GPs working in NWL were interviewed, until data saturation was reached. OUTCOME MEASURES: The impact of COVID-19 policies on the management and safety of complex elderly patients in primary care from the GPs' perspective. RESULTS: Participants' average experience was fourteen years working in primary care for the NHS. They stated that COVID-19 policies have affected primary care at three levels, patients' behaviour, work conditions, and clinical practice. GPs reflected on the impact through five major themes; four of which have been adapted from the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) framework, changes in primary care (at the three levels mentioned above), involvement of GPs in policy making, communication and coordination (with patients and in between medical teams), stressors and worries; in addition to a fifth theme to conclude the GPs' suggestions for improvement (either proposed mitigation strategies, or existing actions that showed relative success). A participant used an expression of "infodemic" to describe the GPs' everyday pressure of receiving new policy updates with their subsequent changes in practice. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected all levels of the health system in the UK, particularly primary care. Based on the GPs' perspective in NWL, changes to practice have offered opportunities to maintain safe healthcare as well as possible drawbacks that should be of concern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , General Practitioners/psychology , Patient Safety , Primary Health Care , Aged , Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Health Policy , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Pandemics , Policy Making , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United Kingdom/epidemiology
6.
Neuron ; 109(20): 3190-3192, 2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505576

ABSTRACT

In Korea, the pandemic has elevated scientists as trusted sources for both policy decisions and dinner table conversation. In an interview with Neuron, Eunji Cheong discusses how we need to support future generations by fostering scientific thinking, patience, and flexibility.


Subject(s)
Neurosciences , Policy Making , Professional Role , Thinking , COVID-19 , Congresses as Topic , Humans , Republic of Korea , SARS-CoV-2 , Women, Working , Work-Life Balance
8.
Front Public Health ; 9: 733519, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497177

ABSTRACT

The world is in the midst of a crisis unlike any other in recent memory. COVID-19 is a pandemic that is urgent, global in scope, and has huge consequences. The policy sciences provide insights into unfolding trends, and this article uses the lessons of the literature to better understanding the policymaking shifts and population acceptability of COVID-19. The author attempts to investigate how policymakers' emotions and narratives affect policy decisions and form policymaker-population relationships. The author addresses policymaking processes, transitions, interpretations of policy responses, policy implementation through multilateral topics and evaluating policy progress and failure. Trust is linked to cultural norms, values, and faiths in policy literature, and it is seen as a component of key social and economic policy outcomes. The author ends by identifying understudied facets of policymaking that need to be addressed during pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Administrative Personnel , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Policy Making , SARS-CoV-2
9.
BMJ Open Qual ; 10(4)2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495478

ABSTRACT

This article described our experience in implementing a quality improvement project to overcome the bed overcapacity problem at a comprehensive cancer centre in a tertiary care centre. We formed a multidisciplinary team including a representative from patient and family support (six members), hospice care and home care services (four members), multidisciplinary team development (four members) and the national lead. The primary responsibility of the formulated team was implementing measures to optimise and manage patient flow. We used the plan-do-study-act cycle to engage all stakeholders from all service layers, test some interventions in simplified pilots and develop a more detailed plan and business case for further implementation and roll-out, which was used as a problem-solving approach in our project for refining a process or implementing changes. As a result, we observed a significant reduction in bed capacity from 35% in 2017 to 13.8% in 2018. While the original length of stay (LOS) was 28 days, the average LOS was 19 days in 2017 (including the time before and after the intervention), 10.8 days in 2018 (after the intervention was implemented), 10.1 days in 2019 and 16 days in 2020. The increase in 2020 parameters was caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, since many patients did not enrol in our new care model. Using a systematic care delivery approach by a multidisciplinary team improves significantly reduced bed occupancy and reduces LOS for palliative care patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Palliative Care , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Pandemics , Policy Making , Quality Improvement , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Acad Med ; 96(11): 1546-1552, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493981

ABSTRACT

Racially and ethnically diverse and socioeconomically disadvantaged communities have historically been disproportionately affected by disasters and public health emergencies in the United States. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Office of Minority Health established the National Consensus Panel on Emergency Preparedness and Cultural Diversity to provide guidance to agencies and organizations on developing effective strategies to advance emergency preparedness and eliminate disparities among racially and ethnically diverse communities during these crises. Adopting the National Consensus Panel recommendations, the Johns Hopkins Medicine Office of Diversity, Inclusion, and Health Equity; Language Services; and academic-community partnerships used existing health equity resources and expertise to develop an operational framework to support the organization's COVID-19 response and to provide a framework of health equity initiatives for other academic medical centers. This operational framework addressed policies to support health equity patient care and clinical operations, accessible COVID-19 communication, and staff and community support and engagement, which also supported the National Standards for Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services in Health and Health Care. Johns Hopkins Medicine identified expanded recommendations for addressing institutional policy making and capacity building, including unconscious bias training for resource allocation teams and staff training in accurate race, ethnicity, and language data collection, that should be considered in future updates to the National Consensus Panel's recommendations.


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers/organization & administration , COVID-19/ethnology , Disasters/prevention & control , Health Equity/standards , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Civil Defense/organization & administration , Consensus , Cultural Diversity , Government Programs/organization & administration , Government Programs/standards , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Humans , Minority Groups/statistics & numerical data , Policy Making , Public Health/standards , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Social Participation , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480745

ABSTRACT

The identification of COVID-19 waves is a matter of the utmost importance, both for research and decision making. This study uses COVID-19 information from the 52 municipalities of the Metropolitan Region, Chile, and presents a quantitative method-based on weekly accumulated incidence rates-to define COVID-19 waves. We explore three different criteria to define the duration of a wave, and performed a sensitivity analysis using multivariate linear models to show their commonalities and differences. The results show that, compared to a benchmark definition (a 100-day wave), the estimations using longer periods of study are worse in terms of the model's overall fit (adjusted R2). The article shows that defining a COVID-19 wave is not necessarily simple, and has consequences when performing data analysis. The results highlight the need to adopt well-defined and well-justified definitions for COVID-19 waves, since these methodological choices can have an impact in research and policy making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cities , Humans , Policy , Policy Making , SARS-CoV-2
12.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(7)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476522

ABSTRACT

Migration health is affected by decision making at levels ranging from global to local, both within and beyond the health sector. These decisions impact seeking, entitlements, service delivery, policy making and knowledge production on migration health. It is key that ethical challenges faced by decision makers are recognised and addressed in research and data, clinical practice and policy making on migration health. An ethical approach can provide methods to identify ethical issues, frameworks for systematising information and suggesting ethically acceptable solutions, and guidance on procedural concerns and legitimate decision making processes. By unpacking dilemmas, conflicts of interests and values at stake, an ethical approach is relevant for all who make decisions about migration health policy and practice. Adopting an ethical approach to migration health benefits governments, organisations, policy makers, health workers, data managers, researchers and migrants themselves. First, it highlights the inherent normative questions and trade-offs at stake in migration health. Second, it assists decision makers in deciding what is the ethically justifiable thing to do through an 'all things considered' approach. Third, ethical frameworks and technical guidance set normative and practical standards for decision makers facing ethical questions - from 'bedside rationing' to collection of big data or in policy making - that can ensure that migrants' interests are considered. Fourth, there is a need for greater transparency and accountability in decision making, as well as meaningful participation of migrant groups. An ethical approach connects to public health, economic and human rights arguments and highlights the urgent need to mainstream concerns for migrants in global and national health responses.


Subject(s)
Health Policy , Policy Making , Human Rights , Humans , Public Health , Public Policy
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(18)2021 09 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409544

ABSTRACT

Policy in all sectors affects health, through multiple pathways and determinants. Health in all policies (HiAP) is an approach that seeks to identify and influence the health and equity impacts of policy decisions, to enhance health benefits and avoid harm. This usually involves the use of health impact assessment or health lens analysis. There is growing international experience in these approaches, and some countries have cross-sectoral governance structures that prioritize the assessment of the policies that are most likely to affect health. The fundamental elements of HiAP are inter-sectoral collaboration, policy influence, and holistic consideration of the range of health determinants affected by a policy area or proposal. HiAP requires public health professionals to invest time to build partnerships and engage meaningfully with the sectors affecting the social determinants of health and health equity. With commitment, political will and tools such as the health impact assessment, it provides a powerful approach to integrated policymaking that promotes health, well-being, and equity. The COVID-19 pandemic has raised the profile of public health and highlighted the links between health and other policy areas. This paper describes the rationale for, and principles underpinning, HiAP mechanisms, including HIA, experiences, challenges and opportunities for the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Health Policy , Humans , Policy Making , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Am J Public Health ; 111(10): 1768-1771, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403351

ABSTRACT

Racial disparities and racism are pervasive public health threats that have been exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, it is critical and timely for researchers to communicate with policymakers about strategies for reducing disparities. From April through July 2020, across four rapid-cycle trials disseminating scientific products with evidence-based policy recommendations for addressing disparities, we tested strategies for optimizing the reach of scientific messages to policymakers. By getting such research into the hands of policymakers who can act on it, this work can help combat racial health disparities.(Am J Public Health. 2021;111(10):1768-1771. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306404).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , Health Policy , Healthcare Disparities , Public Health Administration , Racism , Scholarly Communication , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Policy Making , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
19.
Health Inf Manag ; 50(1-2): 26-34, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398798

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of information and communication technology (ICT) has tremendous potential to enhance communication among physicians, leading to improvements in service delivery. However, the protection of health information in digital/electronic format is an ongoing concern. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine guidance for the protection of health information when using ICT from all 10 of Canada's provincial regulatory colleges for physicians and to discuss the potential policy and service delivery implications. METHOD: A search of the regulatory college websites was conducted, followed by a document analysis (content and thematic). RESULTS: The college website search identified 522 documents; 12 of these documents (from 8 of the 10 colleges) met the study criteria. These documents were notable for the considerable variation in the scope and detail of guidance provided across the colleges. CONCLUSION: While the federal-provincial division of powers in Canada enables different jurisdictional approaches to health service delivery and, thus, opportunities for policy learning, this governing structure may also contribute to a lack of incentive for collaboration, leading to an absence of standardised guidance for health information protection when using ICT. This, in turn, may result in unequal and inequitable protection of health information across the provinces. Therefore, a macro-level approach to policy development in this area may hold the greatest promise for enhancing the protection of health information and doing so in a more standardised manner in countries with federal systems of governance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communication , Computer Security , Government Regulation , Medical Informatics , Canada , Health Policy , Medical Informatics/legislation & jurisprudence , Physicians , Policy Making , SARS-CoV-2
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