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1.
J Med Econ ; 26(1): 793-801, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240022

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To investigate the preferences of the Japanese population for government policies expected to address infectious disease outbreaks and epidemics. METHODS: We performed a conjoint analysis based on survey data in December 2022 (registration number: UMIN000049665). The attributes for the conjoint analysis were policies: tests, vaccines, therapeutic drugs, behavior restrictions (e.g. self-restraint or restrictions on the gathering or travel of individuals and the hours of operation or serving of alcoholic beverages in food/beverage establishments), and entry restrictions (from abroad), and monetary attribute: an increase in the consumption tax from the current 10%, to estimate the monetary value of the policies. A logistic regression model was used for the analysis. RESULTS: Data were collected from 2,185 respondents. The accessibility of tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs was preferred regardless of the accessibility level. The value for accessibility of drugs to anyone at any medical facility was estimated at 4.80% of a consumption tax rate, equivalent to JPY 10.5 trillion, which was the highest among the policies evaluated in this study. The values for implementing behavior or entry restrictions were negative or lower than those for tests, vaccines, and drugs. LIMITATIONS: Respondents chosen from an online panel were not necessarily representative of the Japanese population. Because the study was conducted in December 2022, a period during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the results may reflect the situation at that time and potentially be subject to rapid change. CONCLUSIONS: Among the policy options evaluated in this study, the most preferred option was easily accessible therapeutic drugs and their monetary value was substantial. Wider accessibility of tests, vaccines, and drugs was preferred over behavior and entry restrictions. We believe that the results provide information for policymaking to prepare for future infectious disease epidemics and for assessing the response to COVID-19 in Japan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , East Asian People , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Policy , Government , Pandemics/prevention & control
3.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1099116, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238620

ABSTRACT

This study aims to optimize the COVID-19 screening strategies under China's dynamic zero-case policy through cost-effectiveness analysis. A total of 9 screening strategies with different screening frequencies and combinations of detection methods were designed. A stochastic agent-based model was used to simulate the progress of the COVID-19 outbreak in scenario I (close contacts were promptly quarantined) and scenario II (close contacts were not promptly quarantined). The primary outcomes included the number of infections, number of close contacts, number of deaths, the duration of the epidemic, and duration of movement restriction. Net monetary benefit (NMB) and the incremental cost-benefit ratio were used to compare the cost-effectiveness of different screening strategies. The results indicated that under China's COVID-19 dynamic zero-case policy, high-frequency screening can help contain the spread of the epidemic, reduce the size and burden of the epidemic, and is cost-effective. Mass antigen testing is not cost-effective compared with mass nucleic acid testing in the same screening frequency. It would be more cost-effective to use AT as a supplemental screening tool when NAT capacity is insufficient or when outbreaks are spreading very rapidly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cost-Effectiveness Analysis , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Policy , China/epidemiology
4.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0285729, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238530

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to document data availability and reporting on suicide mortality in state prison systems. The United States leads the world in mass incarceration, a structural determinant of health, but lacks real-time reporting of prison health statistics. This absence is particularly notable in suicides, a leading cause of death that carceral policies play a key role in mitigating. METHODS: Suicide data for each state prison system from 2017-2021 were gathered through statistical reports, press releases, and Freedom of Information Act requests. We graded states based on data availability. RESULTS: Only sixteen states provide updated, frequent, granular, freely provided suicide data. An additional thirteen states provided frequently updated data but that had little granularity, was incomplete, or was not freely provided. Eight states provided sparse, infrequent, or outdated data, and thirteen provided no data at all. CONCLUSIONS: The 2000 Death in Custody Reporting Act requires that states provide these data freely, yet the majority of states do not. There is a need for reliable, real-time data on suicides, suicide attempts, and conditions of confinement to better understand the harms of the carceral system and to advocate for change.


Subject(s)
Prisoners , Prisons , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Suicide, Attempted , Cause of Death , Policy
5.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1182328, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238208

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Violence against healthcare workers is a global health problem threatening healthcare workforce retention and health system resilience in a fragile post-COVID 'normalisation' period. In this perspective article, we argue that violence against healthcare workers must be made a greater priority. Our novel contribution to the debate is a comparative health system and policy approach. Methods: We have chosen a most different systems comparative approach concerning the epidemiological, political, and geographic contexts. Brazil (under the Bolsonaro government) and the United Kingdom (under the Johnson government) serve as examples of countries that were strongly hit by the pandemic in epidemiological terms while also displaying policy failures. New Zealand and Germany represent the opposite. A rapid assessment was undertaken based on secondary sources and country expertise. Results: We found similar problems across countries. A global crisis makes healthcare workers vulnerable to violence. Furthermore, insufficient data and monitoring hamper effective prevention, and lack of attention may threaten women, the nursing profession, and migrant/minority groups the most. There were also relevant differences. No clear health system pattern can be identified. At the same time, professional associations and partly the media are strong policy actors against violence. Conclusion: In all countries, muchmore involvement from political leadership is needed. In addition, attention to the political dimension and all forms of violence are essential.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Global Health , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Violence , Policy , Health Personnel
6.
BMC Geriatr ; 23(1): 362, 2023 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237183

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The precautions and restrictions imposed by the recent Covid-19 pandemic drew attention to the criticality of quality of care in long-term care facilities internationally, and in Canada. They also underscored the importance of residents' quality of life. In deference to the risk mitigation measures in Canadian long-term care settings during Covid-19, some person-centred, quality of life policies were paused, unused, or under-utilised. This study aimed to interrogate these existing but latent policies, to capture their potentiality in terms of positively influencing the quality of life of residents in long-term care in Canada. METHODS: The study analysed policies related to quality of life of long-term care residents in four Canadian provinces (British Columbia, Alberta, Ontario, and Nova Scotia). Three policy orientations were framed utilising a comparative approach: situational (environmental conditions), structural (organisational content), and temporal (developmental trajectories). 84 long term care policies were reviewed, relating to different policy jurisdictions, policy types, and quality of life domains. RESULTS: Overall, the intersection of jurisdiction, policy types, and quality of life domains confirms that some policies, particularly safety, security and order, may be prioritised in different types of policy documents, and over other quality of life domains. Alternatively, the presence of a resident focused quality of life in many policies affirms the cultural shift towards greater person-centredness. These findings are both explicit and implicit, and mediated through the expression of individual policy excerpts. CONCLUSION: The analysis provides substantive evidence of three key policy levers: situations-providing specific examples of resident focused quality of life policy overshadowing in each jurisdiction; structures-identifying which types of policy and quality of life expressions are more vulnerable to dominance by others; and trajectories-confirming the cultural shift towards more person-centredness in Canadian long-term care related policies over time. It also demonstrates and contextualises examples of policy slippage, differential policy weights, and cultural shifts across existing policies. When applied within a resident focused, quality of life lens, these policies can be leveraged to improve extant resource utilisation. Consequently, the study provides a timely, positive, forward-facing roadmap upon which to enhance and build policies that capitalise and enable person-centredness in the provision of long-term care in Canada.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Long-Term Care , Humans , Canada/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , British Columbia , Policy
7.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 42(6): 742-752, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236540

ABSTRACT

The Congressional Budget Office estimates that in 2023, 248 million people in the US who are younger than age sixty-five have health insurance coverage (mostly through employment-based plans), and twenty-three million people, or 8.3 percent of that age group, are uninsured-with significant variations in coverage by income and, to a lesser extent, by race and ethnicity. The unprecedented low uninsurance rate is largely attributable to temporary policies that kept beneficiaries enrolled in Medicaid and enhanced the subsidies available through the health insurance Marketplaces during the COVID-19 pandemic. As the continuous eligibility provisions unwind in 2023 and 2024, an estimated 9.3 million people in that age group will transition to other forms of coverage, and 6.2 million will become uninsured. If the enhanced subsidies expire after 2025, 4.9 million fewer people are estimated to enroll in Marketplace coverage, instead enrolling in unsubsidized nongroup or employment-based coverage or becoming uninsured. By 2033 the uninsurance rate is projected to be 10.1 percent, which is still below the 2019 rate of about 12 percent.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , United States , Humans , Aged , Insurance Coverage , Insurance, Health , Medicaid , Medically Uninsured , Policy
8.
Herz ; 48(3): 226-228, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235884

ABSTRACT

On 8 January 2023, after 3 years of pandemic control, China changed its management of COVID-19, applying measures against class B infectious diseases instead of Class A infectious diseases. This signaled the end of the dynamic zero-COVID policy and the reopening of the country. With a population of 1.41 billion, China's reopening policy during the COVID-19 pandemic has been characterized by a scientific, gradual, and cautious approach. Several factors contributed to the reopening policy, including an expansion of healthcare capacity, the widespread promotion and uptake of vaccination, and improved prevention and control mechanisms. According to the latest report from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, the number of hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the country reached a peak of 1.625 million on January 5, 2023, and has since continued to decline. As of February 13, the number decreased to 26,000: a reduction of 98.4%. Thanks to the efforts of healthcare workers and society as a whole, the country managed to get through the peak of the epidemic in a stable manner.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Policy
9.
BMC Res Notes ; 16(1): 97, 2023 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234996

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 mitigation measures prompted many states to revise the administration of their welfare programs. States adopted policies that varied across the U.S. to respond to the difficulties in fulfilling program requirements, as well as increased financial need. This dataset captures the changes made to Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) programs during the COVID-19 pandemic, from March 2020 through December 2020. The authors created this dataset as part of a larger study that examined the health effects of TANF policy changes during the COVID-19 pandemic. DATA DESCRIPTION: TANF is the main cash assistance program for low-income families in the U.S., but benefits are often conditional on work requirements and can be revoked if an individual is deemed noncompliant. Structural factors during the COVID-19 pandemic made meeting these criteria more difficult, so some states relaxed their rules and increased their benefits. This dataset captures 24 types of policies that state TANF programs enacted, which of the states enacted each of them, when the policies went into effect, and when applicable, when the policies ended. These data can be used to study the effects of TANF policy changes on various health and programmatic outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Welfare , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Poverty , Policy
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 23(1): 390, 2023 Jun 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234100

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although several pathways have been proposed as the prerequisite for a safe phase-out in China, it is not clear which of them are the most important for keeping the mortality rate low, what thresholds should be achieved for these most important interventions, and how the thresholds change with the assumed key epidemiological parameters and population characteristics. METHODS: We developed an individual-based model (IBM) to simulate the transmission of the Omicron variant in the synthetic population, accounting for the age-dependent probabilities of severe clinical outcomes, waning vaccine-induced immunity, increased mortality rates when hospitals are overburdened, and reduced transmission when self-isolated at home after testing positive. We applied machine learning algorithms on the simulation outputs to examine the importance of each intervention parameter and the feasible intervention parameter combinations for safe exits, which is defined as having mortality rates lower than that of influenza in China (14.3 per 100, 000 persons). RESULTS: We identified vaccine coverage in those above 70 years old, number of ICU beds per capita, and the availability of antiviral treatment as the most important interventions for safe exits across all studied locations, although the thresholds required for safe exits vary remarkably with the assumed vaccine effectiveness, as well as the age structure, age-specific vaccine coverage, community healthcare capacity of the studied locations. CONCLUSIONS: The analytical framework developed here can provide the basis for further policy decisions that incorporate considerations about economic costs and societal impacts. Achieving safe exits from the Zero-COVID policy is possible, but challenging for China's cities. When planning for safe exits, local realities such as the age structure and current age-specific vaccine coverage must be taken into consideration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , China , Policy
11.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 946, 2023 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233856

ABSTRACT

Sport participation and volunteering can make important contributions to good health. Sporting organisations need volunteers to deliver their participation opportunities and for many years the sector has faced challenges to volunteer recruitment and retention, especially due to the increased bureaucratic and compliance demands in operating community sports clubs. As sporting organisations pivot to adapt to COVID-safe sport we can learn about their experiences to inform volunteer recruitment and retention policies and practices. This research examined volunteer intentions and motivations in coaching and officiating in basketball and explored factors influencing their decision to return to COVID-safe basketball. Data was collected via an online survey that drew on theoretical frameworks of volunteer motivations (i.e. modified Volunteer Functions Inventory VFI) in sport as well as sport policies related to COVID-safe guidelines for return to sport. Data was collected in Victoria Australia during July 2020 before basketball had the chance to return from the first Australian-wide COVID-19 lockdown. Volunteers had positive intentions to return to basketball following COVID-19 restrictions because it was fun, to help others, or because friends/family were involved. Volunteers were most concerned that others will not comply with COVID-safe policies particularly around isolating when feeling unwell (95%), but also reported concerns about the inconveniences of some COVID-safe policies introduced to return to organised sport (e.g. social distancing, density limits, and enforcing rule changes). Understanding these volunteer intentions, motivations and factors influencing the decision to return to COVID-safe basketball can help inform recruitment and retention strategies to support volunteers in sport. Practical implications for sport policy and practice are discussed.


Subject(s)
Basketball , COVID-19 , Mentoring , Humans , Motivation , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Victoria , Volunteers , Policy
12.
J Law Med Ethics ; 51(1): 217-220, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231675

ABSTRACT

Equity is a foundational concept for the new World Health Organization (WHO) Pandemic Treaty. WHO Member States are currently negotiating to turn this undefined concept into tangible outcomes by borrowing a policy mechanism from international environmental law: "access and benefit-sharing" (ABS).


Subject(s)
International Cooperation , Pandemics , Humans , International Law , Policy , World Health Organization
13.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1180279, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244582

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Vasovagal reactions (VVRs) are common but complex donor adverse reactions (DAEs) in blood donations. VVRs have been extensively studied with a multitude of risk factors identified including young age, female gender and first-time donor status. How they may interplay remains obscure. Methods: A total of 1,984,116 blood donations and 27,952 immediate VVRs (iVVRs) and 1,365 delayed VVRs (dVVRs) reported between 2011 and 2021 in NZ were used in multivariate logistic regression analyses each concerning donations with iVVRs as cases and those free of DAEs as controls. For each analysis stepwise selection was used to identify the best model and risk factors carrying significant main effects and/or interactions. Identified interactions informed further in-depth regression analyses to dissect iVVR risk patterns. Results: Over 95% of VVRs were iVVRs that had lower female preponderance and deferrals than dVVRs. iVVRs had a school seasonal pattern in whole blood donations driven by first-time donors from schools/colleges, and interactions between gender and age group differentiating the first-time from repeat donations. Subsequent regression analyses identified the known and novel risk factors of year and mobile collection sites and their interactions. iVVR rates were roundly elevated in 2020 and 2021 probably because of COVID-19 restrictions like facemask wearing. Exclusion of the 2020 and 2021 data removed the interactions with year, but confirmed interactions of gender with mobile collection sites (p = 6.2e-07) in first-time donations only and with age group in repeat donations only (p < 2.2e-16), together indicating young female donors at the highest risk of iVVRs. Our results also revealed that donation policy changes contributed to the year effects; donors had a lower iVVR risk at mobile sites than well-medicalized donation centers probably because of under-reporting. Conclusion: Modeling statistical interactions is valuable in identifying odds and revealing novel iVVR risk patterns and insights into blood donations.


Subject(s)
Blood Donation , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Masks , Personal Protective Equipment , Policy
14.
J Law Med Ethics ; 51(1): 93-103, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244325

ABSTRACT

In COVID's immediate wake, the 2020 death toll from a different enemy of the public's health - gun violence - ticked up by 15 percent in the United States from the previous year. Meanwhile, the U.S. Supreme Court issued an opinion in Caniglia v. Strom that will allow people who have recently threatened suicide - with a gun - to keep unsecured guns in their home unless police take time to obtain a search warrant to remove them.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Firearms , Humans , Police , Mental Health , Policy
15.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 42(6): 753-758, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244185

ABSTRACT

We examined children's Medicaid participation during 2019-21 and found that as of March 2021, states newly adopting continuous Medicaid coverage for children during the COVID-19 pandemic experienced a 4.62 percent relative increase in children's Medicaid participation compared to states with previous continuous eligibility policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Health Services , United States , Child , Humans , Medicaid , Pandemics , Insurance Coverage , Policy , Eligibility Determination
16.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 1084, 2023 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243611

ABSTRACT

By 31 May 2022, original/Alpha, Delta and Omicron strains induced 101 outbreaks of COVID-19 in mainland China. Most outbreaks were cleared by combining non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) with vaccines, but continuous virus variations challenged the dynamic zero-case policy (DZCP), posing questions of what are the prerequisites and threshold levels for success? And what are the independent effects of vaccination in each outbreak? Using a modified classic infectious disease dynamic model and an iterative relationship for new infections per day, the effectiveness of vaccines and NPIs was deduced, from which the independent effectiveness of vaccines was derived. There was a negative correlation between vaccination coverage rates and virus transmission. For the Delta strain, a 61.8% increase in the vaccination rate (VR) reduced the control reproduction number (CRN) by about 27%. For the Omicron strain, a 20.43% increase in VR, including booster shots, reduced the CRN by 42.16%. The implementation speed of NPIs against the original/Alpha strain was faster than the virus's transmission speed, and vaccines significantly accelerated the DZCP against the Delta strain. The CRN ([Formula: see text]) during the exponential growth phase and the peak time and intensity of NPIs were key factors affecting a comprehensive theoretical threshold condition for DZCP success, illustrated by contour diagrams for the CRN under different conditions. The DZCP maintained the [Formula: see text] of 101 outbreaks below the safe threshold level, but the strength of NPIs was close to saturation especially for Omicron, and there was little room for improvement. Only by curbing the rise in the early stage and shortening the exponential growth period could clearing be achieved quickly. Strengthening China's vaccine immune barrier can improve China's ability to prevent and control epidemics and provide greater scope for the selection and adjustment of NPIs. Otherwise, there will be rapid rises in infection rates and an extremely high peak and huge pressure on the healthcare system, and a potential increase in excess mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Policy
17.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 988, 2023 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242605

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Policy responses to COVID-19 in Victoria, Australia over 2020-2021 have been supported by evidence generated through mathematical modelling. This study describes the design, key findings, and process for policy translation of a series of modelling studies conducted for the Victorian Department of Health COVID-19 response team during this period. METHODS: An agent-based model, Covasim, was used to simulate the impact of policy interventions on COVID-19 outbreaks and epidemic waves. The model was continually adapted to enable scenario analysis of settings or policies being considered at the time (e.g. elimination of community transmission versus disease control). Model scenarios were co-designed with government, to fill evidence gaps prior to key decisions. RESULTS: Understanding outbreak risk following incursions was critical to eliminating community COVID-19 transmission. Analyses showed risk depended on whether the first detected case was the index case, a primary contact of the index case, or a 'mystery case'. There were benefits of early lockdown on first case detection and gradual easing of restrictions to minimise resurgence risk from undetected cases. As vaccination coverage increased and the focus shifted to controlling rather than eliminating community transmission, understanding health system demand was critical. Analyses showed that vaccines alone could not protect health systems and need to be complemented with other public health measures. CONCLUSIONS: Model evidence offered the greatest value when decisions needed to be made pre-emptively, or for questions that could not be answered with empiric data and data analysis alone. Co-designing scenarios with policy-makers ensured relevance and increased policy translation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Victoria/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Communicable Disease Control , Policy
18.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 21(6)2023 06 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242525

ABSTRACT

US healthcare systems have been deeply impacted by significant societal shifts over the past several years. The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the way we interact with healthcare, political narratives have impacted how healthcare is perceived and engaged with by the public, and the United States has become increasingly aware of historic and ongoing racial injustices across all health and social systems. The watershed events experienced during the last several years play a critical role in shaping the future of cancer care for payers, providers, manufacturers, and, most importantly, patients and survivors. To explore these issues, in June 2021 NCCN convened a virtual policy summit: Defining the "New Normal" - 2021 and the State of Cancer Care in America Following 2020. This summit offered the opportunity for a varied group of stakeholders to begin to explore the impact of recent events on the current and future state of oncology in the United States. Topics included the impact of COVID-19 on cancer detection and treatment, the role of innovation in ensuring continuity of care, and efforts to create more equitable systems of care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Humans , Pandemics , Health Facilities , Policy
19.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 23(1): 530, 2023 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241851

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of thispaper is to explore the experiences of parents and carers of children with chronic health conditions in accessing healthcare during the Covid-19 pandemic. Children with chronic conditions typically rely on both planned and unplanned care, and contact with healthcare professionals over extensive periods of time. Their distinct care needs render these children vulnerable to even to minor changes in healthcare provision. The wide-ranging care disruptions during the pandemic were therefore likely drastically to affect their health and wellbeing; an assessment of the effects of Covid-19 policies on healthcare access and quality of care delivered for this group is needed. METHODS: From 25/01/2022 to 25/05/2022, four focus groups were held with parents/carers of children with diabetes, neurodivergence, mental health conditions, and medical complexities to explore their experiences in navigating the healthcare system during the pandemic. Interviews were transcribed and then subjected to thematic analysis using NVivo qualitative research software. RESULTS: Our results indicate that children with chronic health conditions (and their parents/carers) experienced difficulties accessing healthcare during the pandemic. Problems with late diagnosis, prolonged waiting times, and deficiencies with telemedicine were identified, as were impacts of healthcare disruptions on children's wellbeing, and the wellbeing of wider families. We found that children with neurodivergence and those with mental health conditions were particularly affected with their health needs repeatedly de-prioritised. Furthermore, the loss of contact with multi-specialty clinical teams profoundly affected parents and carers, leaving them feeling isolated in managing their children's health. These diminished relationships became another vector for uncertainty in supporting children's health. CONCLUSION: The effects of healthcare disruptions on the welfare of children with chronic conditions (and their families), are well evidenced in this work, providing deeper understandings of the relationships between these children, their families and clinicians. The evidence in this paper aims to inform future policy and ethical guidelines so that the needs of children with long-term health conditions can be properly considered in times of crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Humans , Child , Caregivers , Pandemics , Health Services Accessibility , Chronic Disease , Parents , Policy
20.
J Med Ethics ; 48(9): 641-642, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238206

ABSTRACT

John and Curran have convincingly shown that Scanlonian contractualism is a valuable resource for evaluating pandemic response policies, and that we should reject cost-benefit analysis in favour of a contractualist framework. However, they fail to consider the part of contractualism that Scanlon constructed precisely to deal with the question of when the state can restrict individuals from making choices that are harmful to themselves and others: the value of choice view (VoC). In doing so, they leave it open for opponents of lockdowns to misuse contractualism to justify mistaken policies. This is because the most powerful contractualist objections to locking down are likely to be based on the VoC.When we apply the value of choice view (VoC), we see that a lockdown policy's justifiability depends on the extent to which particular values of choice are found to be threatened by the policy in question, and what safeguards policy-makers have put in place to increase the value of choice and protect people from the harmful consequences of lockdown. Without the VoC, it is harder to explain why lockdowns, to be non-rejectable, must have certain features. With the VoC, the case for contractualism over cost benefit analysis (CBA) can be made even stronger.


Subject(s)
Volatile Organic Compounds , Humans , Pandemics , Policy
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