Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 762
Filter
1.
Am J Transplant ; 21(12): 3817-3818, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2192286
3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 927387, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154837

ABSTRACT

Background: A new wave of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection driven by Omicron BA.2 subvariant hit Shanghai end of February 2020. With higher transmissibility and milder symptoms, the daily new confirmed cases have soared to more than 20 K within one and a half months. The greatest challenge of Omicron spreading is that the rapidly surging number of infected populations overwhelming the healthcare system. What policy is effective for huge cities to fight against fast-spreading COVID-19 new variant remains a question. Methods: A system dynamics model of the Shanghai Omicron epidemic was developed as an extension of the traditional susceptible-exposed-infected-susceptible recovered (SEIR) model to incorporate the policies, such as contact tracing and quarantine, COVID-19 testing, isolation of areas concerned, and vaccination. Epidemic data from Shanghai Municipal Health Commission were collected for model validation. Results: Three policies were tested with the model: COVID-19 testing, isolation of areas concerned, and vaccination. Maintaining a high level of COVID-19 testing and transfer rate of the infected population can prevent the number of daily new confirmed cases from recurring growth. In the scenario that 50% of the infected population could be transferred for quarantine on daily bases, the daily confirmed asymptomatic cases and symptomatic cases remained at a low level under 100. For isolation of areas concerned, in the scenario with most isolation scope, the peak of daily confirmed asymptomatic and symptomatic cases dropped 18 and 16%, respectively, compared with that in the scenario with least isolation. Regarding vaccination, increasing the vaccination rate from 75 to 95% only slightly reduced the peak of the confirmed cases, but it can reduce the severe cases and death by 170%. Conclusions: The effective policies for Omicron include high level of testing capacity with a combination of RAT and PCR testing to identify and quarantine the infected cases, especially the asymptomatic cases. Immediate home-isolation and fast transfer to centralized quarantine location could help control the spread of the virus. Moreover, to promote the vaccination in vulnerable population could significantly reduce the severe cases and death. These policies could be applicable to all metropolises with huge population facing high transmissible low severity epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Policy , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Health Soc Behav ; 63(4): 471, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2153296
5.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(12): 2455-2462, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141584

ABSTRACT

We evaluated daily rapid antigen test (RAT) data from 323 COVID-19-positive university students in Connecticut, USA, during an Omicron-dominant period. Day 5 positivity was 47% for twice-weekly screeners and 26%-28% for less-frequent screeners, approximately halving each subsequent day. Testing negative >10 days before diagnosis (event time ratio (ETR) 0.85 [95% CI 0.75-0.96]) and prior infection >90 days (ETR 0.50 [95% CI 0.33-0.76]) were significantly associated with shorter RAT positivity duration. Symptoms before or at diagnosis (ETR 1.13 [95% CI 1.02-1.25]) and receipt of 3 vaccine doses (ETR 1.20 [95% CI 1.04-1.39]) were significantly associated with prolonged positivity. Exit RATs enabled 53%-74% of students to leave isolation early when they began isolation at the time of the first positive test, but 15%-22% remained positive beyond the recommended isolation period. Factors associated with RAT positivity duration should be further explored to determine relationships with infection duration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , Universities , Policy , Students
6.
Am J Public Health ; 112(12): 1735-1737, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141108
7.
Lancet ; 399(10340): 2013, 2022 05 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2132759

Subject(s)
Humanities , Policy , Humans , Politics
8.
Intensive Care Med ; 48(12): 1790-1792, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2128540
9.
Healthc Q ; 25(3): 30-35, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2145326

ABSTRACT

In March 2020, the Toronto Region COVID-19 Hospital Operations Table developed a policy to guide visitor restrictions at six hospitals (Toronto Region COVID-19 Hospital Operations Table 2021). We conducted nine interviews with the developers and implementers of the policy based on the accountability for reasonableness (A4R) framework. Participants agreed that the A4R principles were met suggesting fair development and implementation of the policy. However, recurrent themes suggested that the policy disadvantaged those unable to advocate for themselves and that there were unaccounted costs to patients, such as lost time and function. We suggest that visitor policies incorporate equity considerations upfront and predetermine metrics to measure harms to patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Priorities , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Social Responsibility , Hospitals , Policy
10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(22)2022 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143491

ABSTRACT

Mobile app developers are often obliged by regulatory frameworks to provide a privacy policy in natural comprehensible language to describe their apps' privacy practices. However, prior research has revealed that: (1) not all app developers offer links to their privacy policies; and (2) even if they do offer such access, it is difficult to determine if it is a valid link to a (valid) policy. While many prior studies looked at this issue in Google Play Store, Apple App Store, and particularly the iOS store, is much less clear. In this paper, we conduct the first and the largest study to investigate the previous issues in the iOS app store ecosystem. First, we introduce an App Privacy Policy Extractor (APPE), a system that embraces and analyses the metadata of over two million apps to give insightful information about the distribution of the supposed privacy policies, and the content of the provided privacy policy links, store-wide. The result shows that only 58.5% of apps provide links to purported privacy policies, while 39.3% do not provide policy links at all. Our investigation of the provided links shows that only 38.4% of those links were directed to actual privacy policies, while 61.6% failed to lead to a privacy policy. Further, for research purposes we introduce the App Privacy Policy Corpus (APPC-451K); the largest app privacy policy corpus consisting of data relating to more than 451K verified privacy policies.


Subject(s)
Mobile Applications , Privacy , Ecosystem , Policy , Metadata
11.
Front Public Health ; 10: 948478, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142318

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aimed to develop a framework regarding COVID-19 infodemic response and policy informing through focusing on infodemic concepts circulating on the online search engine in Turkey in relation to the COVID-19 outbreak and comparing the contents of these concepts with Maslow's hierarchy of needs and disaster stages. Materials and methods: The universe of this descriptive epidemiological research consists of internet search activities on COVID-19 circulating online on Google Trends between March 10, 2020, when the first case was seen in Turkey, and June 01, 2020, when the lockdown restrictions were lifted. Findings: There was no internet trend regarding a misinformed attitude within the given date range. While an infodemic attitude toward superficial attitude and racist attitude in the internet environment was detected for 1 week, an infodemic attitude toward definitive attitude was detected for 2 weeks. The non-infodemic concepts were more common than the other infodemic attitudes. The infodemic concepts were able to reach Maslow's physiological, safety, and social need levels. With the infodemic concepts obtained, a COVID-19 development process framework was developed. The framework consists of three domains (COVID-19, applications and outcomes), including disaster phases and health/social impacts, built on seven public health epochs. Results: A systematized COVID-19 development process framework was modeled in order to conceptualize COVID-19 internet searches and to reveal the development processes and outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Turkey , Communicable Disease Control , Search Engine , Policy
12.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(4): e20699, 2021 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141282

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Daily new COVID-19 cases from January to April 2020 demonstrate varying patterns of SARS-CoV-2 transmission across different geographical regions. Constant infection rates were observed in some countries, whereas China and South Korea had a very low number of daily new cases. In fact, China and South Korea successfully and quickly flattened their COVID-19 curve. To understand why this was the case, this paper investigated possible aerosol-forming patterns in the atmosphere and their relationship to the policy measures adopted by select countries. OBJECTIVE: The main research objective was to compare the outcomes of policies adopted by countries between January and April 2020. Policies included physical distancing measures that in some cases were associated with mask use and city disinfection. We investigated whether the type of social distancing framework adopted by some countries (ie, without mask use and city disinfection) led to the continual dissemination of SARS-CoV-2 (daily new cases) in the community during the study period. METHODS: We examined the policies used as a preventive framework for virus community transmission in some countries and compared them to the policies adopted by China and South Korea. Countries that used a policy of social distancing by 1-2 m were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of countries that implemented social distancing (1-2 m) only, and the second comprised China and South Korea, which implemented distancing with additional transmission/isolation measures using masks and city disinfection. Global daily case maps from Johns Hopkins University were used to provide time-series data for the analysis. RESULTS: The results showed that virus transmission was reduced due to policies affecting SARS-CoV-2 propagation over time. Remarkably, China and South Korea obtained substantially better results than other countries at the beginning of the epidemic due to their adoption of social distancing (1-2 m) with the additional use of masks and sanitization (city disinfection). These measures proved to be effective due to the atmosphere carrier potential of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm that social distancing by 1-2 m with mask use and city disinfection yields positive outcomes. These strategies should be incorporated into prevention and control policies and be adopted both globally and by individuals as a method to fight the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Air Microbiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Policy , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Disinfection , Global Health , Humans , Masks , Physical Distancing , Policy Making , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123605

ABSTRACT

Catalyzed by COVID-19 and the Russia-Ukraine conflict, oil prices fluctuate dramatically on the worldwide market. Both international oil price changes and carbon tax policies have a direct impact on energy costs, thus influencing energy security and emission reduction impacts. Therefore, assessing the interaction effects of international oil price variations and carbon tax policies can assist in resolving the competing challenges of energy security and carbon emission reduction. The impact of international oil price fluctuations on China's energy-economic-environment system under the baseline scenario and carbon taxation scenario is analyzed by constructing a computable general equilibrium model comprising six modules: production, trade, institutions, price, environment, and equilibrium. The findings indicate that, in addition to reducing high-carbon energy consumption and increasing demand for clean electricity, rising international oil prices have a negative effect on real GDP, resulting in lower output in sectors other than construction, and a positive effect on the environmental system by driving carbon emission reductions. In contrast, decreasing international oil prices have the opposite effect. Nevertheless, the impact of rising and decreasing international oil prices is asymmetrical, with the positive shock effect being smaller than the negative. The carbon tax policy can effectively offset the increase in carbon emissions caused by the decline in international oil prices, which is conducive to promoting the development of clean energy, while simultaneously causing an increase in product prices and arousing a contraction in consumer demand, which has a limited negative impact on the macroeconomy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carbon , Humans , Carbon/analysis , Taxes , China , Policy
14.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1042589, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123481

ABSTRACT

Background: Forest therapy has gained popularity in Japan and even other nations/regions due to its health benefits. In addition, forest therapy has contributed to the development of circular economy and industrial upgrading. Japanese successful practice can serve as a model for other countries in the Asia-Pacific region. To this end, the aim of this study was to determine whether forest therapy can improve the whole well-being of the participants and has a positive effect on the development of circular economy in the region. Methods: Both empirical and inductive research methods were used; empirical approach was conducted to perform comparative analysis of regional data that was retrieved from the research project of Japanese Forestry Agency in 2015. Specifically, the efficacy of forest therapy on physical (blood glucose, blood pressure, body weight) and mental (sleep quality e.g.,) health outcomes among 815 participants was investigated. Regional data are from the statistics of Iiyama City from 1990 to 2005. After the concept of forest therapy became popular in the late 1990s, this element had a great positive impact on the economic benefits of Ishiyama City and other major forest scenic areas. We summarize and analyze a series of policies made by relevant departments of the Japanese government in the years from 2019 to 2021 to promote forest therapy and related circular industry development. Results: Significant (pre-to-post participation) changes in physical measure was observed. Firstly, mean weight of those overweight participants decreased across three different time points (pre-test/enrollment = 79.7 kg, 3-month participation = 77.2, and 6-month participation = 76.8 kg), while overall mean weight of the participants decreased to 61, 60.5, and 60.4 kg, respectively. Secondly, Participant with normal weight showed a decrease on mean HbA1C (from 6.09 to 6.06) at Week 24, while overweight participants demonstrated a slight change 6.03-6.01 after 6 months the average HOMA-IR for overweight participants decreased from 3.5 to 2.5 at Week 24, while participants with normal weight demonstrated a decrease from 2.2 to 1.7 at Week 24. Forest Therapy has emerged in Japan since Mid-1990s and has attracted a large number of tourists all over the world due to its unique health benefits. Conclusion: Forest therapy in Japan has positive effects on whole well-being of Japanese residents and it has helped public mental health promotion and economic growth. Under the guidance and support of government policies, it can promote the development of circular economy and industrial transformation and set a model of Japanese forest therapy development for other countries in the Asia-Pacific region.


Subject(s)
Mental Health , Overweight , Humans , Japan , Forests , Policy
15.
Front Public Health ; 10: 960655, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2121900

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has brought the global economy to a crisis: how to choose the optimal policy tools to cope with the external impacts has attracted worldwide attention. The research evaluates the effects of China's fiscal and monetary policies in promoting economic recovery by establishing a CGE model. Five representative countermeasures such as exempting value-added tax (VAT) and cutting loan rates are studied. The results indicate that: from the aspect of fiscal policies, increasing investment shows a better effect in boosting economy compared with exempting VAT and increasing medical care expenditures; however, the policy also causes price inflation (+0.45%) and crowding-out of enterprise investment (-0.03%). From the aspect of monetary policies, providing targeted loans to enterprises has a better boosting effect on economy compared with cutting loan rates. In the choice between fiscal or monetary policies, fiscal policies exert better effects (household income, +0.95%) when taking the improvement of residents' welfare as the objective. If taking promoting recovery of enterprises and boosting the economy as objectives, monetary policies are found to be better (GDP, +1.99%). Therefore, fiscal and monetary policies should be guided by different objectives and allowed to work in a synergistic manner.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Economic Recession , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Policy
16.
Health Promot Int ; 37(6)2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116875

ABSTRACT

Health Impact Assessment is a key approach used internationally to identify positive or negative impacts of policies, plans and proposals on health and well-being. In 2020, HIAs were undertaken in Scotland and Wales to identify the potential health and well-being impacts of the 'stay at home' and physical distancing measures implemented at the start of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. There is sparse evidence evaluating whether the impacts predicted in HIAs occur following policy implementation. This paper evaluates the impacts anticipated in the COVID-19 HIAs against actual observed trends. The processes undertaken were compared and predicted impacts were tabulated by population groups and main determinants of health. Routine data and literature evidence were collated to compare predicted and observed impacts. Nearly all health impacts anticipated in both HIAs have occurred in the direction predicted. There have been significant adverse impacts through multiple direct and indirect pathways including loss of income, social isolation, disruption to education and services, and psychosocial effects. This research demonstrates the value of prediction in impact assessment and fills a gap in the literature by comparing the predicted impacts identified within the HIAs with observed trends. Post-COVID-19 recovery should centre health and well-being within future policies and decisions. Processes like HIA can support this as part of a 'health in all policies' approach to improve the health and well-being of populations.


Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is an approach used to identify positive or negative impacts of policies, plans and proposals on health and well-being. In 2020, HIAs were undertaken in Scotland and Wales to identify the potential health and well-being impacts of the 'stay at home' and physical distancing measures (commonly called 'lockdown') which were put in place at the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper evaluates whether these assessments were correct in their predictions. It finds that most of the health impacts anticipated in both assessments have occurred. These include significant impacts on income, employment and mental health. Using HIAs can help policymakers to take full account of these wider impacts on health and develop policies that benefit health and health equity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Impact Assessment , Humans , Wales/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Policy
17.
Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf ; 48(11): 609-611, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114118
18.
Glob Health Res Policy ; 7(1): 42, 2022 11 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109085

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 vaccination has been advocated as the most effective way to curb the pandemic. But with its inequitable distribution and slow rollout, especially in low- to middle- income countries, it will still take a long time before herd immunity is achieved. Alternative measures must therefore be explored to bolster current COVID-19 vaccination efforts. In particular, the Bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccine has been studied extensively as to its proposed conferment of non-specific immunity against different infections, including COVID-19. The aim of this study, therefore, is to evaluate the current evidence on the effectiveness of national BCG vaccination policies in reducing infection and mortality of COVID-19. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted between April to August 2021 following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA-P) guidelines. Literature was retrieved from PubMed, Cochrane, HERDIN, Web of Science, EBSCO, and Western Pacific Region Index Medicus (WPRIM). Studies conducted from January 2020 to August 2021 that fell within Level 1A to 2C of the Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine were included in the review. Quality assessment was performed using the appropriate Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal tool and a quality assessment checklist for ecological studies adapted from Betran et al. RESULTS: A total of 13 studies were included in this review. Nine studies reported significant association between BCG vaccination policies and COVID-19 outcomes, even when controlling for confounding variables. In addition, among other mandated vaccines, such as pneumococcal, influenza, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, and measles, only BCG vaccination showed significant association with decreased COVID-19 adverse outcomes. However, other factors also showed positive association with COVID-19 outcomes, particularly markers of high economic status of countries, higher median age, and greater population densities. CONCLUSION: The lower incidence and mortality of COVID-19 in countries with mandated BCG vaccination may not solely be attributable to BCG vaccination policies, but there is still some evidence that demonstrates a possible protective effect. Clinical trials must be continued before recommendations of BCG vaccinations are to be used as an alternative or booster vaccine against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
BCG Vaccine , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Policy , Vaccination
19.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(10): e39676, 2022 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109563

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and its corresponding preventive and control measures have increased the mental burden on the public. Understanding and tracking changes in public mental status can facilitate optimizing public mental health intervention and control strategies. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to build a social media-based pipeline that tracks public mental changes and use it to understand public mental health status regarding the pandemic. METHODS: This study used COVID-19-related tweets posted from February 2020 to April 2022. The tweets were downloaded using unique identifiers through the Twitter application programming interface. We created a lexicon of 4 mental health problems (depression, anxiety, insomnia, and addiction) to identify mental health-related tweets and developed a dictionary for identifying health care workers. We analyzed temporal and geographic distributions of public mental health status during the pandemic and further compared distributions among health care workers versus the general public, supplemented by topic modeling on their underlying foci. Finally, we used interrupted time series analysis to examine the statewide impact of a lockdown policy on public mental health in 12 states. RESULTS: We extracted 4,213,005 tweets related to mental health and COVID-19 from 2,316,817 users. Of these tweets, 2,161,357 (51.3%) were related to "depression," whereas 1,923,635 (45.66%), 225,205 (5.35%), and 150,006 (3.56%) were related to "anxiety," "insomnia," and "addiction," respectively. Compared to the general public, health care workers had higher risks of all 4 types of problems (all P<.001), and they were more concerned about clinical topics than everyday issues (eg, "students' pressure," "panic buying," and "fuel problems") than the general public. Finally, the lockdown policy had significant associations with public mental health in 4 out of the 12 states we studied, among which Pennsylvania showed a positive association, whereas Michigan, North Carolina, and Ohio showed the opposite (all P<.05). CONCLUSIONS: The impact of COVID-19 and the corresponding control measures on the public's mental status is dynamic and shows variability among different cohorts regarding disease types, occupations, and regional groups. Health agencies and policy makers should primarily focus on depression (reported by 51.3% of the tweets) and insomnia (which has had an ever-increasing trend since the beginning of the pandemic), especially among health care workers. Our pipeline timely tracks and analyzes public mental health changes, especially when primary studies and large-scale surveys are difficult to conduct.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Social Media , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Infodemiology , Mental Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , Policy
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL