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2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 72(23): 613-620, 2023 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243279

ABSTRACT

Since the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was established in 1988, the number of wild poliovirus (WPV) cases has declined by >99.9%, and WPV serotypes 2 and 3 have been declared eradicated (1). By the end of 2022, WPV type 1 (WPV1) transmission remained endemic only in Afghanistan and Pakistan (2,3). However, during 2021-2022, Malawi and Mozambique reported nine WPV1 cases that were genetically linked to Pakistan (4,5), and circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) outbreaks were detected in 42 countries (6). cVDPVs are oral poliovirus vaccine-derived viruses that can emerge after prolonged circulation in populations with low immunity allowing reversion to neurovirulence and can cause paralysis. Polioviruses are detected primarily through surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), and poliovirus is confirmed through stool specimen testing. Environmental surveillance, the systematic sampling of sewage and testing for the presence of poliovirus, supplements AFP surveillance. Both surveillance systems were affected by the COVID-19 pandemic's effects on public health activities during 2020 (7,8) but improved in 2021 (9). This report updates previous reports (7,9) to describe surveillance performance during 2021-2022 in 34 priority countries.* In 2022, a total of 26 (76.5%) priority countries met the two key AFP surveillance performance indicator targets nationally compared with 24 (70.6%) countries in 2021; however, substantial gaps remain in subnational areas. Environmental surveillance expanded to 725 sites in priority countries, a 31.1% increase from the 553 sites reported in 2021. High-quality surveillance is critical to rapidly detect poliovirus transmission and enable prompt poliovirus outbreak response to stop circulation. Frequent monitoring of surveillance guides improvements to achieve progress toward polio eradication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Enterovirus , Poliomyelitis , Poliovirus , Humans , Pandemics , alpha-Fetoproteins , Disease Eradication , Population Surveillance , Global Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Poliomyelitis/diagnosis , Poliovirus/genetics , Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Immunization Programs
3.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 42(7): 531-532, 2023 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240561
5.
Curr Opin Neurol ; 36(3): 229-237, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297840

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent outbreaks of poliomyelitis in countries that have been free of cases for decades highlight the challenges of eradicating polio in a globalized interconnected world beset with a novel viral pandemic. We provide an epidemiological update, advancements in vaccines, and amendments in public health strategy of poliomyelitis in this review. RECENT FINDINGS: Last year, new cases of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) were documented in regions previously documented to have eradicated WPV1 and reports of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) and 3 (cVDPV3) in New York and Jerusalem made international headlines. Sequencing of wastewater samples from environmental surveillance revealed that the WPV1 strains were related to WPV1 lineages from endemic countries and the cVDPV2 strains from New York and Jerusalem were not only related to each other but also to environmental isolates found in London. The evidence of importation of WPV1 cases from endemic countries, and global transmission of cVDPVs justifies renewed efforts in routine vaccination programs and outbreak control measures that were interrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic. After the novel oral poliovirus vaccine type 2 (nOPV2) received emergency authorization for containment of cVDPV2 outbreaks in 2021, subsequent reduced incidence, transmission rates, and vaccine adverse events, alongside increased genetic stability of viral isolates substantiates the safety and efficacy of nOPV2. The nOPV1 and nOPV3 vaccines, against type 1 and 3 cVDPVs, and measures to increase accessibility and efficacy of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) are in development. SUMMARY: A revised strategy utilizing more genetically stable vaccine formulations, with uninterrupted vaccination programs and continued active surveillance optimizes the prospect of global poliomyelitis eradication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Poliomyelitis , Poliovirus , Humans , Poliovirus/genetics , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/complications , Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral/adverse effects , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Poliomyelitis/etiology , Disease Outbreaks
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 72(14): 366-371, 2023 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2252235

ABSTRACT

Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) outbreaks* can occur when oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV, containing one or more Sabin-strain serotypes 1, 2, and 3) strains undergo prolonged circulation in under-vaccinated populations, resulting in genetically reverted neurovirulent virus (1,2). Following declaration of the eradication of wild poliovirus type 2 in 2015 and the global synchronized switch from trivalent OPV (tOPV, containing Sabin-strain types 1, 2, and 3) to bivalent OPV (bOPV, containing types 1 and 3 only) for routine immunization activities† in April 2016 (3), cVDPV type 2 (cVDPV2) outbreaks have been reported worldwide (4). During 2016-2020, immunization responses to cVDPV2 outbreaks required use of Sabin-strain monovalent OPV2, but new VDPV2 emergences could occur if campaigns did not reach a sufficiently high proportion of children. Novel oral poliovirus vaccine type 2 (nOPV2), a more genetically stable vaccine than Sabin OPV2, was developed to address the risk for reversion to neurovirulence and became available in 2021. Because of the predominant use of nOPV2 during the reporting period, supply replenishment has frequently been insufficient for prompt response campaigns (5). This report describes global cVDPV outbreaks during January 2021-December 2022 (as of February 14, 2023) and updates previous reports (4). During 2021-2022, there were 88 active cVDPV outbreaks, including 76 (86%) caused by cVDPV2. cVDPV outbreaks affected 46 countries, 17 (37%) of which reported their first post-switch cVDPV2 outbreak. The total number of paralytic cVDPV cases during 2020-2022 decreased by 36%, from 1,117 to 715; however, the proportion of all cVDPV cases that were caused by cVDPV type 1 (cVDPV1) increased from 3% in 2020 to 18% in 2022, including the occurrence of cocirculating cVDPV1 and cVDPV2 outbreaks in two countries. The increased proportion of cVDPV1 cases follows a substantial decrease in global routine immunization coverage and suspension of preventive immunization campaigns during the COVID-19 pandemic (2020-2022) (6); outbreak responses in some countries were also suboptimal. Improving routine immunization coverage, strengthening poliovirus surveillance, and conducting timely and high-quality supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in response to cVDPV outbreaks are needed to interrupt cVDPV transmission and reach the goal of no cVDPV isolations in 2024.


Subject(s)
Disease Outbreaks , Poliomyelitis , Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral , Child , Humans , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Poliovirus/genetics , Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral/adverse effects
10.
PLoS One ; 18(2): e0279809, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2249684

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ghana has experienced recent polio outbreaks. Behavioral insights can be used to understand behavior and create demand for the polio vaccine. METHODS: This cross-sectional study is based on an interactive mobile phone survey that explored factors influencing the uptake of the polio vaccine among Ghanaian mothers with children younger than five years old. The survey also explores the mothers' intention to vaccinate their children in the future as well as an experiment with short polio vaccine voice message nudges to identify the most effective message frames in encouraging vaccination. The study sample was drawn from volunteers from a mobile service platform. Linear probability model regressions with Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) estimates were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: In total, data from 708 caregivers was assessed. Out of the sample, 35% (n = 250) had not vaccinated their children against polio, around 8% (n = 53) of respondents stated they did not plan to do so, while 28% expressed intent to do so during the next polio vaccination campaign. Higher vaccination of children against polio, i.e. better uptake of the polio vaccine, appeared to be associated with children's caregivers knowing that polio causes paralysis (with a coefficient of 0.13 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.24), i.e. 13% more likely than not to have their child vaccinated). Higher vaccine uptake also appeared to be associated with the perception that the polio vaccine is safe (with a coefficient of 0.11 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.22), i.e. 11% more likely than not to have their child vaccinated). Another factor in increasing vaccine uptake is whether caregivers receive support from healthcare workers with a coefficient of 0.11 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.20), i.e. 11% more likely than not to have their child vaccinated. Crucially, difficulty accessing the polio vaccine appeared to be associate with a negative change in vaccine uptake (with a coefficient of -0.16 (95% CI: -0.23, -0.08), i.e. 16% less likely to have their child vaccinated). Satisfaction with the information provided by vaccinators was also associated with better vaccine uptake (with a coefficient of 0.12 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.20) i.e. 12% more likely than not to have their child vaccinated); and having seen or heard something negative about the polio vaccine with a coefficient of 0.10 (95% CI: 0.03, 0.17), i.e. 10% more likely than not to have their child vaccinated. The social norms message frame was statistically significant with a coefficient of 0.06 (95% CI: -0.004, 012). CONCLUSION: The findings from this study suggest that most women with children under the age of 5 appear to have vaccinated their children against polio. Many more caregivers express an intention to vaccinate their children, never having done so before. The behavior and the intention to vaccinate are both driven by a number of factors that must be addressed to create demand for the polio vaccine. Targeted message frames appeared to be statistically significant drivers of vaccine uptake. However, more research is required to understand how they impact vaccine behavior and future intention for vaccination.


Subject(s)
Poliomyelitis , Vaccines , Child , Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Ghana , Cross-Sectional Studies , Vaccination , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology
11.
Air Med J ; 42(1): 5-10, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2257615
13.
Ann Acad Med Singap ; 52(1): 17-26, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2218555

ABSTRACT

Poliomyelitis, or polio, is a highly infectious disease and can result in permanent flaccid paralysis of the limbs. Singapore was certified polio-free by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 29 October 2000, together with 36 other countries in the Western Pacific Region. The last imported case of polio in Singapore was in 2006. Fortunately, polio is vaccine-preventable-the world saw the global eradication of wild poliovirus types 2 and 3 achieved in 2015 and 2019, respectively. However, in late 2022, a resurgence of paralytic polio cases from vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) was detected in countries like Israel and the US (specifically, New York); VDPV was also detected during routine sewage water surveillance with no paralysis cases in London, UK. Without global eradication, there is a risk of re-infection from importation and spread of wild poliovirus or VDPV, or new emergence and circulation of VDPV. During the COVID-19 pandemic, worldwide routine childhood vaccination coverage fell by 5% to 81% in 2020-2021. Fortunately, Singapore has maintained a constantly high vaccination coverage of 96% among 1-year-old children as recorded in 2021. All countries must ensure high poliovirus vaccination coverage in their population to eradicate poliovirus globally, and appropriate interventions must be taken to rectify this if the coverage falters. In 2020, WHO approved the emergency use listing of a novel oral polio vaccine type 2 for countries experiencing circulating VDPV type 2 outbreaks. Environmental and wastewater surveillance should be implemented to allow early detection of "silent" poliovirus transmission in the population, instead of relying on clinical surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis based on case definition alone.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Poliomyelitis , Poliovirus , Child , Humans , Infant , Public Health Surveillance , Pandemics , Wastewater , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring , COVID-19/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral , Vaccination , Global Health
14.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(13): S232-S237, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2215182

ABSTRACT

Ghana is a yellow fever-endemic country and experienced a vaccine-derived polio outbreak in July 2019. A reactive polio vaccination campaign was conducted in September 2019 and preventive yellow fever campaign in November 2020. On March 12, 2020, Ghana confirmed its first COVID-19 cases. During February-August 2021, Ghana received 1,515,450 COVID-19 vaccines through the COVID-19 Vaccines Global Access initiative and other donor agencies. We describe how systems and infrastructure used for polio and yellow fever vaccine deployment and the lessons learned in those campaigns were used to deploy COVID-19 vaccines. During March-August 2021, a total of 1,424,008 vaccine doses were administered in Ghana. By using existing vaccination and health systems, officials in Ghana were able to deploy COVID-19 vaccines within a few months with <5% vaccine wastage and minimal additional resources despite the short shelf-life of vaccines received. These strategies were essential in saving lives in a resource-limited country.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Poliomyelitis , Vaccines , Yellow Fever , Humans , Yellow Fever/epidemiology , Yellow Fever/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , COVID-19 Vaccines , Vaccination , Immunization Programs , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Ghana/epidemiology
15.
Cell ; 186(1): 1-4, 2023 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2209941

ABSTRACT

1988, the World Health Assembly committed to eradicate poliomyelitis, a viral disease that can cause permanent paralysis. Today, only type 1 of the three wild poliovirus types remains circulating in limited geographic areas following widespread use of different poliovirus vaccines. While we are close to zero new cases of wild polio, it is a fragile situation, and there are many remaining and new hurdles to overcome. Here, experts discuss how to address them.


Subject(s)
Poliomyelitis , Poliovirus Vaccines , Poliovirus , Humans , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Global Health , Disease Eradication
16.
Cien Saude Colet ; 28(2): 337, 2023 Feb.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197466

ABSTRACT

The drop in childhood vaccination coverage (VC), including poliomyelitis, has become a health concern. The objective was to analyze the temporal trend of coverage of the three doses of the polio vaccine in the first 12 months of life between 2011 and 2021, in addition to mapping vaccination coverage in Brazil, including the COVID-19 pandemic period. An ecological study was carried out using interrupted time series (STI) techniques and spatial analysis, with data from the National Immunization Program Information System. The VC trend was adjusted by the Newey-West variance estimator according to the federated units and the Brazilian Deprivation Index. The VC distribution was estimated by Bayesian models and the spatial clusters by the global and local Moran index, identifying areas of lower coverage in the health regions. There was a reduction in the VC over the period in all regions, being more pronounced in the North and Northeast regions and during the Covid-19 pandemic. The biggest drops were identified in states and health regions with greater social vulnerability after 2019. The drop in VC shows that the risk of reintroduction of the wild virus is imminent and the challenges need to be faced with the strengthening of the Brazilian Health System (SUS).


A queda de coberturas vacinais (CV) na infância, entre elas a da poliomielite, vem se tornando uma preocupação sanitária. O objetivo foi analisar a tendência temporal das coberturas das três doses da vacina contra a poliomielite nos primeiros 12 meses de vida entre 2011 e 2021, com destaque na pandemia de COVID-19, além de mapear as CV no Brasil. Foi realizado um estudo ecológico com técnicas de série temporal interrompida (STI) e análise espacial, a partir dos dados do Sistema de Informação do Programa Nacional de Imunização. A tendência da CV foi ajustada pelo estimador de variância de Newey-West, segundo as unidades federadas e o Índice de Privação Brasileiro. A distribuição da CV foi estimada por modelos bayesianos e os aglomerados espaciais pelos índices de Moran global e local, identificando áreas de menor cobertura nas Regiões de Saúde. Observa-se perda da CV ao longo do período em todas as regiões do país, sendo maiores no Norte e no Nordeste e se acentuando durante a pandemia. As maiores quedas foram identificadas em estados e regiões de saúde com maior vulnerabilidade social. A queda na CV mostra que o risco de reintrodução do vírus selvagem é iminente e os desafios precisam ser enfrentados com o fortalecimento do Sistema Único de Saúde.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Poliomyelitis , Humans , Brazil/epidemiology , Bayes Theorem , Pandemics/prevention & control , Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control
17.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(7): 2154099, 2022 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2166140

ABSTRACT

With multiple waves and variants, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected routine vaccination programs globally. Its impact is also visible in Pakistan as routine health services continue to be disrupted. Consequently, thousands of children have emerged as vulnerable in the face of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs), which have already started causing outbreaks in the country. Infections with polio and measles have been significantly reported, especially during the last few years. This reemergence of both diseases is posing great challenges for the country at local, national, and global levels. These impacts are being multiplied by the 2022 flooding - called "super floods" - in the country. Hence, relevant stakeholders, such as the Pakistani government and the World Health Organization (WHO), need to revisit the entire vaccination program to address and resolve issues occurring at the management or local levels. It is highly important to pay attention to the context that provides a fertile ground to negatively affect vaccine uptake.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Measles , Poliomyelitis , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , Vaccines , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pakistan/epidemiology , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases/prevention & control , Floods , Vaccination , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Immunization Programs , Measles Vaccine
18.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(13): S299-S301, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162919

ABSTRACT

Nigeria receives funds from several global health initiatives that are aimed at addressing elevated risks and overall burden of infectious disease outbreaks. These funds include the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria; US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief; US President's Malaria Initiative; and Global Polio Eradication Initiative. These initiatives have contributed to a substantial reduction in illness and death from HIV, tuberculosis, malaria, and polio. However, Nigeria has experienced mixed success with leveraging the capacities built through these donor-funded vertical programs to respond to new health threats. This report describes experiences using resources from vertical disease programs by the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control in response to the 2014-2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa and the COVID-19 pandemic. Integrating resources from different disease programs with government-led systems and institutions will improve responses to endemic outbreaks and preparedness for future pandemics in Nigeria.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , COVID-19 , Poliomyelitis , Tuberculosis , Humans , Global Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
19.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(13): S203-S207, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162896

ABSTRACT

Global emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 curtailed vaccine-preventable disease (VPD) surveillance activities, but little is known about which surveillance components were most affected. In May 2021, we surveyed 214 STOP (originally Stop Transmission of Polio) Program consultants to determine how VPD surveillance activities were affected by the COVID-19 pandemic throughout 2020, primarily in low- and middle-income countries, where program consultants are deployed. Our report highlights the responses from 154 (96%) of the 160 consultants deployed to the World Health Organization African Region, which comprises 75% (160/214) of all STOP Program consultants deployed globally in early 2021. Most survey respondents observed that VPD surveillance activities were somewhat or severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. Reprioritization of surveillance staff and changes in health-seeking behaviors were factors commonly perceived to decrease VPD surveillance activities. Our findings suggest the need for strategies to restore VPD surveillance to prepandemic levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Poliomyelitis , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , Humans , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases/epidemiology , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology , World Health Organization
20.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 30: e3642, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065223

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to identify spatial clusters corresponding to abandonment of routine vaccines in children. METHOD: an ecological study, according to data from the 853 municipalities of a Brazilian state. The records analyzed were those of the multidose pentavalent, pneumococcal 10-valent, inactivated poliomyelitis and oral human rotavirus vaccines of 781,489 children aged less than one year old. The spatial scan statistics was used to identify spatial clusters and assess the relative risk based on the vaccination abandonment indicator. RESULTS: the spatial scan statistics detected the presence of statistically significant clusters for abandonment regarding the four vaccines in all the years analyzed. However, the highest number of clusters with high relative risk estimates was identified in 2020. The Vale do Aço and West, North and West, and Southwest regions stand out for the pentavalent, poliomyelitis and rotavirus vaccines, respectively. CONCLUSION: in an attempt to mitigate the devastating impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, the immunization program experienced setbacks. The presence of clusters points to the need to implement integrated strategies that may involve different sectors for an active search for children and prevent outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases in the near future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Poliomyelitis , Rotavirus Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Humans , Infant , Pandemics , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Vaccination
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