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2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(43): 1495-1500, 2021 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498052

ABSTRACT

Endorsed by the World Health Assembly in 2020, the Immunization Agenda 2030 (IA2030) strives to reduce morbidity and mortality from vaccine-preventable diseases across the life course (1). This report, which updates a previous report (2), presents global, regional,* and national vaccination coverage estimates and trends as of 2020. Changes are described in vaccination coverage and the numbers of unvaccinated and undervaccinated children as measured by receipt of the first and third doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis-containing vaccine (DTP) in 2020, when the COVID-19 pandemic began, compared with 2019. Global estimates of coverage with the third dose of DTP (DTP3) and a polio vaccine (Pol3) decreased from 86% in 2019 to 83% in 2020. Similarly, coverage with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) dropped from 86% in 2019 to 84% in 2020. The last year that coverage estimates were at 2020 levels was 2009 for DTP3 and 2014 for both MCV1 and Pol3. Worldwide, 22.7 million children (17% of the target population) were not vaccinated with DTP3 in 2020 compared with 19.0 million (14%) in 2019. Children who did not receive the first DTP dose (DTP1) by age 12 months (zero-dose children) accounted for 95% of the increased number. Among those who did not receive DTP3 in 2020, approximately 17.1 million (75%) were zero-dose children. Global coverage decreased in 2020 compared with 2019 estimates for the completed series of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), hepatitis B vaccine (HepB), human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV), and rubella-containing vaccine (RCV). Full recovery from COVID-19-associated disruptions will require targeted, context-specific strategies to identify and catch up zero-dose and undervaccinated children, introduce interventions to minimize missed vaccinations, monitor coverage, and respond to program setbacks (3).


Subject(s)
Global Health , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine/administration & dosage , Goals , Humans , Immunization Programs , Immunization Schedule , Infant , Measles Vaccine/administration & dosage , Poliovirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , World Health Organization
4.
Neurology ; 97(16): 767-775, 2021 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394514

ABSTRACT

The spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has triggered a global effort to rapidly develop and deploy effective and safe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccinations. Vaccination has been one of the most effective medical interventions in human history, although potential safety risks of novel vaccines must be monitored, identified, and quantified. Adverse events must be carefully assessed to define whether they are causally associated with vaccination or coincidence. Neurologic adverse events following immunizations are overall rare but with significant morbidity and mortality when they occur. Here, we review neurologic conditions seen in the context of prior vaccinations and the current data to date on select COVID-19 vaccines including mRNA vaccines and the adenovirus-vector COVID-19 vaccines, ChAdOx1 nCOV-19 (AstraZeneca) and Ad26.COV2.S Johnson & Johnson (Janssen/J&J).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Vaccination/trends , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/administration & dosage , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/adverse effects , Nervous System Diseases/chemically induced , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Poliovirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Poliovirus Vaccines/adverse effects , Vaccination/adverse effects
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(34): 1129-1135, 2021 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374681

ABSTRACT

In 1988, when the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) began, polio paralyzed >350,000 children across 125 countries. Today, only one of three wild poliovirus serotypes, type 1 (WPV1), remains in circulation in only two countries, Afghanistan and Pakistan. This report summarizes progress toward global polio eradication during January 1, 2019-June 30, 2021 and updates previous reports (1,2). In 2020, 140 cases of WPV1 were reported, including 56 in Afghanistan (a 93% increase from 29 cases in 2019) and 84 in Pakistan (a 43% decrease from 147 cases in 2019). As GPEI focuses on the last endemic WPV reservoirs, poliomyelitis outbreaks caused by circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) have emerged as a result of attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) virus regaining neurovirulence after prolonged circulation in underimmunized populations (3). In 2020, 32 countries reported cVDPV outbreaks (four type 1 [cVDPV1], 26 type 2 [cVDPV2] and two with outbreaks of both); 13 of these countries reported new outbreaks. The updated GPEI Polio Eradication Strategy 2022-2026 (4) includes expanded use of the type 2 novel oral poliovirus vaccine (nOPV2) to avoid new emergences of cVDPV2 during outbreak responses (3). The new strategy deploys other tactics, such as increased national accountability, and focused investments for overcoming the remaining barriers to eradication, including program disruptions and setbacks caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Disease Eradication , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Population Surveillance , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Endemic Diseases/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunization Programs , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology , Poliovirus Vaccines/administration & dosage
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(5152): 1648-1652, 2021 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005172

ABSTRACT

On January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (1). On March 24, 2020, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) suspended all polio supplementary immunization activities and recommended the continuation of polio surveillance (2). In April 2020, GPEI shared revised polio surveillance guidelines in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, which focused on reducing the risk for transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, to health care workers and communities by modifying activities that required person-to-person contact, improving hand hygiene and personal protective equipment use practices, and overcoming challenges related to movement restrictions, while continuing essential polio surveillance functions (3). GPEI assessed the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on polio surveillance by comparing data from January to September 2019 to the same period in 2020. Globally, the number of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases reported declined 33% and the mean number of days between the second stool collected and receipt by the laboratory increased by 70%. Continued analysis of AFP case reporting and stool collection is critical to ensure timely detection and response to interruptions of polio surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Global Health , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Disease Eradication , Feces/virology , Humans , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Poliovirus/isolation & purification , Poliovirus Vaccines/administration & dosage
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(46): 1748-1752, 2020 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-937754

ABSTRACT

Pakistan and Afghanistan are the only countries where wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) is endemic (1,2). In 2019, Pakistan reported 147 WPV1 cases, approximately 12 times the number reported in 2018. As of September 15, 72 cases had been reported in 2020. Since 2019, WPV1 transmission has also spread from Pakistan's core poliovirus reservoirs (Karachi, Peshawar, and Quetta block) to southern districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Punjab, and Sindh provinces. Further, an outbreak of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2), first detected in July 2019, has caused 22 paralytic cases in 2019 and 59 as of September 15, 2020, throughout the country. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has substantially reduced delivery of polio vaccines through essential immunization (formerly routine immunization) and prevented implementation of polio supplementary immunization activities (SIAs)* during March-July 2020. This report describes Pakistan's progress in polio eradication during January 2019-September 2020 and updates previous reports (1,3,4). The Pakistan polio program has reinitiated SIAs and will need large, intensive, high-quality campaigns with strategic use of available oral poliovirus vaccines (OPVs)† to control the surge and widespread transmission of WPV1 and cVDPV2.


Subject(s)
Disease Eradication , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Population Surveillance , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Infant , Pakistan/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology , Poliovirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
8.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(4): 1367-1369, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-736798

ABSTRACT

Polio is a deadly viral disease that has been paralyzing many children in Afghanistan. Despite fundamental efforts, primarily vaccination, to reduce the number of cases in Afghanistan, there are still many children who are deprived of the vaccine every year. Afghanistan is one of the two remaining countries endemic for polio, and the country has undergone various challenges that have hampered the eradication of this disease. The underlying challenges include inaccessibility of unsecured areas, illiteracy, refusal, and, most recently, COVID-19. The country is in the midst of a battle against COVID-19, and polio has almost entirely been neglected. Sadly, polio cases are increasing in the country, particularly in polio-free provinces. After an initial lockdown, many businesses have been allowed to resume, but the mass polio vaccination campaign has not restarted. New cases of polio will surge if endemic regions remain unvaccinated or inaccessible. To curb the further spread of polio, Afghanistan needs to resume nationwide house-to-house vaccination as restrictions due to COVID-19 are loosened.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Immunization Programs/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Poliovirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Afghanistan/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Child, Preschool , Coinfection , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Endemic Diseases/economics , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Literacy/statistics & numerical data , Male , Pandemics/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Poliomyelitis/economics , Poliomyelitis/immunology , Poliovirus/pathogenicity , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/ethics , SARS-CoV-2 , Terrorism/statistics & numerical data
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(25): 784-789, 2020 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-616582

ABSTRACT

Since the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was established in 1988, two of the three wild poliovirus (WPV) serotypes (types 2 and 3) have been eradicated.* Transmission of WPV type 1 (WPV1) remains uninterrupted only in Afghanistan and Pakistan. This report summarizes progress toward global polio eradication during January 1, 2018-March 31, 2020 and updates previous reports (1,2). In 2019, Afghanistan and Pakistan reported the highest number of WPV1 cases (176) since 2014. During January 1-March 31, 2020 (as of June 19), 54 WPV1 cases were reported, an approximate fourfold increase from 12 cases during the corresponding period in 2019. Paralytic poliomyelitis can also be caused by circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV), which emerges when attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) virus reverts to neurovirulence following prolonged circulation in underimmunized populations (3). Since the global withdrawal of type 2-containing OPV (OPV2) in April 2016, cVDPV type 2 (cVDPV2) outbreaks have increased in number and geographic extent (4). During January 2018-March 2020, 21 countries reported 547 cVDPV2 cases. Complicating increased poliovirus transmission during 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and mitigation efforts have resulted in suspension of immunization activities and disruptions to poliovirus surveillance. When the COVID-19 emergency subsides, enhanced support will be needed to resume polio eradication field activities.


Subject(s)
Disease Eradication , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Population Surveillance , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Endemic Diseases/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunization Programs , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology , Poliovirus Vaccines/administration & dosage
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