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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 72(23): 613-620, 2023 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243279

ABSTRACT

Since the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was established in 1988, the number of wild poliovirus (WPV) cases has declined by >99.9%, and WPV serotypes 2 and 3 have been declared eradicated (1). By the end of 2022, WPV type 1 (WPV1) transmission remained endemic only in Afghanistan and Pakistan (2,3). However, during 2021-2022, Malawi and Mozambique reported nine WPV1 cases that were genetically linked to Pakistan (4,5), and circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) outbreaks were detected in 42 countries (6). cVDPVs are oral poliovirus vaccine-derived viruses that can emerge after prolonged circulation in populations with low immunity allowing reversion to neurovirulence and can cause paralysis. Polioviruses are detected primarily through surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), and poliovirus is confirmed through stool specimen testing. Environmental surveillance, the systematic sampling of sewage and testing for the presence of poliovirus, supplements AFP surveillance. Both surveillance systems were affected by the COVID-19 pandemic's effects on public health activities during 2020 (7,8) but improved in 2021 (9). This report updates previous reports (7,9) to describe surveillance performance during 2021-2022 in 34 priority countries.* In 2022, a total of 26 (76.5%) priority countries met the two key AFP surveillance performance indicator targets nationally compared with 24 (70.6%) countries in 2021; however, substantial gaps remain in subnational areas. Environmental surveillance expanded to 725 sites in priority countries, a 31.1% increase from the 553 sites reported in 2021. High-quality surveillance is critical to rapidly detect poliovirus transmission and enable prompt poliovirus outbreak response to stop circulation. Frequent monitoring of surveillance guides improvements to achieve progress toward polio eradication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Enterovirus , Poliomyelitis , Poliovirus , Humans , Pandemics , alpha-Fetoproteins , Disease Eradication , Population Surveillance , Global Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Poliomyelitis/diagnosis , Poliovirus/genetics , Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Immunization Programs
2.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 42(7): 531-532, 2023 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240561
4.
Curr Opin Neurol ; 36(3): 229-237, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297840

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent outbreaks of poliomyelitis in countries that have been free of cases for decades highlight the challenges of eradicating polio in a globalized interconnected world beset with a novel viral pandemic. We provide an epidemiological update, advancements in vaccines, and amendments in public health strategy of poliomyelitis in this review. RECENT FINDINGS: Last year, new cases of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) were documented in regions previously documented to have eradicated WPV1 and reports of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) and 3 (cVDPV3) in New York and Jerusalem made international headlines. Sequencing of wastewater samples from environmental surveillance revealed that the WPV1 strains were related to WPV1 lineages from endemic countries and the cVDPV2 strains from New York and Jerusalem were not only related to each other but also to environmental isolates found in London. The evidence of importation of WPV1 cases from endemic countries, and global transmission of cVDPVs justifies renewed efforts in routine vaccination programs and outbreak control measures that were interrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic. After the novel oral poliovirus vaccine type 2 (nOPV2) received emergency authorization for containment of cVDPV2 outbreaks in 2021, subsequent reduced incidence, transmission rates, and vaccine adverse events, alongside increased genetic stability of viral isolates substantiates the safety and efficacy of nOPV2. The nOPV1 and nOPV3 vaccines, against type 1 and 3 cVDPVs, and measures to increase accessibility and efficacy of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) are in development. SUMMARY: A revised strategy utilizing more genetically stable vaccine formulations, with uninterrupted vaccination programs and continued active surveillance optimizes the prospect of global poliomyelitis eradication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Poliomyelitis , Poliovirus , Humans , Poliovirus/genetics , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/complications , Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral/adverse effects , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Poliomyelitis/etiology , Disease Outbreaks
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 72(14): 366-371, 2023 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2252235

ABSTRACT

Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) outbreaks* can occur when oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV, containing one or more Sabin-strain serotypes 1, 2, and 3) strains undergo prolonged circulation in under-vaccinated populations, resulting in genetically reverted neurovirulent virus (1,2). Following declaration of the eradication of wild poliovirus type 2 in 2015 and the global synchronized switch from trivalent OPV (tOPV, containing Sabin-strain types 1, 2, and 3) to bivalent OPV (bOPV, containing types 1 and 3 only) for routine immunization activities† in April 2016 (3), cVDPV type 2 (cVDPV2) outbreaks have been reported worldwide (4). During 2016-2020, immunization responses to cVDPV2 outbreaks required use of Sabin-strain monovalent OPV2, but new VDPV2 emergences could occur if campaigns did not reach a sufficiently high proportion of children. Novel oral poliovirus vaccine type 2 (nOPV2), a more genetically stable vaccine than Sabin OPV2, was developed to address the risk for reversion to neurovirulence and became available in 2021. Because of the predominant use of nOPV2 during the reporting period, supply replenishment has frequently been insufficient for prompt response campaigns (5). This report describes global cVDPV outbreaks during January 2021-December 2022 (as of February 14, 2023) and updates previous reports (4). During 2021-2022, there were 88 active cVDPV outbreaks, including 76 (86%) caused by cVDPV2. cVDPV outbreaks affected 46 countries, 17 (37%) of which reported their first post-switch cVDPV2 outbreak. The total number of paralytic cVDPV cases during 2020-2022 decreased by 36%, from 1,117 to 715; however, the proportion of all cVDPV cases that were caused by cVDPV type 1 (cVDPV1) increased from 3% in 2020 to 18% in 2022, including the occurrence of cocirculating cVDPV1 and cVDPV2 outbreaks in two countries. The increased proportion of cVDPV1 cases follows a substantial decrease in global routine immunization coverage and suspension of preventive immunization campaigns during the COVID-19 pandemic (2020-2022) (6); outbreak responses in some countries were also suboptimal. Improving routine immunization coverage, strengthening poliovirus surveillance, and conducting timely and high-quality supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in response to cVDPV outbreaks are needed to interrupt cVDPV transmission and reach the goal of no cVDPV isolations in 2024.


Subject(s)
Disease Outbreaks , Poliomyelitis , Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral , Child , Humans , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Poliovirus/genetics , Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral/adverse effects
8.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1135834, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2251950

ABSTRACT

The global polio eradication campaign has had remarkable success in reducing wild-type poliovirus infection, largely built upon the live attenuated Sabin oral poliovirus vaccine. Whilst rare, vaccine poliovirus strains may cause infection and subsequently revert to a neurovirulent type, termed vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV). Persistent, vaccine derived infection may occur in an immunocompromised host (iVDPV), where it is a recognised complication following receipt of the Sabin vaccine. This has significant implications for the global polio eradication campaign and there is currently no agreed global strategy to manage such patients.Here we describe a case of a 50-year-old man with common variable immune deficiency, persistently infected with a neurovirulent vaccine-derived type 2 poliovirus following vaccination in childhood. iVDPV infection had proven resistant to multiple prior attempts at treatment with human breast milk, ribavirin and oral administration of a normal human pooled immunoglobulin product. His iVDPV infection subsequently resolved after 12 days treatment with remdesivir, an adenosine analogue prodrug that is an inhibitor of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, administered as treatment for a prolonged, moderate severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. iVDPV from the patient, isolated prior to treatment, was subsequently demonstrated to be sensitive to remdesivir in vitro. Based on the observations made in this case, and the mechanistic rationale for use with iVDPV, there is strong justification for further clinical studies of remdesivir treatment as a potentially curative intervention in patients with iVDPV infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes , Poliomyelitis , Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral , Poliovirus , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Poliomyelitis/drug therapy , Poliomyelitis/etiology , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 89(4): e0185322, 2023 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2266649

ABSTRACT

In the global strategy for polio eradication, environmental surveillance (ES) has been established worldwide to monitor polioviruses. In addition, nonpolio enteroviruses are simultaneously isolated from wastewater under this ES program. Hence, ES can be used to monitor enteroviruses in sewage to supplement clinical surveillance. In response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, we also monitored severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in sewage using the polio ES system in Japan. Enterovirus and SARS-CoV-2 were detected in sewage from January 2019 to December 2021 and from August 2020 to November 2021, respectively. Enterovirus species such as echoviruses and coxsackieviruses were frequently detected by ES in 2019, indicating the circulation of these viruses. After the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, sewage enterovirus detection and related patient reports were notably reduced in 2020 to 2021, suggesting changes in the hygiene behaviors of the human population in response to the pandemic. Our comparative experiment with a total of 520 reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assays for SARS-CoV-2 detection demonstrated that the solid-based method had a significantly higher detection rate than that of the liquid-based method (24.6% and 15.9%, respectively). Moreover, the resulting RNA concentrations were correlated with the number of new COVID-19 cases (Spearman's r = 0.61). These findings indicate that the existing polio ES system can be effectively used for enterovirus and SARS-CoV-2 sewage monitoring using different procedures such as virus isolation and molecular-based detection. IMPORTANCE Long-term efforts are required to implement surveillance programs for the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, and they will be required even in the postpandemic era. We adopted the existing polio environmental surveillance (ES) system for SARS-CoV-2 sewage monitoring in Japan as a practical and cost-effective approach. Moreover, the ES system routinely detects enteroviruses from wastewater and, therefore, can be used for enterovirus monitoring. The liquid fraction of the sewage sample is used for poliovirus and enterovirus detection, and the solid fraction can be used for SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection. The present study demonstrates how the existing ES system can be used for monitoring enteroviruses and SARS-CoV-2 in sewage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Enterovirus Infections , Enterovirus , Poliomyelitis , Poliovirus , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Wastewater , Sewage , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Enterovirus/genetics , Poliovirus/genetics , Environmental Monitoring/methods
11.
Vaccine ; 41 Suppl 1: A48-A57, 2023 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2243472

ABSTRACT

After six years without any detection of poliomyelitis cases, Angola reported a case of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) with paralysis onset date of 27 March 2019. Ultimately, 141 cVDPV2 polio cases were reported in all 18 provinces in 2019-2020, with particularly large hotspots in the south-central provinces of Luanda, Cuanza Sul, and Huambo. Most cases were reported from August to December 2019, with a peak of 15 cases in October 2019. These cases were classified into five distinct genetic emergences (emergence groups) and have ties with cases identified in 2017-2018 in the Democratic Republic of Congo. From June 2019 to July 2020, the Angola Ministry of Health and partners conducted 30 supplementary immunization activity (SIA) rounds as part of 10 campaign groups, using monovalent OPV type 2 (mOPV2). There were Sabin 2 vaccine strain detections in the environmental (sewage) samples taken after mOPV2 SIAs in each province. Following the initial response, additional cVDPV2 polio cases occurred in other provinces. However, the national surveillance system did not detect any new cVDPV2 polio cases after 9 February 2020. While reporting subpar indicator performance in epidemiological surveillance, the laboratory and environmental data as of May 2021 strongly suggest that Angola successfully interrupted transmission of cVDPV2 early in 2020. Additionally, the COVID-19 pandemic did not allow a formal Outbreak Response Assessment (OBRA). Improving the sensitivity of the surveillance system and the completeness of AFP case investigations will be vital to promptly detect and interrupt viral transmission if a new case or sewage isolate are identified in Angola or central Africa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Poliomyelitis , Poliovirus , Humans , Sewage , Angola/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral/adverse effects , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control
12.
Ann Acad Med Singap ; 52(1): 17-26, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2218555

ABSTRACT

Poliomyelitis, or polio, is a highly infectious disease and can result in permanent flaccid paralysis of the limbs. Singapore was certified polio-free by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 29 October 2000, together with 36 other countries in the Western Pacific Region. The last imported case of polio in Singapore was in 2006. Fortunately, polio is vaccine-preventable-the world saw the global eradication of wild poliovirus types 2 and 3 achieved in 2015 and 2019, respectively. However, in late 2022, a resurgence of paralytic polio cases from vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) was detected in countries like Israel and the US (specifically, New York); VDPV was also detected during routine sewage water surveillance with no paralysis cases in London, UK. Without global eradication, there is a risk of re-infection from importation and spread of wild poliovirus or VDPV, or new emergence and circulation of VDPV. During the COVID-19 pandemic, worldwide routine childhood vaccination coverage fell by 5% to 81% in 2020-2021. Fortunately, Singapore has maintained a constantly high vaccination coverage of 96% among 1-year-old children as recorded in 2021. All countries must ensure high poliovirus vaccination coverage in their population to eradicate poliovirus globally, and appropriate interventions must be taken to rectify this if the coverage falters. In 2020, WHO approved the emergency use listing of a novel oral polio vaccine type 2 for countries experiencing circulating VDPV type 2 outbreaks. Environmental and wastewater surveillance should be implemented to allow early detection of "silent" poliovirus transmission in the population, instead of relying on clinical surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis based on case definition alone.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Poliomyelitis , Poliovirus , Child , Humans , Infant , Public Health Surveillance , Pandemics , Wastewater , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring , COVID-19/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral , Vaccination , Global Health
13.
Cell ; 186(1): 1-4, 2023 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2209941

ABSTRACT

1988, the World Health Assembly committed to eradicate poliomyelitis, a viral disease that can cause permanent paralysis. Today, only type 1 of the three wild poliovirus types remains circulating in limited geographic areas following widespread use of different poliovirus vaccines. While we are close to zero new cases of wild polio, it is a fragile situation, and there are many remaining and new hurdles to overcome. Here, experts discuss how to address them.


Subject(s)
Poliomyelitis , Poliovirus Vaccines , Poliovirus , Humans , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Global Health , Disease Eradication
14.
J Cell Biol ; 221(11)2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097224

ABSTRACT

Viruses co-opt host proteins to carry out their lifecycle. Repurposed host proteins may thus become functionally compromised; a situation analogous to a loss-of-function mutation. We term such host proteins as viral-induced hypomorphs. Cells bearing cancer driver loss-of-function mutations have successfully been targeted with drugs perturbing proteins encoded by the synthetic lethal (SL) partners of cancer-specific mutations. Similarly, SL interactions of viral-induced hypomorphs can potentially be targeted as host-based antiviral therapeutics. Here, we use GBF1, which supports the infection of many RNA viruses, as a proof-of-concept. GBF1 becomes a hypomorph upon interaction with the poliovirus protein 3A. Screening for SL partners of GBF1 revealed ARF1 as the top hit, disruption of which selectively killed cells that synthesize 3A alone or in the context of a poliovirus replicon. Thus, viral protein interactions can induce hypomorphs that render host cells selectively vulnerable to perturbations that leave uninfected cells otherwise unscathed. Exploiting viral-induced vulnerabilities could lead to broad-spectrum antivirals for many viruses, including SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors , Poliovirus , Viral Core Proteins , Humans , Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors/metabolism , Synthetic Lethal Mutations , Virus Replication , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral , Viral Core Proteins/genetics , Viral Core Proteins/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions
15.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071837

ABSTRACT

Ficus rubiginosa plant extract showed antimicrobial activity, but no evidence concerning its antiviral properties was reported. The antiviral activity of the methanolic extract (MeOH) and its n-hexane (H) and ethyl acetate (EA) fractions against Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), Human coronavirus (HCoV) -229E, and Poliovirus-1 (PV-1) was investigated in the different phases of viral infection in the VERO CCL-81 cell line. To confirm the antiviral efficacy, a qPCR was conducted. The recorded cytotoxic concentration 50% was 513.1, 298.6, and 56.45 µg/mL for MeOH, H, and EA, respectively, assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay after 72 h of treatment. The Ficus rubiginosa leaf extract inhibited the replication of HSV-1 in the early stages of infection, showing a complete inhibition up to 0.62, 0.31, and 1.25 µg/mL. Against HCoV-229E, a total inhibition up to 1.25 µg/mL for MeOH and H as well as 5 µg/mL for EA was observed. Otherwise, no activity was recorded against PV-1. The leaf extract could act directly on the viral envelope, destructuring the lipid membrane and/or directly blocking the enriched proteins on the viral surface. The verified gene inhibition suggested that the treatments with M, H, and EA impaired HSV-1 and HCoV-229E replication, with a greater antiviral efficiency against HSV-1 compared to HCoV-229E, possibly due to a greater affinity of Ficus rubiginosa towards membrane glycoproteins and/or the different lipid envelopes.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 229E, Human , Ficus , Herpesvirus 1, Human , Poliovirus , Humans , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Bromides , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Membrane Glycoproteins , Lipids
16.
Vaccine ; 40(47): 6802-6805, 2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069772

ABSTRACT

Polio, or poliomyelitis, is a disabling and life-threatening disease caused by three poliovirus (PV) serotypes. The virus spreads from person to person and can infect a person's spinal cord, causing paralysis. In 1988, when the WHO registered 350,000 cases of poliomyelitis in the world and 70,000 which occurred in Africa alone, global poliomyelitis eradication was proposed by the World Health Organization to its member States. On 25 August 2020, while the world was waging war against the Coronavirus pandemic, a historic milestone was reached: Africa was officially declared polio-free. It is an important result obtained thanks to an intensive large-scale vaccination campaign. The road was far from smooth, nevertheless, according to the WHO, a great effort needs to be made in order to facilitate access to vaccination and to promote its implementation in those countries where coverage is low and vaccine hesitancy is high because the risk of the spread of poliomyelitis is still relevant. Eradication of the virus in Africa provides us with an excellent opportunity to commemorate the many scientists who contributed to achieving this epoch-making goal: first of all, Jonas Salk, who developed a killed-virus vaccine in 1952, and, especially, Albert Sabin, who in 1961 launched programs of mass immunisation with his oral vaccine against poliomyelitis.


Subject(s)
Poliomyelitis , Poliovirus , Child , Humans , Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated , Mass Vaccination
18.
Ann Neurol ; 92(5): 725-728, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2034710

ABSTRACT

The first case of paralytic poliomyelitis in nearly a decade in the US was discovered in a 20-year-old unvaccinated man from Rockland County, New York, in July 2022, who developed acute flaccid myelitis. The isolated virus from stool sampling was found to be a circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2, derived from the oral polio vaccine. Since the discovery of this case, local wastewater surveillance has revealed evidence of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 in local counties, as well as in New York City, representing community transmission. In the wake of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, routine vaccination administration has declined globally, with increasing numbers of communities not vaccinated for poliovirus. Now, with evidence of local community transmission, the clinical implication for at-risk unvaccinated individuals is significant. Here, we review the epidemiological origin of this discovered strain of poliovirus, national and international methods of surveillance for poliovirus, and neurological features of poliovirus. We also highlight the opportunities and challenges involved in monitoring suspected cases, as well as the unique role neurologists might play in national and global poliomyelitis surveillance. ANN NEUROL 2022;92:725-728.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Poliomyelitis , Poliovirus , Male , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult , Adult , Wastewater , COVID-19/epidemiology , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control
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