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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 72(23): 613-620, 2023 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243279

ABSTRACT

Since the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was established in 1988, the number of wild poliovirus (WPV) cases has declined by >99.9%, and WPV serotypes 2 and 3 have been declared eradicated (1). By the end of 2022, WPV type 1 (WPV1) transmission remained endemic only in Afghanistan and Pakistan (2,3). However, during 2021-2022, Malawi and Mozambique reported nine WPV1 cases that were genetically linked to Pakistan (4,5), and circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) outbreaks were detected in 42 countries (6). cVDPVs are oral poliovirus vaccine-derived viruses that can emerge after prolonged circulation in populations with low immunity allowing reversion to neurovirulence and can cause paralysis. Polioviruses are detected primarily through surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), and poliovirus is confirmed through stool specimen testing. Environmental surveillance, the systematic sampling of sewage and testing for the presence of poliovirus, supplements AFP surveillance. Both surveillance systems were affected by the COVID-19 pandemic's effects on public health activities during 2020 (7,8) but improved in 2021 (9). This report updates previous reports (7,9) to describe surveillance performance during 2021-2022 in 34 priority countries.* In 2022, a total of 26 (76.5%) priority countries met the two key AFP surveillance performance indicator targets nationally compared with 24 (70.6%) countries in 2021; however, substantial gaps remain in subnational areas. Environmental surveillance expanded to 725 sites in priority countries, a 31.1% increase from the 553 sites reported in 2021. High-quality surveillance is critical to rapidly detect poliovirus transmission and enable prompt poliovirus outbreak response to stop circulation. Frequent monitoring of surveillance guides improvements to achieve progress toward polio eradication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Enterovirus , Poliomyelitis , Poliovirus , Humans , Pandemics , alpha-Fetoproteins , Disease Eradication , Population Surveillance , Global Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Poliomyelitis/diagnosis , Poliovirus/genetics , Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Immunization Programs
2.
Curr Opin Neurol ; 36(3): 229-237, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297840

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent outbreaks of poliomyelitis in countries that have been free of cases for decades highlight the challenges of eradicating polio in a globalized interconnected world beset with a novel viral pandemic. We provide an epidemiological update, advancements in vaccines, and amendments in public health strategy of poliomyelitis in this review. RECENT FINDINGS: Last year, new cases of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) were documented in regions previously documented to have eradicated WPV1 and reports of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) and 3 (cVDPV3) in New York and Jerusalem made international headlines. Sequencing of wastewater samples from environmental surveillance revealed that the WPV1 strains were related to WPV1 lineages from endemic countries and the cVDPV2 strains from New York and Jerusalem were not only related to each other but also to environmental isolates found in London. The evidence of importation of WPV1 cases from endemic countries, and global transmission of cVDPVs justifies renewed efforts in routine vaccination programs and outbreak control measures that were interrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic. After the novel oral poliovirus vaccine type 2 (nOPV2) received emergency authorization for containment of cVDPV2 outbreaks in 2021, subsequent reduced incidence, transmission rates, and vaccine adverse events, alongside increased genetic stability of viral isolates substantiates the safety and efficacy of nOPV2. The nOPV1 and nOPV3 vaccines, against type 1 and 3 cVDPVs, and measures to increase accessibility and efficacy of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) are in development. SUMMARY: A revised strategy utilizing more genetically stable vaccine formulations, with uninterrupted vaccination programs and continued active surveillance optimizes the prospect of global poliomyelitis eradication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Poliomyelitis , Poliovirus , Humans , Poliovirus/genetics , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/complications , Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral/adverse effects , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Poliomyelitis/etiology , Disease Outbreaks
4.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 89(4): e0185322, 2023 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2266649

ABSTRACT

In the global strategy for polio eradication, environmental surveillance (ES) has been established worldwide to monitor polioviruses. In addition, nonpolio enteroviruses are simultaneously isolated from wastewater under this ES program. Hence, ES can be used to monitor enteroviruses in sewage to supplement clinical surveillance. In response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, we also monitored severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in sewage using the polio ES system in Japan. Enterovirus and SARS-CoV-2 were detected in sewage from January 2019 to December 2021 and from August 2020 to November 2021, respectively. Enterovirus species such as echoviruses and coxsackieviruses were frequently detected by ES in 2019, indicating the circulation of these viruses. After the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, sewage enterovirus detection and related patient reports were notably reduced in 2020 to 2021, suggesting changes in the hygiene behaviors of the human population in response to the pandemic. Our comparative experiment with a total of 520 reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assays for SARS-CoV-2 detection demonstrated that the solid-based method had a significantly higher detection rate than that of the liquid-based method (24.6% and 15.9%, respectively). Moreover, the resulting RNA concentrations were correlated with the number of new COVID-19 cases (Spearman's r = 0.61). These findings indicate that the existing polio ES system can be effectively used for enterovirus and SARS-CoV-2 sewage monitoring using different procedures such as virus isolation and molecular-based detection. IMPORTANCE Long-term efforts are required to implement surveillance programs for the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, and they will be required even in the postpandemic era. We adopted the existing polio environmental surveillance (ES) system for SARS-CoV-2 sewage monitoring in Japan as a practical and cost-effective approach. Moreover, the ES system routinely detects enteroviruses from wastewater and, therefore, can be used for enterovirus monitoring. The liquid fraction of the sewage sample is used for poliovirus and enterovirus detection, and the solid fraction can be used for SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection. The present study demonstrates how the existing ES system can be used for monitoring enteroviruses and SARS-CoV-2 in sewage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Enterovirus Infections , Enterovirus , Poliomyelitis , Poliovirus , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Wastewater , Sewage , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Enterovirus/genetics , Poliovirus/genetics , Environmental Monitoring/methods
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 72(14): 366-371, 2023 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2252235

ABSTRACT

Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) outbreaks* can occur when oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV, containing one or more Sabin-strain serotypes 1, 2, and 3) strains undergo prolonged circulation in under-vaccinated populations, resulting in genetically reverted neurovirulent virus (1,2). Following declaration of the eradication of wild poliovirus type 2 in 2015 and the global synchronized switch from trivalent OPV (tOPV, containing Sabin-strain types 1, 2, and 3) to bivalent OPV (bOPV, containing types 1 and 3 only) for routine immunization activities† in April 2016 (3), cVDPV type 2 (cVDPV2) outbreaks have been reported worldwide (4). During 2016-2020, immunization responses to cVDPV2 outbreaks required use of Sabin-strain monovalent OPV2, but new VDPV2 emergences could occur if campaigns did not reach a sufficiently high proportion of children. Novel oral poliovirus vaccine type 2 (nOPV2), a more genetically stable vaccine than Sabin OPV2, was developed to address the risk for reversion to neurovirulence and became available in 2021. Because of the predominant use of nOPV2 during the reporting period, supply replenishment has frequently been insufficient for prompt response campaigns (5). This report describes global cVDPV outbreaks during January 2021-December 2022 (as of February 14, 2023) and updates previous reports (4). During 2021-2022, there were 88 active cVDPV outbreaks, including 76 (86%) caused by cVDPV2. cVDPV outbreaks affected 46 countries, 17 (37%) of which reported their first post-switch cVDPV2 outbreak. The total number of paralytic cVDPV cases during 2020-2022 decreased by 36%, from 1,117 to 715; however, the proportion of all cVDPV cases that were caused by cVDPV type 1 (cVDPV1) increased from 3% in 2020 to 18% in 2022, including the occurrence of cocirculating cVDPV1 and cVDPV2 outbreaks in two countries. The increased proportion of cVDPV1 cases follows a substantial decrease in global routine immunization coverage and suspension of preventive immunization campaigns during the COVID-19 pandemic (2020-2022) (6); outbreak responses in some countries were also suboptimal. Improving routine immunization coverage, strengthening poliovirus surveillance, and conducting timely and high-quality supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in response to cVDPV outbreaks are needed to interrupt cVDPV transmission and reach the goal of no cVDPV isolations in 2024.


Subject(s)
Disease Outbreaks , Poliomyelitis , Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral , Child , Humans , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Poliovirus/genetics , Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral/adverse effects
6.
Cell ; 184(25): 6037-6051.e14, 2021 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520752

ABSTRACT

RNA viruses generate defective viral genomes (DVGs) that can interfere with replication of the parental wild-type virus. To examine their therapeutic potential, we created a DVG by deleting the capsid-coding region of poliovirus. Strikingly, intraperitoneal or intranasal administration of this genome, which we termed eTIP1, elicits an antiviral response, inhibits replication, and protects mice from several RNA viruses, including enteroviruses, influenza, and SARS-CoV-2. While eTIP1 replication following intranasal administration is limited to the nasal cavity, its antiviral action extends non-cell-autonomously to the lungs. eTIP1 broad-spectrum antiviral effects are mediated by both local and distal type I interferon responses. Importantly, while a single eTIP1 dose protects animals from SARS-CoV-2 infection, it also stimulates production of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies that afford long-lasting protection from SARS-CoV-2 reinfection. Thus, eTIP1 is a safe and effective broad-spectrum antiviral generating short- and long-term protection against SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory infections in animal models.


Subject(s)
Capsid Proteins/genetics , Defective Interfering Viruses/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Capsid Proteins/metabolism , Cell Line , Defective Interfering Viruses/pathogenicity , Disease Models, Animal , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Influenza, Human , Interferons/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Poliovirus/genetics , Poliovirus/metabolism , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
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