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1.
Biosci Rep ; 41(10)2021 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510636

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus has become a global health emergency. Although new vaccines have been generated and being implicated, discovery and application of novel preventive and control measures are warranted. We aimed to identify compounds that may possess the potential to either block the entry of virus to host cells or attenuate its replication upon infection. Using host cell surface receptor expression (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and Transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2)) analysis as an assay, we earlier screened several synthetic and natural compounds and identified candidates that showed ability to down-regulate their expression. Here, we report experimental and computational analyses of two small molecules, Mortaparib and MortaparibPlus that were initially identified as dual novel inhibitors of mortalin and PARP-1, for their activity against SARS-CoV-2. In silico analyses showed that MortaparibPlus, but not Mortaparib, stably binds into the catalytic pocket of TMPRSS2. In vitro analysis of control and treated cells revealed that MortaparibPlus caused down-regulation of ACE2 and TMPRSS2; Mortaparib did not show any effect. Furthermore, computational analysis on SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) that also predicted the inhibitory activity of MortaparibPlus. However, cell-based antiviral drug screening assay showed 30-60% viral inhibition in cells treated with non-toxic doses of either MortaparibPlus or Mortaparib. The data suggest that these two closely related compounds possess multimodal anti-COVID-19 activities. Whereas MortaparibPlus works through direct interactions/effects on the host cell surface receptors (ACE2 and TMPRSS2) and the virus protein (Mpro), Mortaparib involves independent mechanisms, elucidation of which warrants further studies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Computational Biology/methods , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Line, Tumor , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , Mitochondrial Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Serine Endopeptidases/immunology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244038

ABSTRACT

In late 2019, a new member of the Coronaviridae family, officially designated as "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2" (SARS-CoV-2), emerged and spread rapidly. The Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) outbreak was accompanied by a high rate of morbidity and mortality worldwide and was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020. Within the Coronaviridae family, SARS-CoV-2 is considered to be the third most highly pathogenic virus that infects humans, following the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Four major mechanisms are thought to be involved in COVID-19 pathogenesis, including the activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) signaling pathway, oxidative stress and cell death, cytokine storm, and endothelial dysfunction. Following virus entry and RAS activation, acute respiratory distress syndrome develops with an oxidative/nitrosative burst. The DNA damage induced by oxidative stress activates poly ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1), viral macrodomain of non-structural protein 3, poly (ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), and transient receptor potential melastatin type 2 (TRPM2) channel in a sequential manner which results in cell apoptosis or necrosis. In this review, blockers of angiotensin II receptor and/or PARP, PARG, and TRPM2, including vitamin D3, trehalose, tannins, flufenamic and mefenamic acid, and losartan, have been investigated for inhibiting RAS activation and quenching oxidative burst. Moreover, the application of organic and inorganic nanoparticles, including liposomes, dendrimers, quantum dots, and iron oxides, as therapeutic agents for SARS-CoV-2 were fully reviewed. In the present review, the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are explained by focusing on molecular mechanisms. Potential therapeutic targets, including the RAS signaling pathway, PARP, PARG, and TRPM2, are also discussed in depth.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Nanomedicine/methods , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Apoptosis/drug effects , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cholecalciferol/pharmacology , GTPase-Activating Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , GTPase-Activating Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , TRPM Cation Channels/antagonists & inhibitors , TRPM Cation Channels/metabolism , Tannins/pharmacology , Trehalose/pharmacology
3.
Biosci Rep ; 40(10)2020 10 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-989979

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 induces a proinflammatory environment that is stronger in patients requiring intensive care. The cytokine components of this environment may determine efficacy or otherwise of glucocorticoid therapy. The immunity modulators, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and the nuclear NAD+-consuming enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP 1) may play a critical role in COVID-19 pathophysiology. The AhR is overexpressed in coronaviruses, including COVID-19 and, as it regulates PARP gene expression, the latter is likely to be activated in COVID-19. PARP 1 activation leads to cell death mainly by depletion of NAD+ and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), especially when availability of these energy mediators is compromised. PARP expression is enhanced in other lung conditions: the pneumovirus respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). I propose that PARP 1 activation is the terminal point in a sequence of events culminating in patient mortality and should be the focus of COVID-19 immunotherapy. Potent PARP 1 inhibitors are undergoing trials in cancer, but a readily available inhibitor, nicotinamide (NAM), which possesses a highly desirable biochemical and activity profile, merits exploration. It conserves NAD+ and prevents ATP depletion by PARP 1 and Sirtuin 1 (silent mating type information regulation 2 homologue 1) inhibition, enhances NAD+ synthesis, and hence that of NADP+ which is a stronger PARP inhibitor, reverses lung injury caused by ischaemia/reperfusion, inhibits proinflammatory cytokines and is effective against HIV infection. These properties qualify NAM for therapeutic use initially in conjunction with standard clinical care or combined with other agents, and subsequently as an adjunct to stronger PARP 1 inhibitors or other drugs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Niacinamide/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cytokines/blood , Humans , Immunotherapy/methods , Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase/metabolism , Kynurenine/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1/metabolism , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(22)2020 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-945833

ABSTRACT

At least since March 2020, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic and the multi-organ coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are keeping a firm grip on the world. Although most cases are mild, older patients and those with co-morbidities are at increased risk of developing a cytokine storm, characterized by a systemic inflammatory response leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome and organ failure. The present paper focuses on the small molecule MP1032, describes its mode of action, and gives rationale why it is a promising option for the prevention/treatment of the SARS-CoV-2-induced cytokine storm. MP1032 is a phase-pure anhydrous polymorph of 5-amino-2,3-dihydro-1,4-phthalazinedione sodium salt that exhibits good stability and bioavailability. The physiological action of MP1032 is based on a multi-target mechanism including localized, self-limiting reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities that were demonstrated in a model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced joint inflammation. Furthermore, its immune-regulatory and PARP-1-modulating properties, coupled with antiviral effects against SARS-CoV-2, have been demonstrated in various cell models. Preclinical efficacy was elucidated in LPS-induced endotoxemia, a model with heightened innate immune responses that shares many similarities to COVID-19. So far, during oral clinical development with three-month daily administrations, no serious adverse drug reactions occurred, highlighting the outstanding safety profile of MP1032.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Inflammation/drug therapy , Luminol/analogs & derivatives , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Amination , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors/chemistry , Inflammation/immunology , Luminol/chemistry , Luminol/pharmacology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1/immunology , Reactive Oxygen Species/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vero Cells
5.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 63(5): 571-590, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-901528

ABSTRACT

PARP1, the major isoform of a family of ADP-ribosylating enzymes, has been implicated in the regulation of various biological processes including DNA repair, gene transcription, and cell death. The concept that PARP1 becomes activated in acute lung injury (ALI) and that pharmacological inhibition or genetic deletion of this enzyme can provide therapeutic benefits emerged over 20 years ago. The current article provides an overview of the cellular mechanisms involved in the pathogenetic roles of PARP1 in ALI and provides an overview of the preclinical data supporting the efficacy of PARP (poly[ADP-ribose] polymerase) inhibitors. In recent years, several ultrapotent PARP inhibitors have been approved for clinical use (for the therapy of various oncological diseases): these newly-approved PARP inhibitors were recently reported to show efficacy in animal models of ALI. These observations offer the possibility of therapeutic repurposing of these inhibitors for patients with ALI. The current article lays out a potential roadmap for such repurposing efforts. In addition, the article also overviews the scientific basis of potentially applying PARP inhibitors for the experimental therapy of viral ALI, such as coronavirus disease (COVID-19)-associated ALI.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Lung/drug effects , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Acute Lung Injury/enzymology , Acute Lung Injury/virology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/enzymology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Lung/enzymology , Lung/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/enzymology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1/metabolism , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase Inhibitors/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction/drug effects
6.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(9): 1196-1201, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-598003

ABSTRACT

The aging-associated decline of biological functions represents an important contributor to the increase in morbidity and mortality of human beings. Of these biological functions deterioration; there is a significant decline in the heart function, impairments in the lungs gas exchange, and impairments in the immune function. Many alterations in the body humeral and cellular immune response were observed with ageing process: The circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines are increased, the naive lymphocytes are decreased, the numbers of the antigen-presenting cells areelevated and the overall response is impaired. In addition, ageing is associated with a progressive restriction in the telomere length. Telomeres are located at chromosomes ends and play an essential role in preserving chromosome stability. Also, telomere length is very important to the immune system, because of the high sensitivity of the immune cells to the shortening of telomeres. Telomeres shortening adversely affect the immune cells' function and developments. These adverse changes increased the susceptibility for severe infection, risk of hospitalization, and even death. Elderly COVID-19 patients are at a real risk of complications due to impaired immune function, cytokine storm and defective respiratory function. Administration of anti-ageing immunomodulation factors like Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide NAD+ can minimize these changes through its potent immunomodulation and longevity effects. NAD+ has a direct inhibitory effect on PARP-1 and can prevent pro-inflammatory cytokines over-activation. Increasing the NAD+ level will also result in stabilizing telomeres and this has a positive impact on immune cells function.


Subject(s)
Aging/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , NAD/immunology , NAD/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Telomere Shortening/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , NAD/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2
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