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Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0090821, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1452921


Emerging coronaviruses (CoVs) can cause severe diseases in humans and animals, and, as of yet, none of the currently available broad-spectrum drugs or vaccines can effectively control these diseases. Host antiviral proteins play an important role in inhibiting viral proliferation. One of the isoforms of cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding protein (PABP), PABPC4, is an RNA-processing protein, which plays an important role in promoting gene expression by enhancing translation and mRNA stability. However, its function in viruses remains poorly understood. Here, we report that the host protein, PABPC4, could be regulated by transcription factor SP1 and broadly inhibits the replication of CoVs, covering four genera (Alphacoronavirus, Betacoronavirus, Gammacoronavirus, and Deltacoronavirus) of the Coronaviridae family by targeting the nucleocapsid (N) protein through the autophagosomes for degradation. PABPC4 recruited the E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH8/MARCHF8 to the N protein for ubiquitination. Ubiquitinated N protein was recognized by the cargo receptor NDP52/CALCOCO2, which delivered it to the autolysosomes for degradation, resulting in impaired viral proliferation. In addition to regulating gene expression, these data demonstrate a novel antiviral function of PABPC4, which broadly suppresses CoVs by degrading the N protein via the selective autophagy pathway. This study will shed light on the development of broad anticoronaviral therapies. IMPORTANCE Emerging coronaviruses (CoVs) can cause severe diseases in humans and animals, but none of the currently available drugs or vaccines can effectively control these diseases. During viral infection, the host will activate the interferon (IFN) signaling pathways and host restriction factors in maintaining the innate antiviral responses and suppressing viral replication. This study demonstrated that the host protein, PABPC4, interacts with the nucleocapsid (N) proteins from eight CoVs covering four genera (Alphacoronavirus, Betacoronavirus, Gammacoronavirus, and Deltacoronavirus) of the Coronaviridae family. PABPC4 could be regulated by SP1 and broadly inhibits the replication of CoVs by targeting the nucleocapsid (N) protein through the autophagosomes for degradation. This study significantly increases our understanding of the novel host restriction factor PABPC4 against CoV replication and will help develop novel antiviral strategies.

Autophagy/physiology , Blood Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus/growth & development , Poly(A)-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/physiology , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Infectious bronchitis virus/growth & development , Murine hepatitis virus/growth & development , Nuclear Proteins/metabolism , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/growth & development , Proteolysis , Sp1 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Swine , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Ubiquitination , Vero Cells
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(3): e1008805, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1181166


Thrombosis is a recognized complication of Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) and is often associated with poor prognosis. There is a well-recognized link between coagulation and inflammation, however, the extent of thrombotic events associated with COVID-19 warrants further investigation. Poly(A) Binding Protein Cytoplasmic 4 (PABPC4), Serine/Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitor Clade G Member 1 (SERPING1) and Vitamin K epOxide Reductase Complex subunit 1 (VKORC1), which are all proteins linked to coagulation, have been shown to interact with SARS proteins. We computationally examined the interaction of these with SARS-CoV-2 proteins and, in the case of VKORC1, we describe its binding to ORF7a in detail. We examined the occurrence of variants of each of these proteins across populations and interrogated their potential contribution to COVID-19 severity. Potential mechanisms, by which some of these variants may contribute to disease, are proposed. Some of these variants are prevalent in minority groups that are disproportionally affected by severe COVID-19. Therefore, we are proposing that further investigation around these variants may lead to better understanding of disease pathogenesis in minority groups and more informed therapeutic approaches.

Blood Coagulation , Blood Proteins/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/genetics , Poly(A)-Binding Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Vitamin K Epoxide Reductases/genetics , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Blood Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/metabolism , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Poly(A)-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Vitamin K Epoxide Reductases/metabolism , Warfarin/administration & dosage
RNA Biol ; 18(2): 259-274, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1057781


La-related proteins (LARPs) share a La motif (LaM) followed by an RNA recognition motif (RRM). Together these are termed the La-module that, in the prototypical nuclear La protein and LARP7, mediates binding to the UUU-3'OH termination motif of nascent RNA polymerase III transcripts. We briefly review La and LARP7 activities for RNA 3' end binding and protection from exonucleases before moving to the more recently uncovered poly(A)-related activities of LARP1 and LARP4. Two features shared by LARP1 and LARP4 are direct binding to poly(A) and to the cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding protein (PABP, also known as PABPC1). LARP1, LARP4 and other proteins involved in mRNA translation, deadenylation, and decay, contain PAM2 motifs with variable affinities for the MLLE domain of PABP. We discuss a model in which these PABP-interacting activities contribute to poly(A) pruning of active mRNPs. Evidence that the SARS-CoV-2 RNA virus targets PABP, LARP1, LARP 4 and LARP 4B to control mRNP activity is also briefly reviewed. Recent data suggests that LARP4 opposes deadenylation by stabilizing PABP on mRNA poly(A) tails. Other data suggest that LARP1 can protect mRNA from deadenylation. This is dependent on a PAM2 motif with unique characteristics present in its La-module. Thus, while nuclear La and LARP7 stabilize small RNAs with 3' oligo(U) from decay, LARP1 and LARP4 bind and protect mRNA 3' poly(A) tails from deadenylases through close contact with PABP.Abbreviations: 5'TOP: 5' terminal oligopyrimidine, LaM: La motif, LARP: La-related protein, LARP1: La-related protein 1, MLLE: mademoiselle, NTR: N-terminal region, PABP: cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding protein (PABPC1), Pol III: RNA polymerase III, PAM2: PABP-interacting motif 2, PB: processing body, RRM: RNA recognition motif, SG: stress granule.

Autoantigens/metabolism , Poly A , Poly(A)-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Ribonucleoproteins/metabolism , Amino Acid Motifs , Humans , Phylogeny , Protein Binding , Protein Biosynthesis , Protein Domains , RNA Stability , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics