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J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 32(7): 911-917, 2022 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903591


As valuable antibiotics, microbial natural products have been in use for decades in various fields. Among them are polyene compounds including nystatin, amphotericin, and nystatin-like Pseudonocardia polyenes (NPPs). Polyene macrolides are known to possess various biological effects, such as antifungal and antiviral activities. NPP A1, which is produced by Pseudonocardia autotrophica, contains a unique disaccharide moiety in the tetraene macrolide backbone. NPP B1, with a heptane structure and improved antifungal activity, was then developed via genetic manipulation of the NPP A1 biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC). Here, we generated a Streptomyces artificial chromosomal DNA library to isolate a large-sized NPP B1 BGC. The NPP B1 BGC was successfully isolated from P. autotrophica chromosome through the construction and screening of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library, even though the isolated 140-kb BAC clone (named pNPPB1s) lacked approximately 8 kb of the right-end portion of the NPP B1 BGC. The additional introduction of the pNPPB1s as well as co-expression of the 32-kb portion including the missing 8 kb led to a 7.3-fold increase in the production level of NPP B1 in P. autotrophica. The qRT-PCR confirmed that the transcription level of NPP B1 BGC was significantly increased in the P. autotrophica strain containing two copies of the NPP B1 BGCs. Interestingly, the NPP B1 exhibited a previously unidentified SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) inhibition activity in vitro. These results suggest that the Streptomyces BAC cloning of a large-sized, natural product BGC is a valuable approach for titer improvement and biological activity screening of natural products in actinomycetes.

Biological Products , COVID-19 , Streptomyces , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial/genetics , Cloning, Molecular , Humans , Macrolides/chemistry , Multigene Family , Nystatin/chemistry , Polyenes/chemistry , Polyenes/pharmacology , RNA, Viral , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , SARS-CoV-2 , Streptomyces/genetics
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403854


This paper presents the results of the first part of testing a novel electrospun fiber mat based on a unique macromolecule: polyisobutylene (PIB). A PIB-based compound containing zinc oxide (ZnO) was electrospun into self-supporting mats of 203.75 and 295.5 g/m2 that were investigated using a variety of techniques. The results show that the hydrophobic mats are not cytotoxic, resist fibroblast cell adhesion and biofilm formation and are comfortable and easy to breathe through for use as a mask. The mats show great promise for personal protective equipment and other applications.

Polyenes/chemistry , Polymers/chemistry , Biofilms/drug effects , Cell Adhesion/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Humans , Materials Testing/methods , Nanofibers/chemistry , Zinc Oxide/chemistry
Molecules ; 25(24)2020 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-985811


A polyolefin with certified biocompatibility according to USP class VI was used by our group as feedstock for filament-based 3D printing to meet the highest medical standards in order to print personal protective equipment for our university hospital during the ongoing pandemic. Besides the chemical resistance and durability, as well as the ability to withstand steam sterilization, this polypropylene (PP) copolymer is characterized by its high purity, as achieved by highly efficient and selective catalytic polymerization. As the PP copolymer is suited to be printed with all common printers in fused filament fabrication (FFF), it offers an eco-friendly cost-benefit ratio, even for large-scale production. In addition, a digital workflow was established focusing on common desktop FFF printers in the medical sector. It comprises the simulation-based optimization of personalized print objects, considering the inherent material properties such as warping tendency, through to validation of the process chain by 3D scanning, sterilization, and biocompatibility analysis of the printed part. This combination of digital data processing and 3D printing with a sustainable and medically certified material showed great promise in establishing decentralized additive manufacturing in everyday hospital life to meet peaks in demand, supply bottlenecks, and enhanced personalized patient treatment.

Polyenes/chemistry , Polymers/chemistry , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , Polypropylenes/chemistry , Printing, Three-Dimensional