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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776226

ABSTRACT

In the COVID-19 pandemic context, numerous concerns have been raised regarding the hygienic status of certain objects we interact with on a daily basis, and especially cash money and their potential to harbor and transmit pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, in the present study, we analyzed different currency bills represented by British pounds (5 £, 10 £ and 20 £), Romanian lei (1 leu, 5 lei and 10 lei), U.S. dollars (1 $, 5 $ and 10 $) and Euros (5 €, 10 € and 20 €) in order to evaluate the bacterial survival rate and bacterial adherence. We used five reference microorganisms by American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Manassas, VA, USA): Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Enterococcus sp. ATCC 19952, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi ATCC 6539, and Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644. Microorganisms were selected in accordance with the criteria of prevalence, pathogenicity, opportunism, and incidence. However, Maldi-TOF analysis from samples taken from the banknotes revealed only a few of the common pathogens that are traditionally thought to be found on banknotes. Some of the most important factors for the survival of pathogenic agents on surfaces are the presence of organic matter, temperature and humidity. Our data showed that Salmonella enterica survived 72 h on every banknote tested, while L. monocytogenes tended to improve persistence in humid conditions. Survival rate is also influenced by the substrate composition, being lower for polymer-based banknotes especially for Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes and Enterococcus sp. The adherence of bacterial strains was lower for polymer-based banknotes British pounds and Romanian Leu, in contrast to the cotton-based U.S dollars and Euro banknotes. The risk of bacterial contamination from the banknote bills is high as indicated by both a strong survival capacity and low adherence of tested bacteria with differences between the two types of materials used for the tested banknotes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Listeria monocytogenes , Salmonella enterica , Escherichia coli , Humans , Pandemics , Polymers , Survival Rate
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(6)2022 Mar 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765730

ABSTRACT

Hydrogels are hydrophilic polymer materials that provide a wide range of physicochemical properties as well as are highly biocompatible. Biomedical researchers are adapting these materials for the ever-increasing range of design options and potential applications in diagnostics and therapeutics. Along with innovative hydrogel polymer backbone developments, designing polymer additives for these backbones has been a major contributor to the field, especially for expanding the functionality spectrum of hydrogels. For the past decade, researchers invented numerous hydrogel functionalities that emerge from the rational incorporation of additives such as nucleic acids, proteins, cells, and inorganic nanomaterials. Cases of successful commercialization of such functional hydrogels are being reported, thus driving more translational research with hydrogels. Among the many hydrogels, here we reviewed recently reported functional hydrogels incorporated with polymer additives. We focused on those that have potential in translational medicine applications which range from diagnostic sensors as well as assay and drug screening to therapeutic actuators as well as drug delivery and implant. We discussed the growing trend of facile point-of-care diagnostics and integrated smart platforms. Additionally, special emphasis was given to emerging bioinformatics functionalities stemming from the information technology field, such as DNA data storage and anti-counterfeiting strategies. We anticipate that these translational purpose-driven polymer additive research studies will continue to advance the field of functional hydrogel engineering.


Subject(s)
Hydrogels , Nucleic Acids , Biocompatible Materials , Drug Delivery Systems , Hydrogels/chemistry , Polymers , Tissue Engineering
3.
Nat Methods ; 19(4): 479-485, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764194

ABSTRACT

The recent development of solvent- and polymer-based brain-clearing techniques has advanced our ability to visualize the mammalian nervous system in three dimensions. However, it remains challenging to image the mammalian body en bloc. Here we developed HYBRiD (hydrogel-based reinforcement of three-dimensional imaging solvent-cleared organs (DISCO)), by recombining components of organic- and polymer-based clearing pipelines. We achieved high transparency and protein retention, as well as compatibility with direct fluorescent imaging and immunostaining in cleared mammalian bodies. Using parvalbumin- and somatostatin-Cre models, we demonstrated the utility of HYBRiD for whole-body imaging of genetically encoded fluorescent reporters without antibody enhancement of signals in newborn and juvenile mice. Using K18-hACE2 transgenic mice, HYBRiD enabled perfusion-free clearing and visualization of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a whole mouse chest, revealing macroscopic and microscopic features of viral pathology in the same sample. HYBRiD offers a simple and universal solution to visualize large heterogeneous body parts or entire animals for basic and translational research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydrogels , Animals , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Mammals , Mice , Polymers , SARS-CoV-2 , Solvents
4.
Biomater Sci ; 10(8): 1904-1919, 2022 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747168

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic due to the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus has accelerated the search for innovative antivirals with possibly broad-spectrum efficacy. One of the possible strategies is to inhibit the replication of the virus by preventing or limiting its entry into the cells. Nanomaterials derived from lysine, an essential amino acid capable of forming homopeptides of different shapes and sizes through thermal polymerization, are an exciting antiviral option. In this review, we have critically compared the antiviral activities and mechanisms of action of lysine and its possible analogues in the form of linear, hyperbranched, dendrimer and nanoparticle polymers. The polycationic nature, as well as the structure of polylysine in its various forms, favours the electrostatic interaction with viruses by inhibiting their replication and endocytosis. In the case of lysine alone, the antiviral action is instead carried out inside the cell. The experimental results obtained so far show that the development of antivirals based on amino acids that inhibit the entry of viruses into cells represents a definite possibility for developing challenging solutions against present and future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanostructures , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Lysine , Pandemics , Polymers/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Anal Chem ; 94(10): 4446-4454, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713092

ABSTRACT

The enrichment of co-reactants is one of the keys to improving the sensitivity of electrochemiluminescence (ECL) detection. This work developed a novel hydrophobic localized enrichment strategy of co-reactants utilizing the inner hydrophobic cavity of ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD). Pt nanoparticles (Pt NPs) were grown in situ on the coordination sites for metal ions of ß-CD to prepare the ß-CD-Pt nanocomposite, which could not only enrich co-reactant 3-(dibutylamino) propylamine (TDBA) highly efficiently through its hydrophobic cavity but also immobilize TDBA via the Pt-N bond. Meanwhile, the carboxyl-functionalized poly[2,5-dioctyl-1,4-phenylene] (PDP) polymer nanoparticles (PNPs) were developed as excellent ECL luminophores. With SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (ncovNP) as a model protein, the TDBA-ß-CD-Pt nanocomposite combined PDP PNPs to construct a biosensor for ncovNP determination. The PDP PNPs were modified onto the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) to capture the first antibody (Ab1) and further capture antigen and secondary antibody complexes (TDBA-ß-CD-Pt@Ab2). The resultant biosensor with a sandwich structure achieved a highly sensitive detection of ncovNP with a detection limit of 22 fg/mL. TDBA-ß-CD-Pt shared with an inspiration in hydrophobic localized enrichment of co-reactants for improving the sensitivity of ECL detection. The luminophore PDP PNPs integrated TDBA-ß-CD-Pt to provide a promising and sensitive ECL platform, offering a new method for ncovNP detection.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Humans , Limit of Detection , Luminescent Measurements/methods , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nucleocapsid Proteins , Polymers/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686809

ABSTRACT

Recently, the studies on developing sensors and biosensors-with an obvious interdisciplinary character-have drawn the attention of many researchers specializing in various fundamental, but also complex domains such as chemistry, biochemistry, physics, biophysics, biology, bio-pharma-medicine, and bioengineering. Along these lines, the present paper is structured into three parts, and is aimed at synthesizing the most relevant studies on the construction and functioning of versatile devices, of electrochemical sensors and biosensors, respectively. The first part presents examples of the most representative scientific research focusing on the role and the importance of the phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan amino acids, selected depending on their chemical structure and their impact on the central nervous system. The second part is dedicated to presenting and exemplifying conductor polymers and molecularly imprinted polymers used as sensitive materials in achieving electrochemical sensors and biosensors. The last part of the review analyzes the sensors and biosensors developed so far to detect amino acids with the aid of conductor polymers and molecularly imprinted polymers from the point of view of the performances obtained, with emphasis on the detection methods, on the electrochemical reactions that take place upon detection, and on the electroanalytical performances. The present study was carried out with a view to highlighting, for the benefit of specialists in medicine and pharmacy, the possibility of achieving and purchasing efficient devices that might be used in the quality control of medicines, as well as in studying and monitoring diseases associated with these amino acids.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Molecular Imprinting/methods , Molecularly Imprinted Polymers/chemistry , Phenylalanine/analysis , Tryptophan/analysis , Tyrosine/analysis , Amino Acids/analysis , Polymers/chemistry
7.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(1)2022 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1640558

ABSTRACT

Rapid, selective, and cost-effective detection and determination of clinically relevant biomolecule analytes for a better understanding of biological and physiological functions are becoming increasingly prominent. In this regard, biosensors represent a powerful tool to meet these requirements. Recent decades have seen biosensors gaining popularity due to their ability to design sensor platforms that are selective to determine target analytes. Naturally generated receptor units have a high affinity for their targets, which provides the selectivity of a device. However, such receptors are subject to instability under harsh environmental conditions and have consequently low durability. By applying principles of supramolecular chemistry, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) can successfully replace natural receptors to circumvent these shortcomings. This review summarizes the recent achievements and analytical applications of electrosynthesized MIPs, in particular, for the detection of protein-based biomarkers. The scope of this review also includes the background behind electrochemical readouts and the origin of the gate effect in MIP-based biosensors.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Molecular Imprinting , Biomimetics , Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , Equipment Design , Molecular Imprinting/methods , Molecularly Imprinted Polymers , Polymers/chemistry , Proteins
8.
Dalton Trans ; 51(5): 2094-2104, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631403

ABSTRACT

In this study, a novel porphyrin-based porous organic polymer (POP) was constructed using 5,10,15,20-tetramine (4-aminophenyl) porphyrin (TAPP) and 5,5'-diformyl-2,2'-bipyridine (DPDD) as organic ligands via a solvothermal method (represented as TAPP-DPDD-POP). Then, it was utilized as a bifunctional scaffold for constructing a sensitive sensing strategy toward the nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (N-gene) of SARS-CoV-2. The obtained TAPP-DPDD-POP is composed of nanospheres with a size of 100-300 nm and possesses a highly conjugated and π-π stacking network. The coexistence of the porphyrin and bipyridine moieties of TAPP-DPDD-POP afforded considerable electrochemical activity and a strong binding interaction toward the SARS-CoV-2 N-gene-targeted antibody and targeted the aptamer strands of the N-gene. The TAPP-DPDD-POP-based aptasensor and immunosensor were manufactured for the sensitive analysis of SARS-CoV-2 N-gene, and exhibited the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.59 fg mL-1 and 0.17 fg mL-1, respectively, within the range of 0.1 fg mL-1 to 1 ng mL-1 of N-gene. The sensing performances of both the TAPP-DPDD-POP-based aptasensor and immunosensor were better than those of existing electrochemical biosensors for analyzing the N-gene, accompanied with excellent stability, high selectivity and reproducibility. The TAPP-DPDD-POP-based aptasensor and immunosensor were then employed to detect the N-gene from various environments, including human serum, river water, and seafoods. This work provides a new method of using an electrochemically active POP to sensitively and selectively analyze SARS-CoV-2 in diverse environments.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/analysis , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Polymers/chemistry , Porphyrins/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Limit of Detection , Phosphoproteins/analysis , Reproducibility of Results
9.
Adv Mater ; 34(8): e2107892, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634021

ABSTRACT

Surface chemistry critically affects the diagnostic performance of biosensors. An ideal sensor surface should be resistant to nonspecific protein adsorption, yet be conducive to analytical responses. Here a new polymeric material, zwitterionic polypyrrole (ZiPPy), is reported to produce optimal surface condition for biosensing electrodes. ZiPPy combines two unique advantages: the zwitterionic function that efficiently hydrates electrode surface, hindering nonspecific binding of hydrophobic proteins; and the pyrrole backbone, which enables rapid (<7 min), controlled deposition of ZiPPy through electropolymerization. ZiPPy-coated electrodes show lower electrochemical impedance and less nonspecific protein adsorption (low fouling), outperforming bare and polypyrrole-coated electrodes. Moreover, affinity ligands for target biomarkers can be immobilized together with ZiPPy in a single-step electropolymerization. ZiPPy-coated electrodes are developed with specificity for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The prepared sensor detects SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in human saliva down to 50 ng mL-1 , without the need for sample purification or secondary labeling.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Polymers/chemistry , Pyrroles/chemistry , Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , COVID-19/virology , Electrochemical Techniques , Electrodes , Electroplating , Gold/chemistry , Humans , Limit of Detection , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saliva/metabolism , Surface Properties
10.
Trials ; 22(1): 127, 2021 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1629960

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study is to measure the efficacy of ionic-iodine polymer complex [1] for clinical and radiological improvement in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. TRIAL DESIGN: The trial will be closed label, randomized and placebo-controlled with a 1:1:1:1 allocation ratio and superiority framework. PARTICIPANTS: All PCR confirmed COVID-19 adult patients including non-pregnant females, with mild to moderate disease, will be enrolled from Shaikh Zayed Post-Graduate Medical Complex, Ali Clinic and Doctors Lounge in Lahore (Pakistan). Patients with any pre-existing chronic illness will be excluded from the study. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: In this multi-armed study ionic-iodine polymer complex with 200 mg of elemental iodine will be given using three formulations to evaluate efficacy. Patients will be receiving either encapsulated iodine complex of 200 mg (arm A), iodine complex syrup form 40 ml (arm B), iodine complex throat spray of 2 puffs (arm C) or empty capsule (arm D) as placebo; all three times a day. All the 4 arms will be receiving standard care as per version 3.0 of the clinical management guidelines for COVID-19 established by the Ministry of National Health Services of Pakistan. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary outcomes will be viral clearance with radiological and clinical improvement. SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR and HRCT chest scans will be done on the admission day and then after every fourth day for 12 days or till the symptoms are resolved. RT-PCR will only be shown as positive or negative while HRCT chest scoring will be done depending on the area and severity of lung involvement [2]. Time taken for the alleviation of symptoms will be calculated by the number of days the patient remained symptomatic. 30-day mortality will be considered as a secondary outcome. RANDOMISATION: Stratification for initial COVID-19 status (or days from initial symptoms as a proxy), age groups, gender, baseline severity of symptoms and co-morbidities will be used to ensure that the study arms remain balanced in size for the 1:1:1:1 allocation ratio. Randomization will be done using the lottery method. As patients are being admitted at different times, they will be recruited after obtaining their voluntary written informed consent following all standard protocols of the infection, control and disinfection. BLINDING (MASKING): This is a quadruple (participants, care providers, investigators and outcomes assessors) blinded study where only the study's Primary Investigator will have information about the arms and their interventions. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): 200 patients will be randomized into four groups with three experimental and one placebo arm. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol Version Number is 2.3 and it is approved from IRB Shaikh Zayed Hospital with ID SZMC/IRB/Internal0056/2020 on July 14th, 2020. The recruitment is in progress. It was started on July 30, 2020, and the estimated end date for the trial is August 15, 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trial has been retrospectively registered on www.clinicaltrials.gov with registration ID NCT04473261 dated July 16, 2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). With the intention of expediting dissemination of this trial, the conventional formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Iodine Compounds/administration & dosage , Polymers/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Capsules , Female , Humans , Male , Oral Sprays , Pakistan/epidemiology , Patient Admission , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Treatment Outcome
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 815: 152980, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612005

ABSTRACT

The indispensable role of plastic products in our daily life is highlighted by the COVID-19 pandemic again. Disposable face masks, made of polymer materials, as effective and cheap personal protective equipment (PPE), have been extensively used by the public to slow down the viral transmission. The repercussions of this have generated million tons of plastic waste being littered into the environment because of the improper disposal and mismanagement amid. And plastic waste can release microplastics (MPs) with the help of physical, chemical and biological processes, which is placing a huge MPs contamination burden on the ecosystem. In this work, the knowledge regarding to the combined effects of MPs and pollutants from the release of face masks and the impacts of wasted face masks and MPs on the environment (terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem) was systematically discussed. In view of these, some green technologies were put forward to reduce the amounts of discarded face masks in the environment, therefore minimizing MPs pollution at its source. Moreover, some recommendations for future research directions were proposed based on the remaining knowledge gaps. In a word, MPs pollution linked to face masks should be a focus worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Plastics , Ecosystem , Humans , Masks , Pandemics , Polymers , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Macromol Rapid Commun ; 43(1): e2100856, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611325

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Polymers , SARS-CoV-2
13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(1): 49-56, 2022 Jan 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608662

ABSTRACT

The development of low-cost, non-toxic, scalable antimicrobial textiles is needed to address the spread of deadly pathogens. Here, we report a polysiloxane textile coating that possesses two modes of antimicrobial inactivation, passive contact inactivation through amine/imine functionalities and active photodynamic inactivation through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This material can be coated and cross-linked onto natural and synthetic textiles through a simple soak procedure, followed by UV cure to afford materials exhibiting no aqueous leaching and only minimal leaching in organic solvents. This coating minimally impacts the mechanical properties of the fabric while also imparting hydrophobicity. Passive inactivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is achieved with >98% inactivation after 24 h, with a 23× and 3× inactivation rate increase against E. coli and MRSA, respectively, when green light is used to generate ROS. Up to 90% decrease in the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 after 2 h of irradiated incubation with the material is demonstrated. These results show that modifying textiles with dual-functional polymers results in robust and highly antimicrobial materials that are expected to find widespread use in combating the spread of deadly pathogens.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/drug effects , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/chemistry , Polymers/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Textiles/analysis , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/pharmacology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Photochemotherapy/methods , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Textiles/toxicity , Ultraviolet Rays
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580689

ABSTRACT

Global reports on multidrug resistance (MDR) and life-threatening pathogens such as SARS-CoV-2 and Candida cruris have stimulated researchers to explore new antimicrobials that are eco-friendly and economically viable. In this context, biodegradable polymers such as nisin, chitin, and pullulan play an important role in solving the problem. Pullulan is an important edible, biocompatible, water-soluble polymer secreted by Aureobasidium pullulans that occurs ubiquitously. It consists of maltotriose units linked with α-1,6 glycosidic bonds and is classed as Generally Regarded as Safe (GRAS) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the USA. Pullulan is known for its antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antitumor activities when incorporated with other additives such as antibiotics, drugs, nanoparticles, and so on. Considering the importance of its antimicrobial activities, this polymer can be used as a potential antimicrobial agent against various pathogenic microorganisms including the multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. Moreover, pullulan has ability to synthesize biogenic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), which are remarkably efficacious against pathogenic microbes. The pullulan-based nanocomposites can be applied for wound healing, food packaging, and also enhancing the shelf-life of fruits and vegetables. In this review, we have discussed biosynthesis of pullulan and its role as antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal agent. Pullulan-based films impregnated with different antimicrobials such as AgNPs, chitosan, essential oils, and so on, forming nanocomposites have also been discussed as natural alternatives to combat the problems posed by pathogens.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Multiple/drug effects , Glucans/biosynthesis , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Antifungal Agents , COVID-19 , Chitin/pharmacology , Chitosan/chemistry , Drug Resistance, Multiple/physiology , Food Packaging , Glucans/metabolism , Glucans/pharmacology , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanocomposites/chemistry , Nisin/pharmacology , Polymers/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Molecules ; 27(1)2021 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580565

ABSTRACT

Baricitinib (BTB) is an orally administered Janus kinase inhibitor, therapeutically used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Recently it has also been approved for the treatment of COVID-19 infection. In this study, four different BTB-loaded lipids (stearin)-polymer (Poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)) hybrid nanoparticles (B-PLN1 to B-PLN4) were prepared by the single-step nanoprecipitation method. Next, they were characterised in terms of physicochemical properties such as particle size, zeta potential (ζP), polydispersity index (PDI), entrapment efficiency (EE) and drug loading (DL). Based on preliminary evaluation, the B-PLN4 was regarded as the optimised formulation with particle size (272 ± 7.6 nm), PDI (0.225), ζP (-36.5 ± 3.1 mV), %EE (71.6 ± 1.5%) and %DL (2.87 ± 0.42%). This formulation (B-PLN4) was further assessed concerning morphology, in vitro release, and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies in rats. The in vitro release profile exhibited a sustained release pattern well-fitted by the Korsmeyer-Peppas kinetic model (R2 = 0.879). The in vivo pharmacokinetic data showed an enhancement (2.92 times more) in bioavailability in comparison to the normal suspension of pure BTB. These data concluded that the formulated lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles could be a promising drug delivery option to enhance the bioavailability of BTB. Overall, this study provides a scientific basis for future studies on the entrapment efficiency of lipid-polymer hybrid systems as promising carriers for overcoming pharmacokinetic limitations.


Subject(s)
Azetidines/pharmacokinetics , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Drug Liberation , Liposomes/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Polymers/chemistry , Purines/pharmacokinetics , Pyrazoles/pharmacokinetics , Sulfonamides/pharmacokinetics , Administration, Oral , Animals , Azetidines/administration & dosage , Azetidines/chemistry , Biological Availability , Male , Purines/administration & dosage , Purines/chemistry , Pyrazoles/administration & dosage , Pyrazoles/chemistry , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Sulfonamides/administration & dosage , Sulfonamides/chemistry
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572494

ABSTRACT

Low density polyethylene (LDPE) films covered with active coatings containing mixtures of rosemary, raspberry, and pomegranate CO2 extracts were found to be active against selected bacterial strains that may extend the shelf life of food products. The coatings also offer antiviral activity, due to their influence on the activity of Φ6 bacteriophage, selected as a surrogate for SARS-CoV-2 particles. The mixture of these extracts could be incorporated into a polymer matrix to obtain a foil with antibacterial and antiviral properties. The initial goal of this work was to obtain active LDPE films containing a mixture of CO2 extracts of the aforementioned plants, incorporated into an LDPE matrix via an extrusion process. The second aim of this study was to demonstrate the antibacterial properties of the active films against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and to determine the antiviral effect of the modified material on Φ6 bacteriophage. In addition, an analysis was made on the influence of the active mixture on the polymer physicochemical features, e.g., mechanical and thermal properties, as well as its color and transparency. The results of this research indicated that the LDPE film containing a mixture of raspberry, rosemary, and pomegranate CO2 extracts incorporated into an LDPE matrix inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus. This film was also found to be active against Bacillus subtilis. This modified film did not inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas syringae cells; however, their number decreased significantly. The LDPE active film was also found to be active against Φ6 particles, meaning that the film had antiviral properties. The incorporation of the mixture of CO2 extracts into the polymer matrix affected its mechanical properties. It was observed that parameters describing mechanical properties decreased, although did not affect the transition of LDPE significantly. Additionally, the modified film exhibited barrier properties towards UV radiation. Modified PE/CO2 extracts films could be applied as a functional food packaging material with antibacterial and antiviral properties.


Subject(s)
Food Packaging/methods , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Polyethylene/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Bacteriophage phi 6/drug effects , Biofilms , Chitosan/chemistry , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Humans , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Polyethylene/pharmacology , Polymers/chemistry , Pomegranate , Rosmarinus/chemistry , Rubus , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
17.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(50): 60612-60624, 2021 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569206

ABSTRACT

New analytical techniques that overcome major drawbacks of current routinely used viral infection diagnosis methods, i.e., the long analysis time and laboriousness of real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and the insufficient sensitivity of "antigen tests", are urgently needed in the context of SARS-CoV-2 and other highly contagious viruses. Here, we report on an antifouling terpolymer-brush biointerface that enables the rapid and sensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2 in untreated clinical samples. The developed biointerface carries a tailored composition of zwitterionic and non-ionic moieties and allows for the significant improvement of antifouling capabilities when postmodified with biorecognition elements and exposed to complex media. When deployed on a surface of piezoelectric sensor and postmodified with human-cell-expressed antibodies specific to the nucleocapsid (N) protein of SARS-CoV-2, it made possible the quantitative analysis of untreated samples by a direct detection assay format without the need of additional amplification steps. Natively occurring N-protein-vRNA complexes, usually disrupted during the sample pre-treatment steps, were detected in the untreated clinical samples. This biosensor design improved the bioassay sensitivity to a clinically relevant limit of detection of 1.3 × 104 PFU/mL within a detection time of only 20 min. The high specificity toward N-protein-vRNA complexes was validated both by mass spectrometry and qRT-PCR. The performance characteristics were confirmed by qRT-PCR through a comparative study using a set of clinical nasopharyngeal swab samples. We further demonstrate the extraordinary fouling resistance of this biointerface through exposure to other commonly used crude biological samples (including blood plasma, oropharyngeal, stool, and nasopharyngeal swabs), measured via both the surface plasmon resonance and piezoelectric measurements, which highlights the potential to serve as a generic platform for a wide range of biosensing applications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Nasal Mucosa/virology , Polymers/chemistry , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Biofouling , Biological Assay , Biosensing Techniques , Humans , Ions , Limit of Detection , Mass Spectrometry , Nasopharynx/virology , Phosphoproteins/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling
18.
Bioorg Chem ; 119: 105550, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561636

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases caused by new or unknown bacteria and viruses, such as anthrax, cholera, tuberculosis and even COVID-19, are a major threat to humanity. Thus, the development of new synthetic compounds with efficient antimicrobial activity is a necessity. Herein, rationally designed novel multifunctional cationic alternating copolymers were directly synthesized through a step-growth polymerization reaction using a bivalent electrophilic cross-linker containing disulfide bonds and a diamine heterocyclic ring. To optimize the activity of these alternating copolymers, several different diamines and cross-linkers were explored to find the highest antibacterial effects. The synthesized nanopolymers not only displayed good to excellent antibacterial activity as judged by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli, but also reduced the number of biofilm cells even at low concentrations, without killing mammalian cells. Furthermore, in vivo experiments using infected burn wounds in mice demonstrated good antibacterial activity and stimulated wound healing, without causing systemic inflammation. These findings suggest that the multifunctional cationic nanopolymers have potential as a novel antibacterial agent for eradication of multidrug resistant bacterial infections.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Cations/pharmacology , Polymers/pharmacology , Wound Healing/drug effects , Amines/chemistry , Animals , Bacteria/drug effects , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/etiology , Burns/complications , COVID-19 , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cross-Linking Reagents , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/drug effects , HEK293 Cells/drug effects , Humans , Mice , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymers/chemistry
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17263, 2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550348

ABSTRACT

Dexamethasone (Dex) is a highly insoluble front-line drug used in cancer therapy. Data from clinical trials indicates that the pharmacokinetics of Dex vary considerably between patients and prolonging drug exposure rather than increasing absolute dose may improve efficacy. Non-toxic, fully biodegradable Dex loaded nanovectors (NV) were formulated, via simple direct hydration within 10 min, as a vehicle to extend exposure and distribution in vivo. Dex-NV were just as effective as the free drug against primary human leukemia cells in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, high levels of DMSO solvent were not required in the NV formulations. Broad distribution of NV was seen rapidly following inoculation into mice. NV accumulated in major organs, including bone marrow and brain, known sanctuary sites for ALL. The study describes a non-toxic, more easily scalable system for improving Dex solubility for use in cancer and can be applied to other medical conditions associated with inflammation.


Subject(s)
Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Nanostructures/chemistry , Polymers/chemistry , Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays/methods , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/pharmacokinetics , Child , Dexamethasone/chemistry , Dexamethasone/pharmacokinetics , Drug Liberation , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Mice, Inbred NOD , Mice, Knockout , Mice, SCID , Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/metabolism , Treatment Outcome , Tumor Cells, Cultured , Young Adult
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