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1.
J Mater Chem B ; 10(45): 9349-9368, 2022 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117996

ABSTRACT

Undesirable adhesion of microbes such as bacteria, fungi and viruses onto surfaces affects many industries such as marine, food, textile, and healthcare. In particular in healthcare and food packaging, the effects of unwanted microbial contamination can be life-threatening. With the current global COVID-19 pandemic, interest in the development of surfaces with superior anti-viral and anti-bacterial activities has multiplied. Polymers carrying anti-microbial properties are extensively used to functionalize material surfaces to inactivate infection-causing and biocide-resistant microbes including COVID-19. This review aims to introduce the fabrication of polymer-based antimicrobial surfaces through physical and chemical modifications, followed by the discussion of the inactivation mechanisms of conventional biocidal agents and new-generation antimicrobial macromolecules in polymer-modified antimicrobial surfaces. The advanced applications of polymer-based antimicrobial surfaces on personal protective equipment against COVID-19, food packaging materials, biomedical devices, marine vessels and textiles are also summarized to express the research trend in academia and industry.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Humans , Polymers/pharmacology , Polymers/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pandemics , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Bacteria
2.
ACS Nano ; 16(11): 19451-19463, 2022 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116590

ABSTRACT

The massive production of polymer-based respiratory masks during the COVID-19 pandemic has rekindled the issue of environmental pollution from nonrecyclable plastic waste. To mitigate this problem, conventional filters should be redesigned with improved filtration performance over the entire operational life while also being naturally degradable at the end. Herein, we developed a functional and biodegradable polymeric filter membrane consisting of a polybutylene adipate terephthalate (PBAT) matrix blended with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and montmorillonite (MMT) clay, whose surface properties have been modified through cation exchange reactions for good miscibility with PBAT in an organic solvent. Particularly, the spontaneous evolution of a partial core-shell structure (i.e., PBAT core encased by CTAB-MMT shell) during the electrospinning process amplified the triboelectric effect as well as the antibacterial/antiviral activity that was not observed in naive PBAT. Unlike the conventional face mask filter that relies on the electrostatic adsorption mechanism, which deteriorates over time and/or due to external environmental factors, the PBAT@CTAB-MMT nanofiber membrane (NFM)-based filter continuously retains electrostatic charges on the surface due to the triboelectric effect of CTAB-MMT. As a result, the PBAT@CTAB-MMT NFM-based filter showed high filtration efficiencies (98.3%, PM0.3) even at a low differential pressure of 40 Pa or less over its lifetime. Altogether, we not only propose an effective and practical solution to improve the performance of filter membranes while minimizing their environmental footprint but also provide valuable insight into the synergetic functionalities of organic-inorganic hybrid materials for applications beyond filter membranes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanofibers , Humans , Nanofibers/chemistry , Cetrimonium , Static Electricity , Pandemics , Polymers/chemistry
3.
Biomolecules ; 12(11)2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109921

ABSTRACT

Adsorption of human serum albumin (HSA) molecules on negatively charged polystyrene microparticles was studied using the dynamic light scattering, the electrophoretic and the solution depletion methods involving atomic force microscopy. Initially, the physicochemical characteristics of the albumin comprising the hydrodynamic diameter, the zeta potential and the isoelectric point were determined as a function of pH. Analogous characteristics of the polymer particles were acquired, including their size and zeta potential. The formation of albumin corona on the particles was investigated in situ by electrophoretic mobility measurements. The size, stability and electrokinetic properties of the particles with the corona were also determined. The particle diameter was equal to 125 nm, which coincides with the size of the SARS-CoV-2 virion. The isoelectric point of the particles appeared at a pH of 5. The deposition kinetics of the particles was determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) under diffusion and by quartz microbalance (QCM) under flow conditions. It was shown that the deposition rate at a gold sensor abruptly vanished with pH following the decrease in the zeta potential of the particles. It is postulated that the acquired results can be used as useful reference systems mimicking virus adsorption on abiotic surfaces.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Humans , Polymers/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Adsorption , Serum Albumin, Human/chemistry , Virion , Surface Properties
4.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(7)2022 Jul 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963724

ABSTRACT

A new sensing platform based on long-period fiber gratings (LPFGs) for direct, fast, and selective detection of human immunoglobulin G (IgG; Mw = 150 KDa) was developed and characterized. The transducer's high selectivity is based on the specific interaction of a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIPs) design for IgG detection. The sensing scheme is based on differential refractometric measurements, including a correction system based on a non-imprinted polymer (NIP)-coated LPFG, allowing reliable and more sensitive measurements, improving the rejection of false positives in around 30%. The molecular imprinted binding sites were performed on the surface of a LPFG with a sensitivity of about 130 nm/RIU and a FOM of 16 RIU-1. The low-cost and easy to build device was tested in a working range from 1 to 100 nmol/L, revealing a limit of detection (LOD) and a sensitivity of 0.25 nmol/L (0.037 µg/mL) and 0.057 nm.L/nmol, respectively. The sensor also successfully differentiates the target analyte from the other abundant elements that are present in the human blood plasma.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Molecular Imprinting , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Limit of Detection , Polymers/chemistry
5.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 23(6): 209, 2022 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962929

ABSTRACT

The present study is focused on the use of solid dispersion technology to triumph over the solubility-related problems of bexarotene which is currently used for treating various types of cancer and has shown potential inhibitory action on COVID-19 main protease and human ACE2 receptors. It is based on comparison of green locust bean gum and synthetic poloxamer as polymers using extensive mechanistic methods to explore the mechanism behind solubility enhancement and to find suitable concentration of drug to polymer ratio to prepare porous 3rd generation solid dispersion. The prepared solid dispersions were characterized using different studies like X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and particle size analysis in order to determine the exact changes occurred in the product which are responsible for enhancing solubility profiles of an insoluble drug. The results showed different profiles for particle size, solubility, dissolution rate, porosity, BET, and Langmuir specific surface area of prepared solid dispersions by using different polymers. In addition to the comparison of polymers, the BET analysis deeply explored the changes occurred in all dispersions when the concentration of polymer was increased. The optimized solid dispersion prepared with MLBG using lyophilization technique showed reduced particle size of 745.7±4.4 nm, utmost solubility of 63.97%, pore size of 211.597 Å, BET and Langmuir specific surface area of 5.6413 m2/g and 8.2757 m2/g, respectively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Adsorption , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , Humans , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Polymers/chemistry , Solubility , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , X-Ray Diffraction
6.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 5(8): 3870-3882, 2022 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960237

ABSTRACT

Biofilm formation on the surfaces of indwelling medical devices has become a growing health threat due to the development of antimicrobial resistance to infection-causing bacteria. For example, ventilator-associated pneumonia caused by Pseudomonas and Staphylococci species has become a significant concern in treatment of patients during COVID-19 pandemic. Nanostructured surfaces with antifouling activity are of interest as a promising strategy to prevent bacterial adhesion without triggering drug resistance. In this study, we report a facile evaporative approach to prepare block copolymer film coatings with nanoscale topography that resist bacterial adhesion. The initial attachment of the target bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 to copolymer films as well as homopolymer films was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy. Significant reduction in bacterial adhesion (93-99% less) and area coverage (>92% less) on the copolymer films was observed compared with that on the control and homopolymer films [poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA)─only 40 and 23% less, respectively]. The surfaces of poly(styrene)-PMAA copolymer films with patterned nanoscale topography that contains sharp peaks ranging from 20 to 80 nm spaced at 30-50 nm were confirmed by atomic force microscopy and the corresponding surface morphology analysis. Investigation of the surface wettability and surface potential of polymer films assists in understanding the effect of surface properties on the bacterial attachment. Comparison of bacterial growth studies in polymer solutions with the growth studies on coatings highlights the importance of physical nanostructure in resisting bacterial adhesion, as opposed to chemical characteristics of the copolymers. Such self-patterned antifouling surface coatings, produced with a straightforward and energy-efficient approach, could provide a convenient and effective method to resist bacterial fouling on the surface of medical devices and reduce device-associated infections.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Adhesion , COVID-19 , Biofilms , Humans , Pandemics , Polymers/chemistry
7.
Mikrochim Acta ; 189(8): 287, 2022 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1935815

ABSTRACT

A dual recognition biosensor was developed via introducing aptamer strings and molecular imprinting polymer (MIP) for the selective detection of intact SARS-CoV-2 virus based on screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) modified with nickel-benzene tricarboxylic acid-metal-organic framework (Ni3(BTC)2 MOF) synthesized by in situ growth method, SARS-CoV-2 S protein-specific amino-aptamer and electropolymerization of dopamine (ePDA). The proposed biosensor showed an excellent linear relationship between charge transfer resistance (Rct) and increase in virus concentration in the range 10 to 108 plaque-forming units/mL (PFU/mL) with a low detection limit of 3.3 ± 0.04 PFU/mL and response time of 20 min. Compared with single-element sensors (aptamer or MIP), it showed higher selectivity for  the SARS-CoV-2 virus and facilitated detection in real samples.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Molecular Imprinting , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Molecular Imprinting/methods , Polymers/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
8.
J Control Release ; 345: 661-674, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763815

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has been the cause of a global pandemic since 2019 and remains a medical urgency. siRNA-based therapies are a promising strategy to fight viral infections. By targeting a specific region of the viral genome, siRNAs can efficiently downregulate viral replication and suppress viral infection. However, to achieve the desired therapeutic activity, siRNA requires a suitable delivery system. The VIPER (virus-inspired polymer for endosomal release) block copolymer has been reported as promising delivery system for both plasmid DNA and siRNA in the past years. It is composed of a hydrophilic block for condensation of nucleic acids as well as a hydrophobic, pH-sensitive block that, at acidic pH, exposes the membrane lytic peptide melittin, which enhances endosomal escape. In this study, we aimed at developing a formulation for pulmonary administration of siRNA to suppress SARS-CoV-2 replication in lung epithelial cells. After characterizing siRNA/VIPER polyplexes, the activity and safety profile were confirmed in a lung epithelial cell line. To further investigate the activity of the polyplexes in a more sophisticated cell culture system, an air-liquid interface (ALI) culture was established. siRNA/VIPER polyplexes reached the cell monolayer and penetrated through the mucus layer secreted by the cells. Additionally, the activity against wild-type SARS-CoV-2 in the ALI model was confirmed by qRT-PCR. To investigate translatability of our findings, the activity against SARS-CoV-2 was tested ex vivo in human lung explants. Here, siRNA/VIPER polyplexes efficiently inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication. Finally, we verified the delivery of siRNA/VIPER polyplexes to lung epithelial cells in vivo, which represent the main cellular target of viral infection in the lung. In conclusion, siRNA/VIPER polyplexes efficiently delivered siRNA to lung epithelial cells and mediated robust downregulation of viral replication both in vitro and ex vivo without toxic or immunogenic side effects in vivo, demonstrating the potential of local siRNA delivery as a promising antiviral therapy in the lung.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Polymers/chemistry , RNA, Small Interfering , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Replication/genetics
9.
Anal Chem ; 94(10): 4446-4454, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713092

ABSTRACT

The enrichment of co-reactants is one of the keys to improving the sensitivity of electrochemiluminescence (ECL) detection. This work developed a novel hydrophobic localized enrichment strategy of co-reactants utilizing the inner hydrophobic cavity of ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD). Pt nanoparticles (Pt NPs) were grown in situ on the coordination sites for metal ions of ß-CD to prepare the ß-CD-Pt nanocomposite, which could not only enrich co-reactant 3-(dibutylamino) propylamine (TDBA) highly efficiently through its hydrophobic cavity but also immobilize TDBA via the Pt-N bond. Meanwhile, the carboxyl-functionalized poly[2,5-dioctyl-1,4-phenylene] (PDP) polymer nanoparticles (PNPs) were developed as excellent ECL luminophores. With SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (ncovNP) as a model protein, the TDBA-ß-CD-Pt nanocomposite combined PDP PNPs to construct a biosensor for ncovNP determination. The PDP PNPs were modified onto the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) to capture the first antibody (Ab1) and further capture antigen and secondary antibody complexes (TDBA-ß-CD-Pt@Ab2). The resultant biosensor with a sandwich structure achieved a highly sensitive detection of ncovNP with a detection limit of 22 fg/mL. TDBA-ß-CD-Pt shared with an inspiration in hydrophobic localized enrichment of co-reactants for improving the sensitivity of ECL detection. The luminophore PDP PNPs integrated TDBA-ß-CD-Pt to provide a promising and sensitive ECL platform, offering a new method for ncovNP detection.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Humans , Limit of Detection , Luminescent Measurements/methods , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nucleocapsid Proteins , Polymers/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686809

ABSTRACT

Recently, the studies on developing sensors and biosensors-with an obvious interdisciplinary character-have drawn the attention of many researchers specializing in various fundamental, but also complex domains such as chemistry, biochemistry, physics, biophysics, biology, bio-pharma-medicine, and bioengineering. Along these lines, the present paper is structured into three parts, and is aimed at synthesizing the most relevant studies on the construction and functioning of versatile devices, of electrochemical sensors and biosensors, respectively. The first part presents examples of the most representative scientific research focusing on the role and the importance of the phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan amino acids, selected depending on their chemical structure and their impact on the central nervous system. The second part is dedicated to presenting and exemplifying conductor polymers and molecularly imprinted polymers used as sensitive materials in achieving electrochemical sensors and biosensors. The last part of the review analyzes the sensors and biosensors developed so far to detect amino acids with the aid of conductor polymers and molecularly imprinted polymers from the point of view of the performances obtained, with emphasis on the detection methods, on the electrochemical reactions that take place upon detection, and on the electroanalytical performances. The present study was carried out with a view to highlighting, for the benefit of specialists in medicine and pharmacy, the possibility of achieving and purchasing efficient devices that might be used in the quality control of medicines, as well as in studying and monitoring diseases associated with these amino acids.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Molecular Imprinting/methods , Molecularly Imprinted Polymers/chemistry , Phenylalanine/analysis , Tryptophan/analysis , Tyrosine/analysis , Amino Acids/analysis , Polymers/chemistry
11.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(1)2022 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1640558

ABSTRACT

Rapid, selective, and cost-effective detection and determination of clinically relevant biomolecule analytes for a better understanding of biological and physiological functions are becoming increasingly prominent. In this regard, biosensors represent a powerful tool to meet these requirements. Recent decades have seen biosensors gaining popularity due to their ability to design sensor platforms that are selective to determine target analytes. Naturally generated receptor units have a high affinity for their targets, which provides the selectivity of a device. However, such receptors are subject to instability under harsh environmental conditions and have consequently low durability. By applying principles of supramolecular chemistry, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) can successfully replace natural receptors to circumvent these shortcomings. This review summarizes the recent achievements and analytical applications of electrosynthesized MIPs, in particular, for the detection of protein-based biomarkers. The scope of this review also includes the background behind electrochemical readouts and the origin of the gate effect in MIP-based biosensors.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Molecular Imprinting , Biomimetics , Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , Equipment Design , Molecular Imprinting/methods , Molecularly Imprinted Polymers , Polymers/chemistry , Proteins
12.
Dalton Trans ; 51(5): 2094-2104, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631403

ABSTRACT

In this study, a novel porphyrin-based porous organic polymer (POP) was constructed using 5,10,15,20-tetramine (4-aminophenyl) porphyrin (TAPP) and 5,5'-diformyl-2,2'-bipyridine (DPDD) as organic ligands via a solvothermal method (represented as TAPP-DPDD-POP). Then, it was utilized as a bifunctional scaffold for constructing a sensitive sensing strategy toward the nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (N-gene) of SARS-CoV-2. The obtained TAPP-DPDD-POP is composed of nanospheres with a size of 100-300 nm and possesses a highly conjugated and π-π stacking network. The coexistence of the porphyrin and bipyridine moieties of TAPP-DPDD-POP afforded considerable electrochemical activity and a strong binding interaction toward the SARS-CoV-2 N-gene-targeted antibody and targeted the aptamer strands of the N-gene. The TAPP-DPDD-POP-based aptasensor and immunosensor were manufactured for the sensitive analysis of SARS-CoV-2 N-gene, and exhibited the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.59 fg mL-1 and 0.17 fg mL-1, respectively, within the range of 0.1 fg mL-1 to 1 ng mL-1 of N-gene. The sensing performances of both the TAPP-DPDD-POP-based aptasensor and immunosensor were better than those of existing electrochemical biosensors for analyzing the N-gene, accompanied with excellent stability, high selectivity and reproducibility. The TAPP-DPDD-POP-based aptasensor and immunosensor were then employed to detect the N-gene from various environments, including human serum, river water, and seafoods. This work provides a new method of using an electrochemically active POP to sensitively and selectively analyze SARS-CoV-2 in diverse environments.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/analysis , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Polymers/chemistry , Porphyrins/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Limit of Detection , Phosphoproteins/analysis , Reproducibility of Results
13.
Adv Mater ; 34(8): e2107892, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634021

ABSTRACT

Surface chemistry critically affects the diagnostic performance of biosensors. An ideal sensor surface should be resistant to nonspecific protein adsorption, yet be conducive to analytical responses. Here a new polymeric material, zwitterionic polypyrrole (ZiPPy), is reported to produce optimal surface condition for biosensing electrodes. ZiPPy combines two unique advantages: the zwitterionic function that efficiently hydrates electrode surface, hindering nonspecific binding of hydrophobic proteins; and the pyrrole backbone, which enables rapid (<7 min), controlled deposition of ZiPPy through electropolymerization. ZiPPy-coated electrodes show lower electrochemical impedance and less nonspecific protein adsorption (low fouling), outperforming bare and polypyrrole-coated electrodes. Moreover, affinity ligands for target biomarkers can be immobilized together with ZiPPy in a single-step electropolymerization. ZiPPy-coated electrodes are developed with specificity for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The prepared sensor detects SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in human saliva down to 50 ng mL-1 , without the need for sample purification or secondary labeling.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Polymers/chemistry , Pyrroles/chemistry , Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , COVID-19/virology , Electrochemical Techniques , Electrodes , Electroplating , Gold/chemistry , Humans , Limit of Detection , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saliva/metabolism , Surface Properties
14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(1): 49-56, 2022 Jan 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608662

ABSTRACT

The development of low-cost, non-toxic, scalable antimicrobial textiles is needed to address the spread of deadly pathogens. Here, we report a polysiloxane textile coating that possesses two modes of antimicrobial inactivation, passive contact inactivation through amine/imine functionalities and active photodynamic inactivation through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This material can be coated and cross-linked onto natural and synthetic textiles through a simple soak procedure, followed by UV cure to afford materials exhibiting no aqueous leaching and only minimal leaching in organic solvents. This coating minimally impacts the mechanical properties of the fabric while also imparting hydrophobicity. Passive inactivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is achieved with >98% inactivation after 24 h, with a 23× and 3× inactivation rate increase against E. coli and MRSA, respectively, when green light is used to generate ROS. Up to 90% decrease in the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 after 2 h of irradiated incubation with the material is demonstrated. These results show that modifying textiles with dual-functional polymers results in robust and highly antimicrobial materials that are expected to find widespread use in combating the spread of deadly pathogens.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/drug effects , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/chemistry , Polymers/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Textiles/analysis , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/pharmacology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Photochemotherapy/methods , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Textiles/toxicity , Ultraviolet Rays
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580689

ABSTRACT

Global reports on multidrug resistance (MDR) and life-threatening pathogens such as SARS-CoV-2 and Candida cruris have stimulated researchers to explore new antimicrobials that are eco-friendly and economically viable. In this context, biodegradable polymers such as nisin, chitin, and pullulan play an important role in solving the problem. Pullulan is an important edible, biocompatible, water-soluble polymer secreted by Aureobasidium pullulans that occurs ubiquitously. It consists of maltotriose units linked with α-1,6 glycosidic bonds and is classed as Generally Regarded as Safe (GRAS) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the USA. Pullulan is known for its antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antitumor activities when incorporated with other additives such as antibiotics, drugs, nanoparticles, and so on. Considering the importance of its antimicrobial activities, this polymer can be used as a potential antimicrobial agent against various pathogenic microorganisms including the multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. Moreover, pullulan has ability to synthesize biogenic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), which are remarkably efficacious against pathogenic microbes. The pullulan-based nanocomposites can be applied for wound healing, food packaging, and also enhancing the shelf-life of fruits and vegetables. In this review, we have discussed biosynthesis of pullulan and its role as antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal agent. Pullulan-based films impregnated with different antimicrobials such as AgNPs, chitosan, essential oils, and so on, forming nanocomposites have also been discussed as natural alternatives to combat the problems posed by pathogens.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Multiple/drug effects , Glucans/biosynthesis , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Antifungal Agents , COVID-19 , Chitin/pharmacology , Chitosan/chemistry , Drug Resistance, Multiple/physiology , Food Packaging , Glucans/metabolism , Glucans/pharmacology , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanocomposites/chemistry , Nisin/pharmacology , Polymers/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Molecules ; 27(1)2021 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580565

ABSTRACT

Baricitinib (BTB) is an orally administered Janus kinase inhibitor, therapeutically used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Recently it has also been approved for the treatment of COVID-19 infection. In this study, four different BTB-loaded lipids (stearin)-polymer (Poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)) hybrid nanoparticles (B-PLN1 to B-PLN4) were prepared by the single-step nanoprecipitation method. Next, they were characterised in terms of physicochemical properties such as particle size, zeta potential (ζP), polydispersity index (PDI), entrapment efficiency (EE) and drug loading (DL). Based on preliminary evaluation, the B-PLN4 was regarded as the optimised formulation with particle size (272 ± 7.6 nm), PDI (0.225), ζP (-36.5 ± 3.1 mV), %EE (71.6 ± 1.5%) and %DL (2.87 ± 0.42%). This formulation (B-PLN4) was further assessed concerning morphology, in vitro release, and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies in rats. The in vitro release profile exhibited a sustained release pattern well-fitted by the Korsmeyer-Peppas kinetic model (R2 = 0.879). The in vivo pharmacokinetic data showed an enhancement (2.92 times more) in bioavailability in comparison to the normal suspension of pure BTB. These data concluded that the formulated lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles could be a promising drug delivery option to enhance the bioavailability of BTB. Overall, this study provides a scientific basis for future studies on the entrapment efficiency of lipid-polymer hybrid systems as promising carriers for overcoming pharmacokinetic limitations.


Subject(s)
Azetidines/pharmacokinetics , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Drug Liberation , Liposomes/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Polymers/chemistry , Purines/pharmacokinetics , Pyrazoles/pharmacokinetics , Sulfonamides/pharmacokinetics , Administration, Oral , Animals , Azetidines/administration & dosage , Azetidines/chemistry , Biological Availability , Male , Purines/administration & dosage , Purines/chemistry , Pyrazoles/administration & dosage , Pyrazoles/chemistry , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Sulfonamides/administration & dosage , Sulfonamides/chemistry
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572494

ABSTRACT

Low density polyethylene (LDPE) films covered with active coatings containing mixtures of rosemary, raspberry, and pomegranate CO2 extracts were found to be active against selected bacterial strains that may extend the shelf life of food products. The coatings also offer antiviral activity, due to their influence on the activity of Φ6 bacteriophage, selected as a surrogate for SARS-CoV-2 particles. The mixture of these extracts could be incorporated into a polymer matrix to obtain a foil with antibacterial and antiviral properties. The initial goal of this work was to obtain active LDPE films containing a mixture of CO2 extracts of the aforementioned plants, incorporated into an LDPE matrix via an extrusion process. The second aim of this study was to demonstrate the antibacterial properties of the active films against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and to determine the antiviral effect of the modified material on Φ6 bacteriophage. In addition, an analysis was made on the influence of the active mixture on the polymer physicochemical features, e.g., mechanical and thermal properties, as well as its color and transparency. The results of this research indicated that the LDPE film containing a mixture of raspberry, rosemary, and pomegranate CO2 extracts incorporated into an LDPE matrix inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus. This film was also found to be active against Bacillus subtilis. This modified film did not inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas syringae cells; however, their number decreased significantly. The LDPE active film was also found to be active against Φ6 particles, meaning that the film had antiviral properties. The incorporation of the mixture of CO2 extracts into the polymer matrix affected its mechanical properties. It was observed that parameters describing mechanical properties decreased, although did not affect the transition of LDPE significantly. Additionally, the modified film exhibited barrier properties towards UV radiation. Modified PE/CO2 extracts films could be applied as a functional food packaging material with antibacterial and antiviral properties.


Subject(s)
Food Packaging/methods , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Polyethylene/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Bacteriophage phi 6/drug effects , Biofilms , Chitosan/chemistry , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Humans , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Polyethylene/pharmacology , Polymers/chemistry , Pomegranate , Rosmarinus/chemistry , Rubus , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(50): 60612-60624, 2021 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569206

ABSTRACT

New analytical techniques that overcome major drawbacks of current routinely used viral infection diagnosis methods, i.e., the long analysis time and laboriousness of real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and the insufficient sensitivity of "antigen tests", are urgently needed in the context of SARS-CoV-2 and other highly contagious viruses. Here, we report on an antifouling terpolymer-brush biointerface that enables the rapid and sensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2 in untreated clinical samples. The developed biointerface carries a tailored composition of zwitterionic and non-ionic moieties and allows for the significant improvement of antifouling capabilities when postmodified with biorecognition elements and exposed to complex media. When deployed on a surface of piezoelectric sensor and postmodified with human-cell-expressed antibodies specific to the nucleocapsid (N) protein of SARS-CoV-2, it made possible the quantitative analysis of untreated samples by a direct detection assay format without the need of additional amplification steps. Natively occurring N-protein-vRNA complexes, usually disrupted during the sample pre-treatment steps, were detected in the untreated clinical samples. This biosensor design improved the bioassay sensitivity to a clinically relevant limit of detection of 1.3 × 104 PFU/mL within a detection time of only 20 min. The high specificity toward N-protein-vRNA complexes was validated both by mass spectrometry and qRT-PCR. The performance characteristics were confirmed by qRT-PCR through a comparative study using a set of clinical nasopharyngeal swab samples. We further demonstrate the extraordinary fouling resistance of this biointerface through exposure to other commonly used crude biological samples (including blood plasma, oropharyngeal, stool, and nasopharyngeal swabs), measured via both the surface plasmon resonance and piezoelectric measurements, which highlights the potential to serve as a generic platform for a wide range of biosensing applications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Nasal Mucosa/virology , Polymers/chemistry , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Biofouling , Biological Assay , Biosensing Techniques , Humans , Ions , Limit of Detection , Mass Spectrometry , Nasopharynx/virology , Phosphoproteins/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling
19.
Bioorg Chem ; 119: 105550, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561636

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases caused by new or unknown bacteria and viruses, such as anthrax, cholera, tuberculosis and even COVID-19, are a major threat to humanity. Thus, the development of new synthetic compounds with efficient antimicrobial activity is a necessity. Herein, rationally designed novel multifunctional cationic alternating copolymers were directly synthesized through a step-growth polymerization reaction using a bivalent electrophilic cross-linker containing disulfide bonds and a diamine heterocyclic ring. To optimize the activity of these alternating copolymers, several different diamines and cross-linkers were explored to find the highest antibacterial effects. The synthesized nanopolymers not only displayed good to excellent antibacterial activity as judged by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli, but also reduced the number of biofilm cells even at low concentrations, without killing mammalian cells. Furthermore, in vivo experiments using infected burn wounds in mice demonstrated good antibacterial activity and stimulated wound healing, without causing systemic inflammation. These findings suggest that the multifunctional cationic nanopolymers have potential as a novel antibacterial agent for eradication of multidrug resistant bacterial infections.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Cations/pharmacology , Polymers/pharmacology , Wound Healing/drug effects , Amines/chemistry , Animals , Bacteria/drug effects , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/etiology , Burns/complications , COVID-19 , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cross-Linking Reagents , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/drug effects , HEK293 Cells/drug effects , Humans , Mice , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymers/chemistry
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17263, 2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550348

ABSTRACT

Dexamethasone (Dex) is a highly insoluble front-line drug used in cancer therapy. Data from clinical trials indicates that the pharmacokinetics of Dex vary considerably between patients and prolonging drug exposure rather than increasing absolute dose may improve efficacy. Non-toxic, fully biodegradable Dex loaded nanovectors (NV) were formulated, via simple direct hydration within 10 min, as a vehicle to extend exposure and distribution in vivo. Dex-NV were just as effective as the free drug against primary human leukemia cells in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, high levels of DMSO solvent were not required in the NV formulations. Broad distribution of NV was seen rapidly following inoculation into mice. NV accumulated in major organs, including bone marrow and brain, known sanctuary sites for ALL. The study describes a non-toxic, more easily scalable system for improving Dex solubility for use in cancer and can be applied to other medical conditions associated with inflammation.


Subject(s)
Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Nanostructures/chemistry , Polymers/chemistry , Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays/methods , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/pharmacokinetics , Child , Dexamethasone/chemistry , Dexamethasone/pharmacokinetics , Drug Liberation , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Mice, Inbred NOD , Mice, Knockout , Mice, SCID , Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/metabolism , Treatment Outcome , Tumor Cells, Cultured , Young Adult
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