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J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 225: 115213, 2023 Feb 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2248482


The innovative technology of a marketable lab-on-a-chip platform for point-of-care (POC) in vitro detection has recently attracted remarkable attention. The POC tests can significantly enhance the high standard of medicinal care. In the last decade, clinical diagnostic technology has been broadly advanced and successfully performed in several areas. It seems that lab-on-a-chip approaches play a significant role in these technologies. However, high-cost and time-consuming methods are increasing the challenge and the development of a cost-effective, rapid and efficient method for the detection of biomolecules is urgently needed. Recently, polymer-coated sensing platforms have been a promising area that can be employed in medical diagnosis, pharmaceutical bioassays, and environmental monitoring. The designed on-chip sensors are based on molecular imprinting polymers (MIPs) that use label-free detection technology. Molecular imprinting shines out as a potentially promising technique for creating artificial recognition material with molecular recognition sites. MIPs provide unique advantages such as excellent recognition specificity, high selectivity, and good reusability. This review article aims to define several methods using molecular imprinting for biomolecules and their incorporation with several lab-on-chip technologies to describe the most promising methods for the development of sensing systems based on molecularly imprinted polymers. The higher selectivity, more user-friendly operation is believed to provide MIP-based lab-on-a-chip devices with great potential academic and commercial value in on-site clinical diagnostics and other point-of-care assays.

Biosensing Techniques , Molecular Imprinting , Molecular Imprinting/methods , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Point-of-Care Testing , Point-of-Care Systems , Polymers/metabolism
Bioengineered ; 13(6): 14681-14718, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984964


Arthrospira platensis (A. platensis) aqueous extract has massive amounts of natural products that can be used as future drugs, such as C-phycocyanin, allophycocyanin, etc. This extract was chosen because of its high adaptability, which reflects its resolute genetic composition. The proactive roles of cyanobacteria, particularly in the medical field, have been discussed in this review, including the history, previous food and drug administration (FDA) reports, health benefits and the various dose-dependent therapeutic functions that A. platensis possesses, including its role in fighting against lethal diseases such as cancer, SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19, etc. However, the remedy will not present its maximal effect without the proper delivery to the targeted place for deposition. The goal of this research is to maximize the bioavailability and delivery efficiency of A. platensis constituents through selected sites for effective therapeutic outcomes. The solutions reviewed are mainly on parenteral and tablet formulations. Moreover, suggested enteric polymers were discussed with minor composition variations applied for better storage in high humid countries alongside minor variations in the polymer design were suggested to enhance the premature release hindrance of basic drugs in low pH environments. In addition, it will open doors for research in delivering active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in femtoscale with the use of various existing and new formulations.Abbrevations: SDGs; Sustainable Development Goals, IL-4; Interleukin-4, HDL; High-Density Lipoprotein, LDL; Low-Density Lipoprotein, VLDL; Very Low-Density Lipoprotein, C-PC; C-Phycocyanin, APC; Allophycocyanin, PE; Phycoerythrin, COX-2; Cyclooxygenase-2, RCTs; Randomized Control Trials, TNF-α; Tumour Necrosis Factor-alpha, γ-LFA; Gamma-Linolenic Fatty Acid, PGs; Polyglycans, PUFAs: Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, NK-cell; Natural Killer Cell, FDA; Food and Drug Administration, GRAS; Generally Recognized as Safe, SD; Standard Deviation, API; Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient, DW; Dry Weight, IM; Intramuscular, IV; Intravenous, ID; Intradermal, SC; Subcutaneous, AERs; Adverse Event Reports, DSI-EC; Dietary Supplement Information Executive Committee, cGMP; Current Good Manufacturing Process, A. platensis; Arthrospira platensis, A. maxima; Arthrospira maxima, Spirulina sp.; Spirulina species, Arthrospira; Spirulina, Tecuitlatl; Spirulina, CRC; Colorectal Cancer, HDI; Human Development Index, Tf; Transferrin, TfR; Transferrin Receptor, FR; Flow Rate, CPP; Cell Penetrating Peptide, SUV; Small Unilamenar Vesicle, LUV; Large Unilamenar Vesicle, GUV; Giant Unilamenar Vesicle, MLV; Multilamenar Vesicle, COVID-19; Coronavirus-19, PEGylated; Stealth, PEG; Polyethylene Glycol, OSCEs; Objective Structured Clinical Examinations, GI; Gastrointestinal Tract, CAP; Cellulose Acetate Phthalate, HPMCP, Hydroxypropyl Methyl-Cellulose Phthalate, SR; Sustained Release, DR; Delay Release, Poly(MA-EA); Polymethyl Acrylic Co-Ethyl Acrylate, f-DR L-30 D-55; Femto-Delay Release Methyl Acrylic Acid Co-Ethyl Acrylate Polymer, MW; Molecular Weight, Tg; Glass Transition Temperature, SN2; Nucleophilic Substitution 2, EPR; Enhance Permeability and Retention, VEGF; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, RGD; Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic Acid, VCAM-1; Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1, P; Coefficient of Permeability, PES; Polyether Sulfone, pHe; Extracellular pH, ζ-potential; Zeta potential, NTA; Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis, PB; Phosphate Buffer, DLS; Dynamic Light Scattering, AFM; Atomic Force Microscope, Log P; Partition Coefficient, MR; Molar Refractivity, tPSA; Topological Polar Surface Area, C log P; Calculated Partition Coefficient, CMR; Calculated Molar Refractivity, Log S; Solubility Coefficient, pka; Acid Dissociation Constant, DDAB; Dimethyl Dioctadecyl Ammonium Bromide, DOPE; Dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine, GDP; Good Distribution Practice, RES; Reticuloendothelial System, PKU; Phenylketonuria, MS; Multiple Sclerosis, SLE; Systemic Lupus Erythematous, NASA; National Aeronautics and Space Administration, DOX; Doxorubicin, ADRs; Adverse Drug Reactions, SVM; Support Vector Machine, MDA; Malondialdehyde, TBARS; Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances, CRP; C-Reactive Protein, CK; Creatine Kinase, LDH; Lactated Dehydrogenase, T2D; Type 2 Diabetes, PCB; Phycocyanobilin, PBP; Phycobiliproteins, PEB; Phycoerythrobilin, DPP-4; Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4, MTT; 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide, IL-2; Interleukin-2, IL-6; Interleukin-6, PRISMA; Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses, STATA; Statistics, HepG2; Hepatoblastoma, HCT116; Colon Cancer Carcinoma, Kasumi-1; Acute Leukaemia, K562; Chronic Leukaemia, Se-PC; Selenium-Phycocyanin, MCF-7; Breast Cancer Adenocarcinoma, A375; Human Melanoma, RAS; Renin-Angiotensin System, IQP; Ile-Gln-Pro, VEP; Val-Glu-Pro, Mpro; Main Protease, PLpro; Papin-Like Protease, BMI; Body Mass Index, IC50; Inhibitory Concentration by 50%, LD50; Lethal Dose by 50%, PC12 Adh; Rat Pheochromocytoma Cells, RNS; Reactive Nitrogen Species, Hb1Ac; hemoglobin A1c.

Increase awareness of the impact and multi-disciplinary up-to-date roles of A. platensis on human lives and the importance of having further research on microalgae.Soliciting a critical analysis study on A. platensis biocomposition for drug delivery research.Insights on the correlation between ionization and drug bioavailability in specific sites in the human body.Offering solutions for improvising an optimized 'Advanced Spirulina Dosage Forms' products to maximize A. platensis therapeutic/pharmacological outcomes.Insights on existing biomaterials for optimization.

COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Leukemia , Spirulina , Humans , Lipoproteins, LDL/metabolism , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Pharmaceutical Preparations/metabolism , Phycocyanin/chemistry , Polymers/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spirulina/chemistry , Spirulina/metabolism , Treatment Outcome , United States , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
Curr Top Med Chem ; 20(11): 915-962, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453165


BACKGROUND: Emerging viral zoonotic diseases are one of the major obstacles to secure the "One Health" concept under the current scenario. Current prophylactic, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches often associated with certain limitations and thus proved to be insufficient for customizing rapid and efficient combating strategy against the highly transmissible pathogenic infectious agents leading to the disastrous socio-economic outcome. Moreover, most of the viral zoonoses originate from the wildlife and poor knowledge about the global virome database renders it difficult to predict future outbreaks. Thus, alternative management strategy in terms of improved prophylactic vaccines and their delivery systems; rapid and efficient diagnostics and effective targeted therapeutics are the need of the hour. METHODS: Structured literature search has been performed with specific keywords in bibliographic databases for the accumulation of information regarding current nanomedicine interventions along with standard books for basic virology inputs. RESULTS: Multi-arrayed applications of nanomedicine have proved to be an effective alternative in all the aspects regarding the prevention, diagnosis, and control of zoonotic viral diseases. The current review is focused to outline the applications of nanomaterials as anti-viral vaccines or vaccine/drug delivery systems, diagnostics and directly acting therapeutic agents in combating the important zoonotic viral diseases in the recent scenario along with their potential benefits, challenges and prospects to design successful control strategies. CONCLUSION: This review provides significant introspection towards the multi-arrayed applications of nanomedicine to combat several important zoonotic viral diseases.

Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Viral Vaccines/chemistry , Viral Zoonoses/diagnosis , Viral Zoonoses/prevention & control , Viral Zoonoses/therapy , Viruses/drug effects , Animals , Animals, Wild , Biosensing Techniques , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Drug Compounding , Drug Liberation , Humans , Nanomedicine , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Polymers/chemistry , Polymers/metabolism , Transfection , Viruses/metabolism
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(29): 15870-15878, 2021 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265369


Here we report that negatively charged polysulfates can bind to the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 via electrostatic interactions. Using a plaque reduction assay, we compare inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 by heparin, pentosan sulfate, linear polyglycerol sulfate (LPGS) and hyperbranched polyglycerol sulfate (HPGS). Highly sulfated LPGS is the optimal inhibitor, with an IC50 of 67 µg mL-1 (approx. 1.6 µm). This synthetic polysulfate exhibits more than 60-fold higher virus inhibitory activity than heparin (IC50 : 4084 µg mL-1 ), along with much lower anticoagulant activity. Furthermore, in molecular dynamics simulations, we verified that LPGS can bind more strongly to the spike protein than heparin, and that LPGS can interact even more with the spike protein of the new N501Y and E484K variants. Our study demonstrates that the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into host cells can be blocked via electrostatic interactions, therefore LPGS can serve as a blueprint for the design of novel viral inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2.

Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Heparin/metabolism , Pentosan Sulfuric Polyester/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects , A549 Cells , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Chlorocebus aethiops , Heparin/chemistry , Humans , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Pentosan Sulfuric Polyester/chemistry , Polymers/chemistry , Polymers/metabolism , Protein Binding , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Static Electricity , Vero Cells