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1.
J Control Release ; 334: 318-326, 2021 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343265

ABSTRACT

This « Magnum Opus ¼ emphasizes that serendipity is a corner stone in research. The paths of discovery and innovation often result from the interdisciplinarity of scientific areas that are a priori disconnected from each other. In the 1970s, fundamental discoveries in cell biology led to unexpected advances in galenic pharmacy with the emergence of nanotechnologies for the intracellular delivery of non diffusing molecules. As well, fluorescein-loaded polyacrylamide nanocapsules were shown to deliver this fluorescent agent precisely into cellular lysosomes which represented a seminal observation. However, due to the lack of biodegradability of this carrier polymer, this approach was still far from therapeutic application. The use of cyanoacrylates as surgical glue inspired us to use this material in the design of the first biodegradable nanoparticles for human use. Capable of transporting compounds with anti-tumor activity, these polyalkylcyanoacrylate nanoparticles demonstrated the unexpected property of overcoming multi-drug resistance. This discovery led to the development of a nanomedicine that has completed phase III clinical trials for the treatment of resistant hepatocarcinoma. Going beyond the state-of-the art, a step ahead in the nanomedicine field was the drug « squalenoylation ¼ technology, which represents a shift from the « physical ¼ to the « chemical ¼ encapsulation paradigm. The bioconjugation of anticancer and other drugs to squalene, a natural and biocompatible lipid, enabled a dramatic increase in drug payload, and eliminated the so-called « burst release ¼ of drug: Two major drawbacks commonly associated with drug nanoencapsulation. The drug « squalenoylation ¼ approach resulted in a generic nanomedicine platform with broad pharmacological applications.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Nanoparticles , Neoplasms , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Cyanoacrylates , Drug Delivery Systems , Humans , Nanomedicine , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Polymers/therapeutic use
2.
J Biomater Sci Polym Ed ; 32(9): 1219-1249, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160539

ABSTRACT

The recent coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has increased at an alarming rate, representing a substantial cause of mortality worldwide. Respiratory injuries are major COVID-19 related complications, leading to poor lung circulation, tissue scarring, and airway obstruction. Despite an in-depth investigation of respiratory injury's molecular pathogenesis, effective treatments have yet to be developed. Moreover, early detection of viral infection is required to halt the disease-related long-term complications, including respiratory injuries. The currently employed detection technique (quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction or qRT-PCR) failed to meet this need at some point because it is costly, time-consuming, and requires higher expertise and technical skills. Polymer-based nanobiosensing techniques can be employed to overcome these limitations. Polymeric nanomaterials have the potential for clinical applications due to their versatile features like low cytotoxicity, biodegradability, bioavailability, biocompatibility, and specific delivery at the targeted site of action. In recent years, innovative polymeric nanomedicine approaches have been developed to deliver therapeutic agents and support tissue growth for the inflamed organs, including the lung. This review highlights the most recent advances of polymer-based nanomedicine approaches in infectious disease diagnosis and treatments. This paper also focuses on the potential of novel nanomedicine techniques that may prove to be therapeutically efficient in fighting against COVID-19 related respiratory injuries.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Nanomedicine/methods , Nanostructures/therapeutic use , Polymers/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Dendrimers , Drug Carriers/administration & dosage , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Drug Delivery Systems , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/physiopathology , Micelles , Nanoconjugates/therapeutic use , Nanoparticles , Nanostructures/administration & dosage , Precision Medicine , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Tissue Engineering , Treatment Outcome
3.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(11): e2003503, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136911

ABSTRACT

While the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic affirms an urgent global need for effective vaccines as second and third infection waves are spreading worldwide and generating new mutant virus strains, it has also revealed the importance of mitigating the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through the introduction of restrictive social practices. Here, it is demonstrated that an architecturally- and chemically-diverse family of nanostructured anionic polymers yield a rapid and continuous disinfecting alternative to inactivate coronaviruses and prevent their transmission from contact with contaminated surfaces. Operating on a dramatic pH-drop mechanism along the polymer/pathogen interface, polymers of this archetype inactivate the SARS-CoV-2 virus, as well as a human coronavirus surrogate (HCoV-229E), to the minimum detection limit within minutes. Application of these anionic polymers to frequently touched surfaces in medical, educational, and public-transportation facilities, or personal protection equipment, can provide rapid and repetitive protection without detrimental health or environmental complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Disinfectants/therapeutic use , Polymers/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Polymers/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
4.
Nanomedicine (Lond) ; 16(6): 497-516, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121589

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, as an emerging infectious disease, has caused significant mortality and morbidity along with socioeconomic impact. No effective treatment or vaccine has been approved yet for this pandemic disease. Cutting-edge tools, especially nanotechnology, should be strongly considered to tackle this virus. This review aims to propose several strategies to design and fabricate effective diagnostic and therapeutic agents against COVID-19 by the aid of nanotechnology. Polymeric, inorganic self-assembling materials and peptide-based nanoparticles are promising tools for battling COVID-19 as well as its rapid diagnosis. This review summarizes all of the exciting advances nanomaterials are making toward COVID-19 prevention, diagnosis and therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Nanomedicine/methods , Nanostructures/therapeutic use , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Humans , Nanostructures/chemistry , Nanotechnology/methods , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/therapeutic use , Polymers/chemistry , Polymers/therapeutic use , Proteins/chemistry , Proteins/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
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