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1.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1151058, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318373

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) promotes opsonization, favoring phagocytosis and activation of the complement system in response to different microorganisms, and may influence the synthesis of inflammatory cytokines. This study investigated the association of MBL2 gene polymorphisms with the plasma levels of MBL and inflammatory cytokines in COVID-19. Methods: Blood samples from 385 individuals (208 with acute COVID-19 and 117 post-COVID-19) were subjected to real-time PCR genotyping. Plasma measurements of MBL and cytokines were performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Results: The frequencies of the polymorphic MBL2 genotype (OO) and allele (O) were higher in patients with severe COVID-19 (p< 0.05). The polymorphic genotypes (AO and OO) were associated with lower MBL levels (p< 0.05). IL-6 and TNF-α were higher in patients with low MBL and severe COVID-19 (p< 0.05). No association of polymorphisms, MBL levels, or cytokine levels with long COVID was observed. Discussion: The results suggest that, besides MBL2 polymorphisms promoting a reduction in MBL levels and therefore in its function, they may also contribute to the development of a more intense inflammatory process responsible for the severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mannose-Binding Lectin , Humans , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Interleukin-6/genetics , Cytokines/genetics , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , COVID-19/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Mannose-Binding Lectin/genetics
2.
Genes (Basel) ; 14(4)2023 04 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295858

ABSTRACT

Recently, we have observed two significant pandemics caused by communicable (COVID-19) and non-communicable factors (obesity). Obesity is related to a specific genetic background and characterized by immunogenetic features, such as low-grade systemic inflammation. The specific genetic variants include the presence of polymorphism of the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors gene (PPAR-γ2; Pro12Ala, rs1801282, and C1431T, rs3856806 polymorphisms), ß-adrenergic receptor gene (3ß-AR; Trp64Arg, rs4994), and Family With Sequence Similarity 13 Member A gene (FAM13A; rs1903003, rs7671167, rs2869967). This study aimed to analyze the genetic background, body fat distribution, and hypertension risk in obese metabolically healthy postmenopausal women (n = 229, including 105 lean and 124 obese subjects). Each patient underwent anthropometric and genetic evaluations. The study has shown that the highest value of BMI was associated with visceral fat distribution. The analysis of particular genotypes has revealed no differences between lean and obese women except for FAM13A rs1903003 (CC), which was more prevalent in lean patients. The co-existence of the PPAR-γ2 C1431C variant with other FAM13A gene polymorphisms [rs1903003(TT) or rs7671167(TT), or rs2869967(CC)] was related to higher BMI values and visceral fat distribution (WHR > 0.85). The co-association of FAM13A rs1903003 (CC) and 3ß-AR Trp64Arg was associated with higher values of systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). We conclude that the co-existence of FAM13A variants with C1413C polymorphism of the PPAR-γ2 gene is responsible for body fat amount and distribution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , PPAR gamma , Humans , Female , PPAR gamma/genetics , Postmenopause/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Polymorphism, Genetic , Obesity/genetics , GTPase-Activating Proteins/genetics
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(8)2023 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295177

ABSTRACT

This paper assesses the association of the insertion/deletion ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) variant (rs1799752 I/D) and the serum ACE activity with the severity of COVID-19 as well as its impact on post-COVID-19, and we compare these associations with those for patients with non-COVID-19 respiratory disorders. We studied 1252 patients with COVID-19, 104 subjects recovered from COVID-19, and 74 patients hospitalized with a respiratory disease different from COVID-19. The rs1799752 ACE variant was assessed using TaqMan® Assays. The serum ACE activity was determined using a colorimetric assay. The DD genotype was related to risk for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) requirement as an indicator of COVID-19 severity when compared to the frequencies of II + ID genotypes (p = 0.025, OR = 1.428, 95% CI = 1.046-1.949). In addition, this genotype was significantly higher in COVID-19 and post-COVID-19 groups than in the non-COVID-19 subjects. The serum ACE activity levels were lower in the COVID-19 group (22.30 U/L (13.84-32.23 U/L)), which was followed by the non-COVID-19 (27.94 U/L (20.32-53.36 U/L)) and post-COVID-19 subjects (50.00 U/L (42.16-62.25 U/L)). The DD genotype of the rs1799752 ACE variant was associated with the IMV requirement in patients with COVID-19, and low serum ACE activity levels could be related to patients with severe disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Polymorphism, Genetic , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , Genotype , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Carboxypeptidases/metabolism
4.
Acta Biomed ; 94(2): e2023101, 2023 04 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297955
7.
J Investig Med ; 71(5): 526-535, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2258398

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effect of genetic variations in the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), interferon (IFNG) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) genes on the severity of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Between September and December 2021, 33 patients with COVID-19 were included in this prospective study. The patients were classified and compared according to disease severity: mild&moderate (n = 26) vs severe&critical (n = 7). These groups were evaluated to assess possible relationships with ACE, TNF-α and IFNG gene variations using univariate and multivariable analyses. The median age of the mild&moderate group was 45.5 (22-73), and that of the severe&critical group was 58 (49-80) years (p = 0.014). Seventeen (65.4%) of the mild&moderate patients and 3 (42.9%) of severe&critical patients were female (p = 0.393). According to results of univariate analysis, the percentage of patients with the c.418-70C>G variant of the ACE gene was significantly higher in the mild&moderate group (p = 0.027). The ACE gene polymorphisms, c.2312C>T, c.3490G>A, c.3801C>T, and c.731A>G, were each only seen in separate patients with critical disease. The following variants were observed more frequently in the mild&moderate group: c.582C>T, c.3836G>A, c.511+66A>G, c.1488-58T>C, c.3281+25C>T, c.1710-90G>C, c.2193A> G, c.3387T>C for ACE; c.115-3delT for IFNG; and c.27C>T for TNF. It can be expected that patients carrying the ACE gene c.418-70C>G variant may present with a mild clinical manifestation of COVID-19. Several genetic polymorphisms may be associated with pathophysiology, as they appear to help predict COVID-19 severity and enable early identification of the patients requiring aggressive treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Male , COVID-19/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Prospective Studies , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Prognosis
8.
Hum Genomics ; 17(1): 19, 2023 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2247760

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms in the interleukin-10 (IL10) gene have been linked to the severity of the patients infected with the viral infections. This study aimed to assess if the IL10 gene polymorphisms rs1800871, rs1800872, and rs1800896 were linked to coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) mortality in different severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants in the Iranian population. METHODS: For genotyping IL10 rs1800871, rs1800872, and rs1800896, this study used the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method in 1,734 recovered and 1,450 deceased patients. RESULTS: The obtained finding indicated IL10 rs1800871 CC genotype in the Alpha variant and CT genotype in the Delta variant had a relationship with COVID-19 mortality; however, there was no association between rs1800871 polymorphism and the Omicron BA.5 variant. The COVID-19 mortality rate was associated with IL10 rs1800872 TT genotype in the Alpha and Omicron BA.5 variants and GT in the Alpha and Delta variants. The COVID-19 mortality rate was associated with IL10 rs1800896 GG and AG genotypes in the Delta and Omicron BA.5; nevertheless, there was no association between rs1800896 polymorphism with the Alpha variant. According to the obtained data, the GTA haplotype was the most common of haplotype in different SARS-CoV-2 variants. The TCG haplotype was related to COVID-19 mortality in the Alpha, Delta and Omicron BA.5 variants. CONCLUSION: The IL10 polymorphisms had an impact on COVID-19 infection, and these polymorphisms had different effects in various SARS-CoV-2 variants. To verify the obtained results, further studies should be conducted on various ethnic groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin-10 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , Interleukin-10/genetics , Iran/epidemiology , Polymorphism, Genetic
9.
PLoS One ; 18(2): e0281750, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287357

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been responsible for the recent pandemic since early 2020. Due to the wide range of clinical symptoms of this disease, from asymptomatic to severe and critical forms, it seems that genetic differences among patients, along with other factors (such as gender, age, and underlying diseases), can explain part of the variation in disease symptoms. The TMPRSS2 enzyme plays a vital role in the early stages of the interaction of the SARS-CoV-2 with the host cells by facilitating viral entry. There is a polymorphism in the TMPRSS2 gene, called rs12329760(C to T) as a missense variant, which causes the replacement of valine to methionine in the TMPRSS2 protein at position 160. The present study investigated the association between the TMPRSS2 genotype and the severity of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Iranian patients. The TMPRSS2 genotype of 251 COVID-19 patients (151 patients with asymptomatic to mild and 100 patients with severe to critical symptoms) was detected on genomic DNA extracted from patients' peripheral blood via the ARMS-PCR method. Our results showed a significant association between the minor T allele and the severity of the COVID-19 (P-value = 0.043) under the dominant and additive inheritance model. In conclusion, the results of this study showed that the T allele of the rs12329760 in the TMPRSS2 gene is a risk allele for severe form of COVID-19 in Iranian patients in contrast to most previous studies on this variant in European ancestry populations which suggested this variant as a protective allele. Our results reiterate to the ethnic-specific risk alleles and hidden unknown complexity behind the host genetic susceptibility. However, further studies are needed to address the complex mechanisms behind the interaction of the TMPRSS2 protein and the SARS-CoV-2 and the role of rs12329760 polymorphism in determining the disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Iran/epidemiology , Polymorphism, Genetic , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics
10.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 123(3): 110-115, 2023.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2267995

ABSTRACT

Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic protozoal disease characterized by a chronic course, polymorphism of clinical manifestations, predominant damage to the central nervous system, organs of vision, liver and lungs. The causative agent of the disease is the obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii, which circulates widely in the external environment and has a large circle of intermediate hosts. Toxoplasmosis is classified by the method of infection (congenital or acquired), by pathogenesis (acute or chronic), by manifestation (latent or with the manifestation of symptoms). According to the state of the human immune system, the disease can occur without immunodeficiency, while the patient has a chronic lifelong carrier, and with immunodeficiency. People with HIV most commonly present with cerebral toxoplasmosis. The article presents a case of the development of toxoplasmosis in a patient in the absence of a burdened history.


Subject(s)
Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis, Cerebral , Humans , Neurologists , Toxoplasmosis, Cerebral/diagnosis , Central Nervous System , Polymorphism, Genetic
11.
12.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 107(7): e3078-e3079, 2022 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2276250
13.
Pharmacogenet Genomics ; 33(3): 41-50, 2023 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2279134

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the gene polymorphisms of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensinogen (AGT), and angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) in association with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mortality rates worldwide. METHODS: The prevalence of ACE I/D, AGT M235T, and AT1R A1166C alleles' frequencies in different populations was assessed. Data on COVID-19-related cases and deaths were acquired from the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control, which included weekly reports by country and continent. An Excel tool was developed to visualize the acquired data of mortality and incidence by classifying them by continent/country across specific periods of time. Spearman's nonparametric correlation was used to evaluate the association between country-based frequencies in RAS gene polymorphisms and COVID-19-related deaths. RESULTS: While China constituted the initial reservoir of COVID-19, incidence/mortality rates in Europe and America outnumbered the figures in the former. A clear association was identified between death rates and ACE D/I ( r = 0.3659; P = 0.033), as well as AGT A/G variants ( r = 0.7576; P = 0.015). Data on AT1R polymorphisms suggested no correlation with mortality rates. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated a significant disparity in COVID-19-related susceptibility and mortality among different populations and corroborate the importance of gene polymorphisms in predicting and consequently improving patients' outcomes.


Subject(s)
Angiotensinogen , COVID-19 , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Humans , Angiotensinogen/genetics , China , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/mortality , Gene Frequency , Polymorphism, Genetic , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics
14.
Acta Biomed ; 94(1): e2023030, 2023 02 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2241943

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), transmembrane serine 2 and serine 11A proteases (TMPRSS2, TMPRSS11A), and a cell surface cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147) might be a gene candidate that exerts the susceptibility to and mortality from coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between ace2, tmprss2, tmprss11a, and cd147 polymorphic variants and the severity of COVID-19 in the Ukrainian population. METHODS: The study population consisted of the Ukrainian population with COVID-19: patients without oxygen therapy (n=62), with non-invasive (n=92) and invasive (n=35) oxygen therapy, as well as control subjects (n=92). Allelic polymorphisms of ace2 rs4240157, tmprss2 rs12329760, and tmprss11a rs353163 were determined by real-time PCR, and cd147 rs8259 polymorphism was detected by PCR with subsequent restrictase analysis. We compared investigated polymorphisms distribution with other populations by meta-analysis. RESULTS: Our study is the first to obtain data about the distribution of investigated gene polymorphisms in the Ukrainian population: tmprss2 rs12329760 - CC 60.9%, CT 35.9%, TT 3.2%; tmprss11a rs353163 - CC 46.7%, CT 40.2%, TT 13.1%; ace2 rs4240157 - CC 7.6%, C 18.5%, CT 22.8%, TT 19.6%, T 31.5%; cd147 rs8259 - TT 60.9%, AT 32.6%, AA 6.5%. This distribution was similar to the Northern, Western and Southern European populations. There was a statistically significant difference in the frequency of tmprss2 polymorphic genotypes CC 57.1%, CT 28.6%, and TT 14.3% (P<0.05) in COVID-19 patients with invasive oxygen therapy in comparison with non-invasive oxygen therapy. This tmprss2 mutation occurs in the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domain and might be important for protein-protein interaction in a calcium-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicated the presence of an association between the tmprss2 rs12329760 polymorphism and the severity of COVID-19 in the Ukrainian population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Polymorphism, Genetic , Serine/genetics , Oxygen , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Serine Proteases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics
15.
Genes (Basel) ; 14(1)2022 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2229491

ABSTRACT

Although advanced age, male sex, and some comorbidities impact the clinical course of COVID-19, these factors only partially explain the inter-individual variability in disease severity. Some studies have shown that genetic polymorphisms contribute to COVID-19 severity; however, the results are inconclusive. Thus, we investigated the association between polymorphisms in ACE1, ACE2, DPP9, IFIH1, IFNAR2, IFNL4, TLR3, TMPRSS2, and TYK2 and the clinical course of COVID-19. A total of 694 patients with COVID-19 were categorized as: (1) ward inpatients (moderate symptoms) or patients admitted at the intensive care unit (ICU; severe symptoms); and (2) survivors or non-survivors. In females, the rs1990760/IFIH1 T/T genotype was associated with risk of ICU admission and death. Moreover, the rs1799752/ACE1 Ins and rs12329760/TMPRSS2 T alleles were associated with risk of ICU admission. In non-white patients, the rs2236757/IFNAR2 A/A genotype was associated with risk of ICU admission, while the rs1799752/ACE1 Ins/Ins genotype, rs2236757/IFNAR2 A/A genotype, and rs12329760/TMPRSS2 T allele were associated with risk of death. Moreover, some of the analyzed polymorphisms interact in the risk of worse COVID-19 outcomes. In conclusion, this study shows an association of rs1799752/ACE1, rs1990760/IFIH1, rs2236757/IFNAR2, rs12329760/TMPRSS2, and rs2304256/TYK2 polymorphisms with worse COVID-19 outcomes, especially among female and non-white patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Female , COVID-19/genetics , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Genotype , Disease Progression , TYK2 Kinase/genetics , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Interleukins/genetics
16.
In Vivo ; 37(1): 433-439, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2204981

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is present in a diverse type of cells and plays an important role in lung physiology and pathophysiology. Angiotensin converting enzymes (ACE) are part of the RAS system. There are still controversies about the association of I/D polymorphisms of ACE1 with COVID-19 severity. The goal of the study was to determine whether there is an association of the I/D polymorphism with severity of COVID-19 in Mexican patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included voluntary participants: 53 healthy individuals negative to RT-PCR COVID-19 (control), and 165 patients positive to COVID-19. Severity was defined by the need of hospitalization, invasive ventilation, shock, or multiple organ failure. The patient group consisted of 28 asymptomatic, 82 with mild, and 55 with severe COVID-19. I/D polymorphism was determined by PCR. Rutinary laboratory tests were performed in all the participants. RESULTS: DD polymorphism was significantly associated with severe COVID-19, independently of comorbidities, or any other variable. Receiver operator characteristic curves demonstrated association of low total cholesterol, low high-density lipoproteins, and high c-reactive protein with severity of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The DD polymorphism was associated with the course of the infection and severity of COVID-19 in a sample of Mexican patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Renin-Angiotensin System/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Lipids
17.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 160(11): 489-494, 2023 06 09.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2181515

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic that emerged in China in late 2019 and spread rapidly around the world. There is evidence that COVID-19 infection can be influenced by genetic variations in the host. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between ACE InDel polymorphism and COVID-19 in Northern Cyprus. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study included 250 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and 371 healthy controls. Genotyping for the ACE InDel gene polymorphism was performed by polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The frequency of ACE DD homozygotes was significantly increased in COVID-19 patients compared to the control group (p=0.022). The difference in the presence of the D allele between the patient and control groups was statistically significant (57.2% and 50.67%, respectively, p<0.05). Individuals with the genotype II were found to have a higher risk of symptomatic COVID-19 (p=0.011). In addition, chest radiographic findings were observed more frequently in individuals with the genotype DD compared to individuals with the genotypes ID and II (p=0.005). A statistically significant difference was found when the time of onset of symptoms for COVID-19 and duration of treatment were compared with participants' genotypes (p=0.016 and p=0.014, respectively). The time of onset of COVID-19 was shorter in individuals with the genotype DD than in individuals with the genotype II, while the duration of treatment was longer. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the ACE I/D polymorphism has the potential to predict the severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Genotype , Angiotensins , Gene Frequency
18.
Viruses ; 15(1)2023 Jan 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2166973

ABSTRACT

The clinical course and outcome of COVID-19 are highly variable, ranging from asymptomatic infections to severe disease and death. Understanding the risk factors of severe COVID-19 is relevant both in the clinical setting and at the epidemiological level. Here, we provide an overview of host, viral and environmental factors that have been shown or (in some cases) hypothesized to be associated with severe clinical outcomes. The factors considered in detail include the age and frailty, genetic polymorphisms, biological sex (and pregnancy), co- and superinfections, non-communicable comorbidities, immunological history, microbiota, and lifestyle of the patient; viral genetic variation and infecting dose; socioeconomic factors; and air pollution. For each category, we compile (sometimes conflicting) evidence for the association of the factor with COVID-19 outcomes (including the strength of the effect) and outline possible action mechanisms. We also discuss the complex interactions between the various risk factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Risk Factors , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Polymorphism, Genetic , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Immunity ; 56(1): 193-206.e7, 2023 01 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2149893

ABSTRACT

The human immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IGH) locus is exceptionally polymorphic, with high levels of allelic and structural variation. Thus, germline IGH genotypes are personal, which may influence responses to infection and vaccination. For an improved understanding of inter-individual differences in antibody responses, we isolated SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific monoclonal antibodies from convalescent health care workers, focusing on the IGHV1-69 gene, which has the highest level of allelic variation of all IGHV genes. The IGHV1-69∗20-using CAB-I47 antibody and two similar antibodies isolated from an independent donor were critically dependent on allele usage. Neutralization was retained when reverting the V region to the germline IGHV1-69∗20 allele but lost when reverting to other IGHV1-69 alleles. Structural data confirmed that two germline-encoded polymorphisms, R50 and F55, in the IGHV1-69 gene were required for high-affinity receptor-binding domain interaction. These results demonstrate that polymorphisms in IGH genes can influence the function of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Antibodies, Viral , Polymorphism, Genetic , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Germ Cells
20.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(12)2022 12 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2163300

ABSTRACT

Cytochrome P450 is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of phase 1 xenobiotics, toxins, endogenous hormones, and drugs, including those used in COVID-19 treatment. Cytochrome p450 genes are linked to the pathogenesis of some multifactorial traits and diseases, such as cancer, particularly prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, and cervical cancer. Genotyping was performed on 540 supposedly healthy individuals of 5 Finno-Permic populations from the territories of the European part of the Russian Federation. There was a statistically significant difference between Veps and most of the studied populations in the rs4986774 locus of the CYP2D6 gene; data on the rs3892097 locus of the CYP2D6 gene shows that Izhemsky Komis are different from the Mordovian and Udmurt populations.


Subject(s)
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6 , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System , Humans , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6/genetics , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/genetics , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/metabolism , Polymorphism, Genetic , Russia/ethnology
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