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1.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(4)2022 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832379

ABSTRACT

A middle age man with a history of diabetes mellitus type 2, hypertension, migraine and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) with polyneuropathy in remission presented with paresthesia and motor weakness soon after receiving the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 messanger RNA (mRNA) vaccine. The patient had polyneuropathy 10 years ago secondary to EGPA, which had resolved. EGPA was diagnosed on the basis of typical symptoms and positive sural nerve biopsy. Five days after receiving the first dose of COVID-19 vaccine, he developed heaviness and reduced dexterity of both the upper extremities, which progressed to patchy and asymmetric motor weakness of all four extremities. Given the lack of clear alternative explanation after a thorough work up, recrudescence of underlying asymptomatic polyneuropathy due to a possible reaction to COVID-19 mRNA vaccine was considered although a temporal association with vaccine dose does not prove causality. He was treated with corticosteroids with slow improvement of his symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Churg-Strauss Syndrome , Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis , Polyneuropathies , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Churg-Strauss Syndrome/complications , Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis/complications , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/complications , Polyneuropathies/drug therapy , Polyneuropathies/etiology , Vaccines, Synthetic
2.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle ; 13(3): 1883-1895, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1772719

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly increased the incidence and clinical importance of critical illness myopathy (CIM), because it is one of the most common complications of modern intensive care medicine. Current diagnostic criteria only allow diagnosis of CIM at an advanced stage, so that patients are at risk of being overlooked, especially in early stages. To determine the frequency of CIM and to assess a recently proposed tool for early diagnosis, we have followed a cohort of COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome and compared the time course of muscle excitability measurements with the definite diagnosis of CIM. METHODS: Adult COVID-19 patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of the University Hospital Bern, Switzerland requiring mechanical ventilation were recruited and examined on Days 1, 2, 5, and 10 post-intubation. Clinical examination, muscle excitability measurements, medication record, and laboratory analyses were performed on all study visits, and additionally nerve conduction studies, electromyography and muscle biopsy on Day 10. Muscle excitability data were compared with a cohort of 31 age-matched healthy subjects. Diagnosis of definite CIM was made according to the current guidelines and was based on patient history, results of clinical and electrophysiological examinations as well as muscle biopsy. RESULTS: Complete data were available in 31 out of 44 recruited patients (mean [SD] age, 62.4 [9.8] years). Of these, 17 (55%) developed CIM. Muscle excitability measurements on Day 10 discriminated between patients who developed CIM and those who did not, with a diagnostic precision of 90% (AUC 0.908; 95% CI 0.799-1.000; sensitivity 1.000; specificity 0.714). On Days 1 and 2, muscle excitability parameters also discriminated between the two groups with 73% (AUC 0.734; 95% CI 0.550-0.919; sensitivity 0.562; specificity 0.857) and 82% (AUC 0.820; CI 0.652-0.903; sensitivity 0.750; specificity 0.923) diagnostic precision, respectively. All critically ill COVID-19 patients showed signs of muscle membrane depolarization compared with healthy subjects, but in patients who developed CIM muscle membrane depolarization on Days 1, 2 and 10 was more pronounced than in patients who did not develop CIM. CONCLUSIONS: This study reports a 55% prevalence of definite CIM in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, the results confirm that muscle excitability measurements may serve as an alternative method for CIM diagnosis and support its use as a tool for early diagnosis and monitoring the development of CIM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Muscular Diseases , Polyneuropathies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Middle Aged , Muscular Diseases/diagnosis , Muscular Diseases/epidemiology , Muscular Diseases/etiology , Pandemics , Polyneuropathies/diagnosis , Polyneuropathies/epidemiology , Polyneuropathies/etiology
3.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 18-22, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719333

ABSTRACT

Viral infections have detrimental impacts on neurological functions, and even to cause severe neurological damage. Very recently, coronaviruses (CoV), especially severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV 2 (SARS-CoV-2), exhibit neurotropic properties and may also cause neurological diseases. It is reported that CoV can be found in the brain or cerebrospinal fluid. The pathobiology of these neuroinvasive viruses is still incompletely known, and it is therefore important to explore the impact of CoV infections on the nervous system. Here, we review the research into neurological complications in CoV infections and the possible mechanisms of damage to the nervous system.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Consciousness Disorders/etiology , Consciousness Disorders/physiopathology , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus NL63, Human , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Dysgeusia/etiology , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Encephalitis/etiology , Encephalitis/physiopathology , Encephalitis, Viral/etiology , Encephalitis, Viral/physiopathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/etiology , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/physiopathology , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/virology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Polyneuropathies/etiology , Polyneuropathies/physiopathology , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/etiology , Seizures/physiopathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/physiopathology , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/physiopathology
4.
J Rehabil Med ; 54: jrm00257, 2022 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594311

ABSTRACT

Patients with COVID-19 may develop a range of neurological disorders. We report here 4 COVID-19 subjects with intensive care unit-acquired weakness and their functional outcome. In addition, a scoping review of COVID-19 literature was performed to investigate this issue. Of the post-COVID-19 patients admitted to our Neuro-Rehabilitation Unit, 4 (3 males, 1 female; mean age 59.2 ± 8.62 years) had intensive care unit-acquired weakness, diagnosed with electromyography. Muscle strength and functional evaluation were performed on all patients with Medical Research Council, Disability Rating Scale and Functional Independence Measure, respectively, at admission, discharge and 6-month follow-up after discharge. Electromyography revealed that 3 subjects had critical illness polyneuropathy and 1 had critical illness polyneuropathy/critical illness myopathy. At follow-up, the 3 subjects with critical illness polyneuropathy reached full recovery. The patient with critical illness polyneuropathy/critical illness myopathy showed moderate disability requiring bilateral ankle foot-orthosis and support for ambulation. The scoping review retrieved 11 studies of COVID-19 patients with intensive care unit-acquired weakness, concerning a total of 80 patients: 23 with critical illness myopathy (7 probable), 21 with critical illness polyneuropathy (8 possible), 15 with critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy (CIPNM) and 21 with intensive care unit-acquired weakness. Of 35 patients who survived, only 3 (8.5%) reached full recovery. All 3 had critical illness myopathy, but 2 of these had a diagnosis of probable critical illness myopathy. Intensive care unit-acquired weakness commonly occurred in subjects with COVID-19. Recovery was variable and a low percentage reached full recovery. However, the heterogeneity of studies did not allow definitive conclusions to be drawn.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Muscular Diseases , Polyneuropathies , Aged , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Muscle Weakness/etiology , Polyneuropathies/etiology
5.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(5)2021 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242197

ABSTRACT

A range of neurological manifestations associated with COVID-19 have been reported in the literature, but the pathogenesis of these have yet to be fully explained. The majority of cases of peripheral nervous system disease published thus far have shown a symmetrical pattern. In contrast, we describe the case of a patient with asymmetrical predominantly upper-limb sensorimotor polyneuropathy following COVID-19 infection, likely due to a multifactorial pathological process involving critical illness neuropathy, mechanical injury and inflammatory disease. His presentation, management and recovery contribute to the understanding of this complex condition and informs rehabilitation approaches.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Polyneuropathies , Critical Illness , Humans , Polyneuropathies/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Acta Neurol Scand ; 144(2): 161-169, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199639

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy (CIPNM) is a frequent neurological manifestation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. CIPNM diagnosis is usually limited to clinical evaluation. We compared patients with ARDS from COVID-19 and other aetiologies, in whom a neurophysiological evaluation for the detection of CIPNM was performed. The aim was to determine if there were any differences between these two groups in frequency of CINPM and outcome at discharge from the intensive care unit (ICU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a single-centre retrospective study performed on mechanically ventilated patients consecutively admitted (January 2016-June 2020) to the ICU of Careggi Hospital, Florence, Italy, with ARDS of different aetiologies. Neurophysiological evaluation was performed on patients with stable ventilation parameters, but marked widespread hyposthenia (Medical Research Council score <48). Creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and mean morning glycaemic values were collected. RESULTS: From a total of 148 patients, 23 with COVID-19 infection and 21 with ARDS due to other aetiologies, underwent electroneurography/electromyography (ENG/EMG) recording. Incidence of CIPNM was similar in the two groups, 65% (15 of 23) in COVID-19 patients and 71% (15 of 21) in patients affected by ARDS of other aetiologies. At ICU discharge, subjects with CIPNM more frequently required ventilatory support, regardless the aetiology of ARDS. CONCLUSION: ENG/EMG represents a useful tool in the identification of the neuromuscular causes underlying ventilator wean failure and patient stratification. A high incidence of CIPNM, with a similar percentage, has been observed in ARDS patients of all aetiologies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electrodiagnosis , Muscular Diseases , Polyneuropathies , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Electromyography , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Muscular Diseases/diagnosis , Muscular Diseases/epidemiology , Muscular Diseases/etiology , Muscular Diseases/physiopathology , Polyneuropathies/diagnosis , Polyneuropathies/epidemiology , Polyneuropathies/etiology , Polyneuropathies/physiopathology , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies
7.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 132(7): 1733-1740, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163547

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim was to characterize the electrophysiological features and plasma biomarkers of critical illness polyneuropathy (CIN) and myopathy (CIM) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with intensive care unit acquired weakness (ICUAW). METHODS: An observational ICU cohort study including adult patients admitted to the ICU at Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden, from March 13th to June 8th 2020. We compared the clinical, electrophysiological and plasma biomarker data between COVID-19 patients who developed CIN/CIM and those who did not. Electrophysiological characteristics were also compared between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 ICU patients. RESULTS: 111 COVID-19 patients were included, 11 of whom developed CIN/CIM. Patients with CIN/CIM had more severe illness; longer ICU stay, more thromboembolic events and were more frequently treated with invasive ventilation for longer than 2 weeks. In particular CIN was more frequent among COVID-19 patients with ICUAW (50%) compared with a non-COVID-19 cohort (0%, p = 0.008). Neurofilament light chain (NfL) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAp) levels were higher in the CIN/CIM group compared with those that did not develop CIN/CIM (both p = 0.001) and correlated with nerve amplitudes. CONCLUSIONS: CIN/CIM was more prevalent among COVID-19 ICU patients with severe illness. SIGNIFICANCE: COVID-19 patients who later developed CIN/CIM had significantly higher NfL and GFAp in the early phase of ICU care, suggesting their potential as predictive biomarkers for CIN/CIM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Muscular Diseases/etiology , Polyneuropathies/etiology , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/physiopathology , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Muscle Weakness/etiology , Muscular Diseases/blood , Muscular Diseases/physiopathology , Polyneuropathies/blood , Polyneuropathies/physiopathology , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Thromboembolism/etiology
10.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 131(12): 2809-2816, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-898641

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has a high incidence of intensive care admittance due to the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired weakness (ICUAW) is a common complication of ICU patients consisting of symmetric and generalised weakness. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of myopathy, neuropathy or both in ICU patients affected by COVID-19 and whether ICUAW associated with COVID-19 differs from other aetiologies. METHODS: Twelve SARS CoV-2 positive patients referred with the suspicion of critical illness myopathy (CIM) or polyneuropathy (CIP) were included between March and May 2020. Nerve conduction and concentric needle electromyography were performed in all patients while admitted to the hospital. Muscle biopsies were obtained in three patients. RESULTS: Four patients presented signs of a sensory-motor axonal polyneuropathy and seven patients showed signs of myopathy. One muscle biopsy showed scattered necrotic and regenerative fibres without inflammatory signs. The other two biopsies showed non-specific myopathic findings. CONCLUSIONS: We have not found any distinctive features in the studies of the ICU patients affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection. SIGNIFICANCE: Further studies are needed to determine whether COVID-19-related CIM/CIP has different features from other aetiologies. Neurophysiological studies are essential in the diagnosis of these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Intensive Care Units , Muscular Diseases/etiology , Polyneuropathies/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Biopsy , Critical Illness , Electromyography/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Muscle Weakness/diagnosis , Muscle Weakness/etiology , Muscle Weakness/pathology , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Muscular Diseases/diagnosis , Muscular Diseases/pathology , Muscular Diseases/physiopathology , Neural Conduction , Polyneuropathies/diagnosis , Polyneuropathies/physiopathology
11.
Can J Neurol Sci ; 48(1): 9-24, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-697107

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Albeit primarily a disease of respiratory tract, the 2019 coronavirus infectious disease (COVID-19) has been found to have causal association with a plethora of neurological, neuropsychiatric and psychological effects. This review aims to analyze them with a discussion of evolving therapeutic recommendations. METHODS: PubMed and Google Scholar were searched from 1 January 2020 to 30 May 2020 with the following key terms: "COVID-19", "SARS-CoV-2", "pandemic", "neuro-COVID", "stroke-COVID", "epilepsy-COVID", "COVID-encephalopathy", "SARS-CoV-2-encephalitis", "SARS-CoV-2-rhabdomyolysis", "COVID-demyelinating disease", "neurological manifestations", "psychosocial manifestations", "treatment recommendations", "COVID-19 and therapeutic changes", "psychiatry", "marginalised", "telemedicine", "mental health", "quarantine", "infodemic" and "social media". A few newspaper reports related to COVID-19 and psychosocial impacts have also been added as per context. RESULTS: Neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations of COVID-19 are abundant. Clinical features of both central and peripheral nervous system involvement are evident. These have been categorically analyzed briefly with literature support. Most of the psychological effects are secondary to pandemic-associated regulatory, socioeconomic and psychosocial changes. CONCLUSION: Neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations of this disease are only beginning to unravel. This demands a wide index of suspicion for prompt diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 to prevent further complications and mortality.


Les impacts neurologiques et neuropsychiatriques d'une infection à la COVID-19. CONTEXTE: Bien qu'il s'agisse principalement d'une maladie des voies respiratoires, la maladie infectieuse à coronavirus apparue en 2019 (COVID-19) s'est avérée avoir un lien de causalité avec une pléthore d'impacts d'ordre neurologique, neuropsychiatrique et psychologique. Cette étude entend donc analyser ces impacts tout en discutant l'évolution des recommandations thérapeutiques se rapportant à cette maladie. MÉTHODES: Les bases de données PubMed et Google Scholar ont été interrogées entre les 1er janvier et 30 mai 2020. Les termes clés suivants ont été utilisés : « COVID-19 ¼, « SRAS ­ CoV-2 ¼, « Pandémie ¼, « Neuro ­ COVID ¼, « AVC ­ COVID ¼, « Épilepsie ­ COVID ¼, « COVID ­ encéphalopathie ¼, « SRAS ­ CoV-2 ­ encéphalite ¼, « SRAS ­ CoV-2 ­ rhabdomyolyse ¼, « COVID ­ maladie démyélinisante ¼, « Manifestations neurologiques ¼, « Manifestations psychosociales ¼, « Recommandations thérapeutiques ¼, « COVID-19 et changement thérapeutiques ¼, « Psychiatrie ¼, « Marginalisés ¼, « Télémédecine ¼, « Santé mentale ¼, « Quarantaine ¼, « Infodémique ¼ et « Médias sociaux ¼. De plus, quelques articles de journaux relatifs à la pandémie de COVID-19 et à ses impacts psychosociaux ont également été ajoutés en fonction du contexte. RÉSULTATS: Il appert que les manifestations neurologiques et neuropsychiatriques des infections à la COVID-19 sont nombreuses. Les caractéristiques cliniques d'une implication des systèmes nerveux central et périphérique sautent désormais aux yeux. Ces caractéristiques ont fait l'objet d'une brève analyse systématique à l'aide de publications scientifiques. En outre, la plupart des impacts d'ordre psychologique de cette pandémie se sont révélés moins apparents que les changements réglementaires, socioéconomiques et psychosociaux. CONCLUSION: Les manifestations neurologiques et neuropsychiatriques de cette maladie ne font que commencer à être élucidées. Cela exige donc une capacité accrue de vigilance en vue d'un diagnostic rapide, et ce, afin de prévenir des complications additionnelles et une mortalité accrue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Ageusia/etiology , Ageusia/physiopathology , Alzheimer Disease/therapy , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Anosmia/etiology , Anosmia/physiopathology , Brain Diseases , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cerebellar Ataxia/etiology , Cerebellar Ataxia/physiopathology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Delivery of Health Care , Demyelinating Diseases/therapy , Disease Management , Dizziness/etiology , Dizziness/physiopathology , Epilepsy/therapy , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Headache/etiology , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Hypoxia, Brain/physiopathology , Inflammation/physiopathology , Meningoencephalitis/etiology , Meningoencephalitis/physiopathology , Muscular Diseases/etiology , Muscular Diseases/physiopathology , Myelitis, Transverse/etiology , Myelitis, Transverse/physiopathology , Myoclonus/etiology , Myoclonus/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Parkinson Disease/therapy , Polyneuropathies/etiology , Polyneuropathies/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/etiology , Seizures/physiopathology , Stroke/therapy , Viral Tropism
12.
J Clin Neurosci ; 79: 241-245, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-671055

ABSTRACT

One of the major concerns of the health care community and the public surrounding the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is the availability and use of ventilators. Unprecedented surges of patients presented to intensive care units across the country, with older adults making up a large proportion of the patient population. This paper illustrates contemporary approaches to critical illness myopathy (CIM), critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP), and critical illness polyneuromyopathy (CIPNM) in older patients, including incidence, risk factors, mechanisms for pathology, diagnosis, contemporary treatment approaches, and outcomes. We hope that the following analysis may help educate clinicians and ultimately decrease the duration of the mechanical ventilation required by these patients, resulting in improved clinical outcomes and an increase in ventilator availability for other patients in need.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Muscular Diseases/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Polyneuropathies/etiology , Animals , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Illness , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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