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1.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580427

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a huge number of deaths from 2020 to 2021; however, effective antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2 are currently under development. Recent studies have demonstrated that green tea polyphenols, particularly EGCG, inhibit coronavirus enzymes as well as coronavirus replication in vitro. Herein, we examined the inhibitory effect of green tea polyphenols on coronavirus replication in a mouse model. We used epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and green tea polyphenols containing more than 60% catechin (GTP60) and human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) as a surrogate for SARS-CoV-2. Scanning electron microscopy analysis results showed that HCoV-OC43 infection resulted in virion particle production in infected cells. EGCG and GTP60 treatment reduced coronavirus protein and virus production in the cells. Finally, EGCG- and GTP60-fed mice exhibited reduced levels of coronavirus RNA in mouse lungs. These results demonstrate that green tea polyphenol treatment is effective in decreasing the level of coronavirus in vivo.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Catechin/analogs & derivatives , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Tea/chemistry , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Catechin/pharmacology , Catechin/therapeutic use , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus OC43, Human/physiology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Mice , Polyphenols/chemistry , Polyphenols/therapeutic use
2.
Molecules ; 26(24)2021 Dec 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555013

ABSTRACT

An increasing number of studies have demonstrated the antiviral nature of polyphenols, and many polyphenols have been proposed to inhibit SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-2. Our previous study revealed the inhibitory mechanisms of polyphenols against DNA polymerase α and HIV reverse transcriptase to show that polyphenols can block DNA elongation by competing with the incoming NTPs. Here we applied computational approaches to examine if some polyphenols can also inhibit RNA polymerase (RdRp) in SARS-CoV-2, and we identified some better candidates than remdesivir, the FDA-approved drug against RdRp, in terms of estimated binding affinities. The proposed compounds will be further examined to develop new treatments for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Polyphenols/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Anthocyanins/chemistry , Anthocyanins/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , COVID-19/drug therapy , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Molecular Structure , Polyphenols/chemistry , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(22)2021 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524024

ABSTRACT

The worldwide outbreak of COVID-19 was caused by a pathogenic virus called Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Therapies against SARS-CoV-2 target the virus or human cells or the immune system. However, therapies based on specific antibodies, such as vaccines and monoclonal antibodies, may become inefficient enough when the virus changes its antigenicity due to mutations. Polyphenols are the major class of bioactive compounds in nature, exerting diverse health effects based on their direct antioxidant activity and their effects in the modulation of intracellular signaling. There are currently numerous clinical trials investigating the effects of polyphenols in prophylaxis and the treatment of COVID-19, from symptomatic, via moderate and severe COVID-19 treatment, to anti-fibrotic treatment in discharged COVID-19 patients. Antiviral activities of polyphenols and their impact on immune system modulation could serve as a solid basis for developing polyphenol-based natural approaches for preventing and treating COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Polyphenols/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Humans , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal/metabolism , Polyphenols/chemistry , Polyphenols/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
4.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463771

ABSTRACT

3CL-Pro is the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (MPro). It acts as a homodimer to cleave the large polyprotein 1ab transcript into proteins that are necessary for viral growth and replication. 3CL-Pro has been one of the most studied SARS-CoV-2 proteins and a main target of therapeutics. A number of drug candidates have been reported, including natural products. Here, we employ elaborate computational methods to explore the dimerization of the 3CL-Pro protein, and we formulate a computational context to identify potential inhibitors of this process. We report that fortunellin (acacetin 7-O-neohesperidoside), a natural flavonoid O-glycoside, and its structural analogs are potent inhibitors of 3CL-Pro dimerization, inhibiting viral plaque formation in vitro. We thus propose a novel basis for the search of pharmaceuticals as well as dietary supplements in the fight against SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Glycosides/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Flavonoids/chemistry , Glycosides/chemistry , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Polyphenols/chemistry , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protein Multimerization/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Vero Cells
5.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438675

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is caused by SARS-CoV-2 and is leading to the worst health crisis of this century. It emerged in China during late 2019 and rapidly spread all over the world, producing a broad spectrum of clinical disease severity, ranging from asymptomatic infection to death (4.3 million victims so far). Consequently, the scientific research is devoted to investigating the mechanisms of COVID-19 pathogenesis to both identify specific therapeutic drugs and develop vaccines. Although immunological mechanisms driving COVID-19 pathogenesis are still largely unknown, new understanding has emerged about the innate and adaptive immune responses elicited in SARS-CoV-2 infection, which are mainly focused on the dysregulated inflammatory response in severe COVID-19. Polyphenols are naturally occurring products with immunomodulatory activity, playing a relevant role in reducing inflammation and preventing the onset of serious chronic diseases. Mainly based on data collected before the appearance of SARS-CoV-2, polyphenols have been recently suggested as promising agents to fight COVID-19, and some clinical trials have already been approved with polyphenols to treat COVID-19. The aim of this review is to analyze and discuss the in vitro and in vivo research on the immunomodulatory activity of quercetin as a research model of polyphenols, focusing on research that addresses issues related to the dysregulated immune response in severe COVID-19. From this analysis, it emerges that although encouraging data are present, they are still insufficient to recommend polyphenols as potential immunomodulatory agents against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Polyphenols/therapeutic use , Quercetin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adaptive Immunity/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunologic Factors/chemistry , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Polyphenols/chemistry , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Quercetin/analogs & derivatives , Quercetin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
6.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 220, 2020 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387194
7.
Food Chem ; 359: 129871, 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193317

ABSTRACT

There has been keen interest in developing biodegradable food packaging materials using polysaccharides. Plant polyphenols are natural antioxidants with many health effects. Different types of plant extracts rich in polyphenols have been formulated into polysaccharide based films and coatings for food packaging. The packaging increases the shelf life of food products by decreasing the quality loss due to oxidation and microbiological growth. The release of polyphenols from the films is modulated. Polysaccharide films incorporated with certain types of polyphenols can be used to indicate the freshness of animal based products. To formulate films with desirable mechanical and barrier properties, addition levels and types of plant extracts, plasticisers and composite polysaccharide materials used should be optimized. The potential of polysaccharide based films with added polyphenols to stop the SARS-CoV-2 transmission through food supply chain is discussed. Polysaccharide based films fortified with polyphenol extracts are multifunctional with potential for active and intelligent packaging.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Food Packaging , Polyphenols/chemistry , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Oxidation-Reduction , Plant Extracts/chemistry
8.
Molecules ; 25(22)2020 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917015

ABSTRACT

Flavonoids are phytochemical compounds present in many plants, fruits, vegetables, and leaves, with potential applications in medicinal chemistry. Flavonoids possess a number of medicinal benefits, including anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral properties. They also have neuroprotective and cardio-protective effects. These biological activities depend upon the type of flavonoid, its (possible) mode of action, and its bioavailability. These cost-effective medicinal components have significant biological activities, and their effectiveness has been proved for a variety of diseases. The most recent work is focused on their isolation, synthesis of their analogs, and their effects on human health using a variety of techniques and animal models. Thousands of flavonoids have been successfully isolated, and this number increases steadily. We have therefore made an effort to summarize the isolated flavonoids with useful activities in order to gain a better understanding of their effects on human health.


Subject(s)
Flavonoids/chemistry , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Alzheimer Disease/prevention & control , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antimalarials/chemistry , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cardiovascular System/drug effects , Flavonoids/economics , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Mice , Nervous System/drug effects , Neurons/drug effects , Neuroprotective Agents/chemistry , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Plants/chemistry , Polyphenols/chemistry , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Quercetin/chemistry , Quercetin/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Rats, Wistar , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/prevention & control
9.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160340

ABSTRACT

The main protease (Mpro) is a major protease having an important role in viral replication of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the novel coronavirus that caused the pandemic of 2020. Here, active Mpro was obtained as a 34.5 kDa protein by overexpression in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The optimal pH and temperature of Mpro were 7.5 and 37 °C, respectively. Mpro displayed a Km value of 16 µM with Dabcyl-KTSAVLQ↓SGFRKME-Edans. Black garlic extract and 49 polyphenols were studied for their inhibitory effects on purified Mpro. The IC50 values were 137 µg/mL for black garlic extract and 9-197 µM for 15 polyphenols. The mixtures of tannic acid with puerarin, daidzein, and/or myricetin enhanced the inhibitory effects on Mpro. The structure-activity relationship of these polyphenols revealed that the hydroxyl group in C3', C4', C5' in the B-ring, C3 in the C-ring, C7 in A-ring, the double bond between C2 and C3 in the C-ring, and glycosylation at C8 in the A-ring contributed to inhibitory effects of flavonoids on Mpro.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Polyphenols/chemistry , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/genetics , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Dimethyl Sulfoxide/pharmacology , Drug Synergism , Garlic/chemistry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plants/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Structure-Activity Relationship , Temperature
10.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159011

ABSTRACT

Protein kinases are a large class of enzymes with numerous biological roles and many have been implicated in a vast array of diseases, including cancer and the novel coronavirus infection COVID-19. Thus, the development of chemical probes to selectively target each kinase is of great interest. Inhibition of protein kinases with ATP-competitive inhibitors has historically been the most widely used method. However, due to the highly conserved structures of ATP-sites, the identification of truly selective chemical probes is challenging. In this review, we use the Ser/Thr kinase CK2 as an example to highlight the historical challenges in effective and selective chemical probe development, alongside recent advances in the field and alternative strategies aiming to overcome these problems. The methods utilised for CK2 can be applied to an array of protein kinases to aid in the discovery of chemical probes to further understand each kinase's biology, with wide-reaching implications for drug development.


Subject(s)
Casein Kinase II/metabolism , Molecular Probes/chemistry , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Protein Kinases/chemistry , Protein Kinases/metabolism , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Casein Kinase II/chemistry , Dichlororibofuranosylbenzimidazole/chemistry , Dichlororibofuranosylbenzimidazole/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Probes/metabolism , Naphthyridines/chemistry , Naphthyridines/pharmacology , Phenazines/chemistry , Phenazines/pharmacology , Polyphenols/chemistry , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology
11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 180: 375-384, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1131357

ABSTRACT

The world is currently under the threat of COVID pandemic and has focused every dimension of research in finding a cure to this novel disease. In this current situation, people are facing mental stress, agony, fear, depression and other associated symptoms which are taking a toll on their overall mental health. Nanoencapsulation of certain brain boosting polyphenols including quercetin, caffeine, cocoa flavanols and proteins like lectins can become new area of interest in the present scenario. Besides the brain boosting benefits, we have also highlighted the anti- viral activities of these compounds which we assume can play a possible role in combating COVID-19 given to their previous history of action against certain viruses. This review outlines the nanoencapsulation approaches of such synergistic compounds as a novel strategy to take the ongoing research a step ahead and also provides a new insight in bringing the role of nanotechnology in addressing the issues related to COVID pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Mental Health , Nanocapsules , Pandemics , Polyphenols , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Nanocapsules/chemistry , Nanocapsules/therapeutic use , Polyphenols/chemistry , Polyphenols/therapeutic use
12.
J Med Virol ; 93(5): 3143-3151, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082050

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the new coronavirus (also known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2, 2019-nCoV])-induced disease, COVID-19, has spread rapidly worldwide. Studies have reported that the traditional Chinese medicine Salvia miltiorrhiza possesses remarkable antiviral properties; however, the anti-coronaviral activity of its main components, salvianolic acid A (SAA), salvianolic acid B (SAB), and salvianolic acid C (SAC) is still debated. In this study, we used Cell Counting Kit-8 staining and flow cytometry to evaluate the toxicity of SAA, SAB, and SAC on ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) high-expressing HEK293T cells (ACE2h cells). We found that SAA, SAB, and SAC had a minor effect on the viability of ACE2h cells at concentrations below 100 µM. We further evaluated the binding capacity of SAA, SAB, and SAC to ACE2 and the spike protein of 2019-nCoV using molecular docking and surface plasmon resonance. They could bind to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the 2019-nCoV with a binding constant (KD ) of (3.82 ± 0.43) e-6 M, (5.15 ± 0.64)e-7 M, and (2.19 ± 0.14)e-6 M; and bind to ACE2 with KD (4.08 ± 0.61)e-7 M, (2.95 ± 0.78)e-7 M, and (7.32 ± 0.42)e-7 M, respectively. As a result, SAA, SAB, and SAC were determined to inhibit the entry of 2019-nCoV Spike pseudovirus with an EC50 of 11.31, 6.22, and 10.14 µM on ACE2h cells, respectively. In conclusion, our study revealed that three Salvianolic acids can inhibit the entry of 2019-nCoV spike pseudovirus into ACE2h cells by binding to the RBD of the 2019-nCoV spike protein and ACE2 protein.


Subject(s)
Alkenes/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Benzofurans/pharmacology , Caffeic Acids/pharmacology , Lactates/pharmacology , Polyphenols/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Alkenes/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Benzofurans/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Caffeic Acids/chemistry , Cell Survival , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Lactates/chemistry , Molecular Structure , Polyphenols/chemistry , Protein Binding , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Virus Internalization
13.
Molecules ; 25(24)2020 Dec 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-972696

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 first emerged in China during late 2019 and rapidly spread all over the world. Alterations in the inflammatory cytokines pathway represent a strong signature during SARS-COV-2 infection and correlate with poor prognosis and severity of the illness. The hyper-activation of the immune system results in an acute severe systemic inflammatory response named cytokine release syndrome (CRS). No effective prophylactic or post-exposure treatments are available, although some anti-inflammatory compounds are currently in clinical trials. Studies of plant extracts and natural compounds show that polyphenols can play a beneficial role in the prevention and the progress of chronic diseases related to inflammation. The aim of this manuscript is to review the published background on the possible effectiveness of polyphenols to fight SARS-COV-2 infection, contributing to the reduction of inflammation. Here, some of the anti-inflammatory therapies are discussed and although great progress has been made though this year, there is no proven cytokine blocking agents for COVID currently used in clinical practice. In this regard, bioactive phytochemicals such as polyphenols may become promising tools to be used as adjuvants in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Such nutrients, with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, associated to classical anti-inflammatory drugs, could help in reducing the inflammation in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Pandemics , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use , Polyphenols/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/epidemiology , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/epidemiology , Polyphenols/chemistry
14.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 476(2): 1179-1193, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-927669

ABSTRACT

The search for effective coronavirus disease (COVID-19) therapy has attracted a great deal of scientific interest due to its unprecedented health care system overload worldwide. We have carried out a study to investigate the in silico effects of the most abundant pomegranate peel extract constituents on the multi-step process of serious acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) internalization in the host cells. Binding affinities and interactions of ellagic acid, gallic acid, punicalagin and punicalin were studied on four selected protein targets with a significant and confirmed role in the process of the entry of virus into a host cell. The protein targets used in this study were: SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, furin and transmembrane serine protease 2. The results showed that the constituents of pomegranate peel extracts, namely punicalagin and punicalin had very promising potential for significant interactions with the selected protein targets and were therefore deemed good candidates for further in vitro and in vivo evaluation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Polyphenols/chemistry , Pomegranate/chemistry , COVID-19/virology , Computational Biology , Humans , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Polyphenols/therapeutic use , Protein Binding/drug effects , Protein Domains/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Virus Internalization/drug effects
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(47): 13982-13989, 2020 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-920571

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a host receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Inhibiting the interaction between the envelope spike glycoproteins (S-proteins) of SARS-CoV-2 and ACE2 is a potential antiviral therapeutic approach, but little is known about how dietary compounds interact with ACE2. The objective of this study was to determine if flavonoids and other polyphenols with B-ring 3',4'-hydroxylation inhibit recombinant human (rh)ACE2 activity. rhACE2 activity was assessed with the fluorogenic substrate Mca-APK(Dnp). Polyphenols reduced rhACE2 activity by 15-66% at 10 µM. Rutin, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, tamarixetin, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid inhibited rhACE2 activity by 42-48%. Quercetin was the most potent rhACE2 inhibitor among the polyphenols tested, with an IC50 of 4.48 µM. Thus, quercetin, its metabolites, and polyphenols with 3',4'-hydroxylation inhibited rhACE2 activity at physiologically relevant concentrations in vitro.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Polyphenols/chemistry , Quercetin/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Enzyme Assays , Humans , Kinetics , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Temperature
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(16)2020 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-822865

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of obesity has steadily increased worldwide over the past three decades. The conventional approaches to prevent or treat this syndrome and its associated complications include a balanced diet, an increase energy expenditure, and lifestyle modification. Multiple pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions have been developed with the aim of improving obesity complications. Recently, the use of functional foods and their bioactive components is considered a new approach in the prevention and management of this disease. Due to their biological properties, polyphenols may be considered as nutraceuticals and food supplement recommended for different syndromes. Polyphenols are a class of naturally-occurring phytochemicals, some of which have been shown to modulate physiological and molecular pathways involved in energy metabolism. Polyphenols could act in the stimulation of ß-oxidation, adipocyte differentiation inhibition, counteract oxidative stress, etc. In this narrative review, we considered the association between polyphenols (resveratrol, quercetin, curcumin, and some polyphenolic extracts) and obesity, focusing on human trials. The health effects of polyphenols depend on the amount consumed and their bioavailability. Some results are contrasting, probably due to the various study designs and lengths, variation among subjects (age, gender, ethnicity), and chemical forms of the dietary polyphenols used. But, in conclusion, the data so far obtained encourage the setting of new trials, necessary to validate benefic role of polyphenols in obese individuals.


Subject(s)
Anti-Obesity Agents/pharmacology , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-Obesity Agents/chemistry , Anti-Obesity Agents/pharmacokinetics , Biological Availability , Food , Humans , Polyphenols/chemistry , Polyphenols/pharmacokinetics
17.
Molecules ; 25(18)2020 Sep 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-750656

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has led to an unprecedented pandemic, which demands urgent development of antiviral drugs and antibodies; as well as prophylactic approaches, namely vaccines. Algae biotechnology has much to offer in this scenario given the diversity of such organisms, which are a valuable source of antiviral and anti-inflammatory compounds that can also be used to produce vaccines and antibodies. Antivirals with possible activity against SARS-CoV-2 are summarized, based on previously reported activity against Coronaviruses or other enveloped or respiratory viruses. Moreover, the potential of algae-derived anti-inflammatory compounds to treat severe cases of COVID-19 is contemplated. The scenario of producing biopharmaceuticals in recombinant algae is presented and the cases of algae-made vaccines targeting viral diseases is highlighted as valuable references for the development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Successful cases in the production of functional antibodies are described. Perspectives on how specific algae species and genetic engineering techniques can be applied for the production of anti-viral compounds antibodies and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are provided.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/pharmacology , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Lectins/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biological Products/chemistry , Biological Products/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cell Nucleus/chemistry , Cell Nucleus/genetics , Cell Nucleus/metabolism , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/chemistry , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/metabolism , Chloroplasts/chemistry , Chloroplasts/genetics , Chloroplasts/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Genetic Engineering/methods , Humans , Lectins/chemistry , Lectins/isolation & purification , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Pandemics , Polyphenols/chemistry , Polyphenols/isolation & purification , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Polysaccharides/isolation & purification , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Viral Vaccines/biosynthesis , Viral Vaccines/pharmacology
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