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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(6)2022 Mar 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760647

ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease (PD) is second-most common disabling neurological disorder worldwide, and unfortunately, there is not yet a definitive way to prevent it. Polyphenols have been widely shown protective efficacy against various PD symptoms. However, data on their effect on physio-pathological mechanisms underlying this disease are still lacking. In the present work, we evaluated the activity of a mixture of polyphenols and micronutrients, named A5+, in the murine neuroblastoma cell line N1E115 treated with 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), an established neurotoxic stimulus used to induce an in vitro PD model. We demonstrate that a pretreatment of these cells with A5+ causes significant reduction of inflammation, resulting in a decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-6, TNF-α, and CXCL1), a reduction in ROS production and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2, and a decrease in apoptotic mechanisms with the related increase in cell viability. Intriguingly, A5+ treatment promoted cellular differentiation into dopaminergic neurons, as evident by the enhancement in the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, a well-established dopaminergic neuronal marker. Overall, these results demonstrate the synergic and innovative efficacy of A5+ mixture against PD cellular pathological processes, although further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms underlying its beneficial effect.


Subject(s)
Parkinson Disease , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Dopaminergic Neurons/metabolism , Mice , Micronutrients/metabolism , Micronutrients/pharmacology , Micronutrients/therapeutic use , Oxidopamine/pharmacology , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Parkinson Disease/etiology , Parkinson Disease/metabolism , Polyphenols/metabolism , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Polyphenols/therapeutic use
2.
Comput Biol Med ; 145: 105452, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757244

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, a rapidly spreading new strain of human coronavirus, has affected almost all the countries around the world. The lack of specific drugs against SARS-CoV-2 is a significant hurdle towards the successful treatment of COVID-19. Thus, there is an urgent need to boost up research for the development of effective therapeutics against COVID-19. In the current study, we investigated the efficacy of 81 medicinal plant-based bioactive compounds against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro by using various in silico techniques. The interaction affinities of polyphenolic compounds towards SARS-CoV-2 Mpro was assessed via intramolecular (by Quantum Mechanic), intermolecular (by Molecular Docking), and spatial (by Molecular Dynamic) simulations. Our obtained result demonstrate that Hesperidin, rutin, diosmin, and apiin are most effective compounds agents against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro as compared to Nelfinavir (positive control). This study will hopefully pave a way for advanced experimental research to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of these compounds for the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Nutrients ; 14(5)2022 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708909

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an epidemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2). Populations at risk as well as those who can develop serious complications are people with chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, and the elderly. Severe symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection are associated with immune failure and dysfunction. The approach of strengthening immunity may be the right choice in order to save lives. This review aimed to provide an overview of current information revealing the importance of bee products in strengthening the immune system against COVID-19. We highlighted the immunomodulatory and the antiviral effects of zinc and polyphenols, which may actively contribute to improving symptoms and preventing complications caused by COVID-19 and can counteract viral infections. Thus, this review will pave the way for conducting advanced experimental research to evaluate zinc and polyphenols-rich bee products to prevent and reduce the severity of COVID-19 symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Animals , Bees , Humans , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Polyphenols/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Zinc/therapeutic use
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662678

ABSTRACT

Cordyline terminalis leaf extract (aqCT) possesses abundant polyphenols and other bioactive compounds, which are encapsulated in gelatin-polyethylene glycol-tyramine (GPT)/alpha-cyclodextrin (α-CD) gels to form the additional functional materials for biomedical applications. In this study, the gel compositions are optimized, and the GPT/α-CD ratios equal to or less than one half for solidification are found. The gelation time varies from 40.7 min to 5.0 h depending on the increase in GPT/α-CD ratios and aqCT amount. The aqCT extract disturbs the hydrogen bonding and host-guest inclusion of GPT/α-CD gel networks, postponing the gelation. Scanning electron microscope observation shows that all gels with or without aqCT possess a microarchitecture and porosity. GPT/α-CD/aqCT gels could release polyphenols from 110 to 350 nmol/mL at the first hour and sustainably from 5.5 to 20.2 nmol/mL for the following hours, which is controlled by feeding the aqCT amount and gel properties. GPT/α-CD/aqCT gels achieved significant antioxidant activity through a 100% scavenging DPPH radical. In addition, all gels are non-cytotoxic with a cell viability more than 85%. Especially, the GPT3.75α-CD10.5aqCT gels with aqCT amount of 3.1-12.5 mg/mL immensely enhanced the cell proliferation of GPT3.75α-CD10.5 gel without extract. These results suggest that the inherent bioactivities of aqCT endowed the resulting GPT/α-CD/aqCT gels with effective antioxidant and high biocompatibility, and natural polyphenols sustainably release a unique platform for a drug delivery system or other biomedical applications.


Subject(s)
Cordyline/chemistry , Dermis/drug effects , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Gels/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Cells, Cultured , Drug Liberation , Gels/administration & dosage , Humans
5.
Nutrients ; 14(3)2022 Jan 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662702

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still in a global epidemic, which has profoundly affected people's lives. Tea polyphenols (TP) has been reported to enhance the immunity of the body to COVID-19 and other viral infectious diseases. The inhibitory effect of TP on COVID-19 may be achieved through a series of mechanisms, including the inhibition of multiple viral targets, the blocking of cellular receptors, and the activation of transcription factors. Emerging evidence shows gastrointestinal tract is closely related to respiratory tract, therefore, the relationship between the state of the gut-lung axis microflora and immune homeostasis of the host needs further research. This article summarized that TP can improve the disorder of flora, reduce the occurrence of cytokine storm, improve immunity, and prevent COVID-19 infection. TP may be regarded as a potential and valuable source for the design of new antiviral drugs with high efficiency and low toxicity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Polyphenols/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tea
6.
Food Chem ; 373(Pt B): 131594, 2022 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603682

ABSTRACT

The abundance of polyphenols in edible plants makes them an important component of human nutrition. Considering the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, a number of studies have investigated polyphenols as bioactive constituents. We applied in-silico molecular docking as well as molecular dynamics supported by in-vitro assays to determine the inhibitory potential of various plant polyphenols against an important SARS-CoV-2 therapeutic target, the protease 3CLpro. Of the polyphenols in initial in-vitro screening, quercetin, ellagic acid, curcumin, epigallocatechin gallate and resveratrol showed IC50 values of 11.8 µM to 23.4 µM. In-silico molecular dynamics simulations indicated stable interactions with the 3CLpro active site over 100 ns production runs. Moreover, surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy was used to measure the binding of polyphenols to 3CLpro in real time. Therefore, we provide evidence for inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro by natural plant polyphenols, and suggest further research into the development of these novel 3CLpro inhibitors or biochemical probes.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Polyphenols , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Molecular Docking Simulation , Peptide Hydrolases , Polyphenols/pharmacology
7.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580427

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a huge number of deaths from 2020 to 2021; however, effective antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2 are currently under development. Recent studies have demonstrated that green tea polyphenols, particularly EGCG, inhibit coronavirus enzymes as well as coronavirus replication in vitro. Herein, we examined the inhibitory effect of green tea polyphenols on coronavirus replication in a mouse model. We used epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and green tea polyphenols containing more than 60% catechin (GTP60) and human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) as a surrogate for SARS-CoV-2. Scanning electron microscopy analysis results showed that HCoV-OC43 infection resulted in virion particle production in infected cells. EGCG and GTP60 treatment reduced coronavirus protein and virus production in the cells. Finally, EGCG- and GTP60-fed mice exhibited reduced levels of coronavirus RNA in mouse lungs. These results demonstrate that green tea polyphenol treatment is effective in decreasing the level of coronavirus in vivo.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Catechin/analogs & derivatives , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Tea/chemistry , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Catechin/pharmacology , Catechin/therapeutic use , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus OC43, Human/physiology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Mice , Polyphenols/chemistry , Polyphenols/therapeutic use
8.
Chin J Nat Med ; 19(9): 693-699, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1576003

ABSTRACT

A chemical investigation on the fermentation products of Sanghuangporus sanghuang led to the isolation and identification of fourteen secondary metabolites (1-14) including eight sesquiterpenoids (1-8) and six polyphenols (9-14). Compounds 1-3 were sesquiterpenes with new structures which were elucidated based on NMR spectroscopy, high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data. All the isolates were tested for their stimulation effects on glucose uptake in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells, and cellular antioxidant activity. Compounds 9-12 were subjected to molecular docking experiment to primarily evaluate their anti-coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) activity. As a result, compounds 9-12 were found to increase the glucose uptake of insulin-resistant HepG2 cells by 18.1%, 62.7%, 33.7% and 21.4% at the dose of 50 µmol·L-1, respectively. Compounds 9-12 also showed good cellular antioxidant activities with CAA50 values of 12.23, 23.11, 5.31 and 16.04 µmol·L-1, respectively. Molecular docking between COVID-19 Mpro and compounds 9-12 indicated potential SARS-CoV-2 inhibitory activity of these four compounds. This work provides new insights for the potential role of the medicinal mushroom S. sanghuang as drugs and functional foods.


Subject(s)
Agaricales , COVID-19 , Polyphenols , Sesquiterpenes , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Basidiomycota , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucose , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Polyphenols/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology
9.
Molecules ; 26(24)2021 Dec 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555013

ABSTRACT

An increasing number of studies have demonstrated the antiviral nature of polyphenols, and many polyphenols have been proposed to inhibit SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-2. Our previous study revealed the inhibitory mechanisms of polyphenols against DNA polymerase α and HIV reverse transcriptase to show that polyphenols can block DNA elongation by competing with the incoming NTPs. Here we applied computational approaches to examine if some polyphenols can also inhibit RNA polymerase (RdRp) in SARS-CoV-2, and we identified some better candidates than remdesivir, the FDA-approved drug against RdRp, in terms of estimated binding affinities. The proposed compounds will be further examined to develop new treatments for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Polyphenols/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Anthocyanins/chemistry , Anthocyanins/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , COVID-19/drug therapy , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Molecular Structure , Polyphenols/chemistry , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(23)2021 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542580

ABSTRACT

The skin, being the barrier organ of the body, is constitutively exposed to various stimuli impacting its morphology and function. Senescent cells have been found to accumulate with age and may contribute to age-related skin changes and pathologies. Natural polyphenols exert many health benefits, including ameliorative effects on skin aging. By affecting molecular pathways of senescence, polyphenols are able to prevent or delay the senescence formation and, consequently, avoid or ameliorate aging and age-associated pathologies of the skin. This review aims to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge in skin aging and cellular senescence, and to summarize the recent in vitro studies related to the anti-senescent mechanisms of natural polyphenols carried out on keratinocytes, melanocytes and fibroblasts. Aged skin in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic will be also discussed.


Subject(s)
Cellular Senescence/drug effects , Cellular Senescence/physiology , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Skin Aging/drug effects , Skin Aging/physiology , Aging/physiology , COVID-19 , Fibroblasts , Humans , Keratinocytes , Melanocytes , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin/pathology , Skin Aging/pathology
11.
J Evid Based Integr Med ; 26: 2515690X211036875, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495800

ABSTRACT

Worldwide, the turmoil of the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic has generated a burst of research efforts in search of effective prevention and treatment modalities. Current recommendations on natural supplements arise from mostly anecdotal evidence in other viral infections and expert opinion, and many clinical trials are ongoing. Here the authors review the evidence and rationale for the use of natural supplements for prevention and treatment of COVID-19, including those with potential benefit and those with potential harms. Specifically, the authors review probiotics, dietary patterns, micronutrients, antioxidants, polyphenols, melatonin, and cannabinoids. Authors critically evaluated and summarized the biomedical literature published in peer-reviewed journals, preprint servers, and current guidelines recommended by expert scientific governing bodies. Ongoing and future trials registered on clinicaltrials.gov were also recorded, appraised, and considered in conjunction with the literature findings. In light of the controversial issues surrounding the manufacturing and marketing of natural supplements and limited scientific evidence available, the authors assessed the available data and present this review to equip clinicians with the necessary information regarding the evidence for and potential harms of usage to promote open discussions with patients who are considering dietary supplements to prevent and treat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Micronutrients/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Cannabinoids/pharmacology , Cannabinoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Melatonin/pharmacology , Melatonin/therapeutic use , Micronutrients/pharmacology , Niacinamide/pharmacology , Niacinamide/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Polyphenols/therapeutic use , Probiotics/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Mech Ageing Dev ; 199: 111551, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1492370

ABSTRACT

Polyphenols are chemopreventive through the induction of nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated proteins and anti-inflammatory pathways. These pathways, encoding cytoprotective vitagenes, include heat shock proteins, such as heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), as well as glutathione redox system to protect against cancer initiation and progression. Phytochemicals exhibit biphasic dose responses on cancer cells, activating at low dose, signaling pathways resulting in upregulation of vitagenes, as in the case of the Nrf2 pathway upregulated by hydroxytyrosol (HT) or curcumin and NAD/NADH-sirtuin-1 activated by resveratrol. Here, the importance of vitagenes in redox stress response and autophagy mechanisms, as well as the potential use of dietary antioxidants in the prevention and treatment of multiple types of cancer are discussed. We also discuss the possible relationship between SARS-CoV-2, inflammation and cancer, exploiting innovative therapeutic approaches with HT-rich aqueous olive pulp extract (Hidrox®), a natural polyphenolic formulation, as well as the rationale of Vitamin D supplementation. Finally, we describe innovative approaches with organoids technology to study human carcinogenesis in preclinical models from basic cancer research to clinical practice, suggesting patient-derived organoids as an innovative tool to test drug toxicity and drive personalized therapy.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Drug Development , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Organoids/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Vitamin D/pharmacology , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Humans , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/genetics , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/genetics , Neoplasms/metabolism , Neoplasms/pathology , Organoids/metabolism , Oxidation-Reduction , Oxidative Stress/genetics
13.
Future Microbiol ; 16: 1289-1301, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484978

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, has resulted in a massive global health crisis. Bioactive molecules extracted or synthesized using starting material obtained from marine species, including griffithsin, plitidepsin and fingolimod are in clinical trials to evaluate their anti-SARS-CoV-2 and anti-HIV efficacies. The current review highlights the anti-SARS-CoV-2 potential of marine-derived phytochemicals explored using in silico, in vitro and in vivo models. The current literature suggests that these molecules have the potential to bind with various key drug targets of SARS-CoV-2. In addition, many of these agents have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory potentials and thus could play a role in the attenuation of COVID-19 complications. Overall, these agents may play a role in the management of COVID-19, but further preclinical and clinical studies are still required to establish their role in the mitigation of the current viral pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Oceans and Seas , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Depsipeptides , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/chemistry , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/pharmacology , Humans , Lectins , Marine Biology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Peptides, Cyclic/chemistry , Peptides, Cyclic/pharmacology , Phycocyanin/pharmacology , Phytochemicals , Plant Lectins/chemistry , Plant Lectins/pharmacology , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Seaweed , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology
14.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 477(1): 225-240, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469743

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (COVID-19) virus uses Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a gateway for their entry into the human body. The ACE2 with cleaved products have emerged as major contributing factors to multiple physiological functions and pathogenic complications leading to the clinical consequences of the COVID-19 infection Decreased ACE2 expression restricts the viral entry into the human cells and reduces the viral load. COVID-19 infection reduces the ACE2 expression and induces post-COVID-19 complications like pneumonia and lung injury. The modulation of the ACE2-Ang (1-7)-Mas (AAM) axis is also being explored as a modality to treat post-COVID-19 complications. Evidence indicates that specific food components may modulate the AAM axis. The variations in the susceptibility to COVID-19 infection and the post-COVID its complications are being correlated with varied dietary habits. Some of the food substances have emerged to have supportive roles in treating post-COVID-19 complications and are being considered as adjuvants to the COVID-19 therapy. It is possible that some of their active ingredients may emerge as the direct treatment for the COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin I/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diet therapy , Peptide Fragments/metabolism , /metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Dietary Proteins/pharmacology , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Terpenes/pharmacology , Virus Internalization , Vitamins/pharmacology
15.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463771

ABSTRACT

3CL-Pro is the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (MPro). It acts as a homodimer to cleave the large polyprotein 1ab transcript into proteins that are necessary for viral growth and replication. 3CL-Pro has been one of the most studied SARS-CoV-2 proteins and a main target of therapeutics. A number of drug candidates have been reported, including natural products. Here, we employ elaborate computational methods to explore the dimerization of the 3CL-Pro protein, and we formulate a computational context to identify potential inhibitors of this process. We report that fortunellin (acacetin 7-O-neohesperidoside), a natural flavonoid O-glycoside, and its structural analogs are potent inhibitors of 3CL-Pro dimerization, inhibiting viral plaque formation in vitro. We thus propose a novel basis for the search of pharmaceuticals as well as dietary supplements in the fight against SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Glycosides/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Flavonoids/chemistry , Glycosides/chemistry , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Polyphenols/chemistry , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protein Multimerization/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Vero Cells
16.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 46: 14-20, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439952

ABSTRACT

Berries are acknowledged as a rich source of major dietary antioxidants and the fact that berry phenolics exhibit antioxidant property is widely accepted. Berries are abundant in Vitamin C and polyphenols such as anthocyanins, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. Polyphenols are found to have several therapeutic effects such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties. Increasing studies are focusing on natural products and their components for alternative therapeutics against viral infections. In particular, berries such as elderberry, blueberry, raspberry, and cranberry have proven to be effective against viral infections. Of note, the decoction of Honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica) has been shown to treat viral epidemic diseases. Owing to the rich source of various antiviral constituents, berries could be an alternative source for managing viral infections. In this review, we provide insights into how berry derived components inhibit viral infection and their clinical usefulness in viral disease management.


Subject(s)
Fruit , Virus Diseases , Anthocyanins , Humans , Pandemics , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/prevention & control
17.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438675

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is caused by SARS-CoV-2 and is leading to the worst health crisis of this century. It emerged in China during late 2019 and rapidly spread all over the world, producing a broad spectrum of clinical disease severity, ranging from asymptomatic infection to death (4.3 million victims so far). Consequently, the scientific research is devoted to investigating the mechanisms of COVID-19 pathogenesis to both identify specific therapeutic drugs and develop vaccines. Although immunological mechanisms driving COVID-19 pathogenesis are still largely unknown, new understanding has emerged about the innate and adaptive immune responses elicited in SARS-CoV-2 infection, which are mainly focused on the dysregulated inflammatory response in severe COVID-19. Polyphenols are naturally occurring products with immunomodulatory activity, playing a relevant role in reducing inflammation and preventing the onset of serious chronic diseases. Mainly based on data collected before the appearance of SARS-CoV-2, polyphenols have been recently suggested as promising agents to fight COVID-19, and some clinical trials have already been approved with polyphenols to treat COVID-19. The aim of this review is to analyze and discuss the in vitro and in vivo research on the immunomodulatory activity of quercetin as a research model of polyphenols, focusing on research that addresses issues related to the dysregulated immune response in severe COVID-19. From this analysis, it emerges that although encouraging data are present, they are still insufficient to recommend polyphenols as potential immunomodulatory agents against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Polyphenols/therapeutic use , Quercetin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adaptive Immunity/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunologic Factors/chemistry , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Polyphenols/chemistry , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Quercetin/analogs & derivatives , Quercetin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
18.
Bioorg Chem ; 116: 105362, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432980

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a serious threat to global health. One attractive antiviral target is the membrane fusion mechanism employed by the virus to gain access to the host cell. Here we report a robust protein-based fluorescent polarization assay, that mimicking the formation of the six-helix bundle (6-HB) process during the membrane fusion, for the evaluation and screening of SARS-CoV-2 fusion Inhibitors. The IC50 of known inhibitors, HR2P, EK1, and Salvianolic acid C (Sal-C) were measured to be 6.1 nM, 2.5 nM, and 8.9 µM respectively. In addition, we found Sal-A has a slightly lower IC50 (3.9 µM) than Sal-C. Interestingly, simple caffeic acid can also disrupt the formation of 6-HB with a sub-mM concentration. Pilot high throughput screening (HTS) of a small marine natural product library validates the assay with a Z' factor close to 0.8. We envision the current assay provides a convenient way to screen SARS-CoV-2 fusion inhibitors and assess their binding affinity.


Subject(s)
Alkenes/analysis , Antiviral Agents/analysis , Fluorescence Polarization , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Peptides/analysis , Polyphenols/analysis , Alkenes/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Humans , Molecular Structure , Peptides/pharmacology , Polyphenols/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
19.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 220, 2020 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387194
20.
Physiol Rep ; 9(3): e14741, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389831

ABSTRACT

Proposed pathway of the effect of lingonberry polyphenols on oral microbial (viral) load reduction and consequent beneficial local and systemic (respiratory tract) anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial/antiviral effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccinium vitis-idaea , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Oral Hygiene , Polyphenols/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
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