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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(6)2022 Mar 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760647

ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease (PD) is second-most common disabling neurological disorder worldwide, and unfortunately, there is not yet a definitive way to prevent it. Polyphenols have been widely shown protective efficacy against various PD symptoms. However, data on their effect on physio-pathological mechanisms underlying this disease are still lacking. In the present work, we evaluated the activity of a mixture of polyphenols and micronutrients, named A5+, in the murine neuroblastoma cell line N1E115 treated with 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), an established neurotoxic stimulus used to induce an in vitro PD model. We demonstrate that a pretreatment of these cells with A5+ causes significant reduction of inflammation, resulting in a decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-6, TNF-α, and CXCL1), a reduction in ROS production and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2, and a decrease in apoptotic mechanisms with the related increase in cell viability. Intriguingly, A5+ treatment promoted cellular differentiation into dopaminergic neurons, as evident by the enhancement in the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, a well-established dopaminergic neuronal marker. Overall, these results demonstrate the synergic and innovative efficacy of A5+ mixture against PD cellular pathological processes, although further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms underlying its beneficial effect.


Subject(s)
Parkinson Disease , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Dopaminergic Neurons/metabolism , Mice , Micronutrients/metabolism , Micronutrients/pharmacology , Micronutrients/therapeutic use , Oxidopamine/pharmacology , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Parkinson Disease/etiology , Parkinson Disease/metabolism , Polyphenols/metabolism , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Polyphenols/therapeutic use
2.
Nutrients ; 14(5)2022 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708909

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an epidemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2). Populations at risk as well as those who can develop serious complications are people with chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, and the elderly. Severe symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection are associated with immune failure and dysfunction. The approach of strengthening immunity may be the right choice in order to save lives. This review aimed to provide an overview of current information revealing the importance of bee products in strengthening the immune system against COVID-19. We highlighted the immunomodulatory and the antiviral effects of zinc and polyphenols, which may actively contribute to improving symptoms and preventing complications caused by COVID-19 and can counteract viral infections. Thus, this review will pave the way for conducting advanced experimental research to evaluate zinc and polyphenols-rich bee products to prevent and reduce the severity of COVID-19 symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Animals , Bees , Humans , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Polyphenols/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Zinc/therapeutic use
3.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580427

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a huge number of deaths from 2020 to 2021; however, effective antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2 are currently under development. Recent studies have demonstrated that green tea polyphenols, particularly EGCG, inhibit coronavirus enzymes as well as coronavirus replication in vitro. Herein, we examined the inhibitory effect of green tea polyphenols on coronavirus replication in a mouse model. We used epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and green tea polyphenols containing more than 60% catechin (GTP60) and human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) as a surrogate for SARS-CoV-2. Scanning electron microscopy analysis results showed that HCoV-OC43 infection resulted in virion particle production in infected cells. EGCG and GTP60 treatment reduced coronavirus protein and virus production in the cells. Finally, EGCG- and GTP60-fed mice exhibited reduced levels of coronavirus RNA in mouse lungs. These results demonstrate that green tea polyphenol treatment is effective in decreasing the level of coronavirus in vivo.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Catechin/analogs & derivatives , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Tea/chemistry , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Catechin/pharmacology , Catechin/therapeutic use , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus OC43, Human/physiology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Mice , Polyphenols/chemistry , Polyphenols/therapeutic use
4.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 736724, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533632

ABSTRACT

Background: Obesity has been reported to be an important contributing factor for precocious puberty, especially in girls. The effect of green tea polyphenols on weight reduction in adult population has been shown, but few related studies have been conducted in children. This study was performed to examine the effectiveness and safety of decaffeinated green tea polyphenols (DGTP) on ameliorating obesity and early sexual development in girls with obesity. Design: This is a double-blinded randomized controlled trial. Girls with obesity aged 6-10 years old were randomly assigned to receive 400 mg/day DGTP or isodose placebo orally for 12 weeks. During this period, all participants received the same instruction on diet and exercise from trained dietitians. Anthropometric measurements, secondary sexual characteristics, B-scan ultrasonography of uterus, ovaries and breast tissues, and related biochemical parameters were examined and assessed pre- and post-treatment. Results: Between August 2018 and January 2020, 62 girls with obesity (DGTP group n = 31, control group n = 31) completed the intervention and were included in analysis. After the intervention, body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio significantly decreased in both groups, but the percentage of body fat (PBF), serum uric acid (UA), and the volumes of ovaries decreased significantly only within the DGTP group. After controlling confounders, DGTP showed a significantly decreased effect on the change of PBF (ß = 2.932, 95% CI: 0.214 to 5.650), serum UA (ß = 52.601, 95% CI: 2.520 to 102.681), and ovarian volumes (right: ß = 1.881, 95% CI: 0.062 to 3.699, left: ß = 0.971, 95% CI: 0.019 to 1.923) in girls with obesity. No side effect was reported in both groups during the whole period. Conclusion: DGTP have shown beneficial effects of ameliorated obesity and postponed early sexual development in girls with obesity without any adverse effects. Clinical Trial Registration: [https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03628937], identifier [NCT03628937].


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Pediatric Obesity/diagnostic imaging , Polyphenols/therapeutic use , Puberty, Precocious/drug therapy , Tea , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Child , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Polyphenols/administration & dosage , Puberty, Precocious/diagnostic imaging , Treatment Outcome , Waist Circumference/physiology
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(22)2021 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524024

ABSTRACT

The worldwide outbreak of COVID-19 was caused by a pathogenic virus called Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Therapies against SARS-CoV-2 target the virus or human cells or the immune system. However, therapies based on specific antibodies, such as vaccines and monoclonal antibodies, may become inefficient enough when the virus changes its antigenicity due to mutations. Polyphenols are the major class of bioactive compounds in nature, exerting diverse health effects based on their direct antioxidant activity and their effects in the modulation of intracellular signaling. There are currently numerous clinical trials investigating the effects of polyphenols in prophylaxis and the treatment of COVID-19, from symptomatic, via moderate and severe COVID-19 treatment, to anti-fibrotic treatment in discharged COVID-19 patients. Antiviral activities of polyphenols and their impact on immune system modulation could serve as a solid basis for developing polyphenol-based natural approaches for preventing and treating COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Polyphenols/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Humans , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal/metabolism , Polyphenols/chemistry , Polyphenols/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
6.
J Evid Based Integr Med ; 26: 2515690X211036875, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495800

ABSTRACT

Worldwide, the turmoil of the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic has generated a burst of research efforts in search of effective prevention and treatment modalities. Current recommendations on natural supplements arise from mostly anecdotal evidence in other viral infections and expert opinion, and many clinical trials are ongoing. Here the authors review the evidence and rationale for the use of natural supplements for prevention and treatment of COVID-19, including those with potential benefit and those with potential harms. Specifically, the authors review probiotics, dietary patterns, micronutrients, antioxidants, polyphenols, melatonin, and cannabinoids. Authors critically evaluated and summarized the biomedical literature published in peer-reviewed journals, preprint servers, and current guidelines recommended by expert scientific governing bodies. Ongoing and future trials registered on clinicaltrials.gov were also recorded, appraised, and considered in conjunction with the literature findings. In light of the controversial issues surrounding the manufacturing and marketing of natural supplements and limited scientific evidence available, the authors assessed the available data and present this review to equip clinicians with the necessary information regarding the evidence for and potential harms of usage to promote open discussions with patients who are considering dietary supplements to prevent and treat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Micronutrients/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Cannabinoids/pharmacology , Cannabinoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Melatonin/pharmacology , Melatonin/therapeutic use , Micronutrients/pharmacology , Niacinamide/pharmacology , Niacinamide/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Polyphenols/therapeutic use , Probiotics/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438675

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is caused by SARS-CoV-2 and is leading to the worst health crisis of this century. It emerged in China during late 2019 and rapidly spread all over the world, producing a broad spectrum of clinical disease severity, ranging from asymptomatic infection to death (4.3 million victims so far). Consequently, the scientific research is devoted to investigating the mechanisms of COVID-19 pathogenesis to both identify specific therapeutic drugs and develop vaccines. Although immunological mechanisms driving COVID-19 pathogenesis are still largely unknown, new understanding has emerged about the innate and adaptive immune responses elicited in SARS-CoV-2 infection, which are mainly focused on the dysregulated inflammatory response in severe COVID-19. Polyphenols are naturally occurring products with immunomodulatory activity, playing a relevant role in reducing inflammation and preventing the onset of serious chronic diseases. Mainly based on data collected before the appearance of SARS-CoV-2, polyphenols have been recently suggested as promising agents to fight COVID-19, and some clinical trials have already been approved with polyphenols to treat COVID-19. The aim of this review is to analyze and discuss the in vitro and in vivo research on the immunomodulatory activity of quercetin as a research model of polyphenols, focusing on research that addresses issues related to the dysregulated immune response in severe COVID-19. From this analysis, it emerges that although encouraging data are present, they are still insufficient to recommend polyphenols as potential immunomodulatory agents against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Polyphenols/therapeutic use , Quercetin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adaptive Immunity/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunologic Factors/chemistry , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Polyphenols/chemistry , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Quercetin/analogs & derivatives , Quercetin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374421

ABSTRACT

Polyphenols, such as flavonoids and phenolic acids, are a group of specialized metabolites in plants that largely aid in plant defense by deterring biotic stressors and alleviating abiotic stress. Polyphenols offer a wide range of medical applications, acting as preventative and active treatments for diseases such as cancers and diabetes. Recently, researchers have proposed that polyphenols may contribute to certain applications aimed at tackling challenges related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Understanding the beneficial impacts of phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, could potentially help prepare society for future pandemics. Thus far, most reviews have focused on polyphenols in cancer prevention and treatment. This review aims to provide a comprehensive discussion on the critical roles that polyphenols play in both plant chemical defense and human health based on the most recent studies while highlighting prospective avenues for future research, as well as the implications for phytochemical-based applications in both agricultural and medical fields.


Subject(s)
Plants/metabolism , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Polyphenols/therapeutic use , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Availability , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxybenzoates/pharmacology , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Phytochemicals , Plants/chemistry , Polyphenols/metabolism , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
9.
J Evid Based Integr Med ; 26: 2515690X211036875, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356989

ABSTRACT

Worldwide, the turmoil of the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic has generated a burst of research efforts in search of effective prevention and treatment modalities. Current recommendations on natural supplements arise from mostly anecdotal evidence in other viral infections and expert opinion, and many clinical trials are ongoing. Here the authors review the evidence and rationale for the use of natural supplements for prevention and treatment of COVID-19, including those with potential benefit and those with potential harms. Specifically, the authors review probiotics, dietary patterns, micronutrients, antioxidants, polyphenols, melatonin, and cannabinoids. Authors critically evaluated and summarized the biomedical literature published in peer-reviewed journals, preprint servers, and current guidelines recommended by expert scientific governing bodies. Ongoing and future trials registered on clinicaltrials.gov were also recorded, appraised, and considered in conjunction with the literature findings. In light of the controversial issues surrounding the manufacturing and marketing of natural supplements and limited scientific evidence available, the authors assessed the available data and present this review to equip clinicians with the necessary information regarding the evidence for and potential harms of usage to promote open discussions with patients who are considering dietary supplements to prevent and treat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Micronutrients/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Cannabinoids/pharmacology , Cannabinoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Melatonin/pharmacology , Melatonin/therapeutic use , Micronutrients/pharmacology , Niacinamide/pharmacology , Niacinamide/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Polyphenols/therapeutic use , Probiotics/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(2): 1346-1360, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343647

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic crisis, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has claimed the lives of millions of people across the world. Development and testing of anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs or vaccines have not turned to be realistic within the timeframe needed to combat this pandemic. Here, we report a comprehensive computational approach to identify the multi-targeted drug molecules against the SARS-CoV-2 proteins, whichare crucially involved in the viral-host interaction, replication of the virus inside the host, disease progression and transmission of coronavirus infection. Virtual screening of 75 FDA-approved potential antiviral drugs against the target proteins, spike (S) glycoprotein, human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2), 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro), cathepsin L (CTSL), nucleocapsid protein, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and non-structural protein 6 (NSP6), resulted in the selection of seven drugs which preferentially bind to the target proteins. Further, the molecular interactions determined by molecular dynamics simulation revealed that among the 75 drug molecules, catechin can effectively bind to 3CLpro, CTSL, RBD of S protein, NSP6 and nucleocapsid protein. It is more conveniently involved in key molecular interactions, showing binding free energy (ΔGbind) in the range of -5.09 kcal/mol (CTSL) to -26.09 kcal/mol (NSP6). At the binding pocket, catechin is majorly stabilized by the hydrophobic interactions, displays ΔEvdW values: -7.59 to -37.39 kcal/mol. Thus, the structural insights of better binding affinity and favorable molecular interaction of catechin toward multiple target proteins signify that catechin can be potentially explored as a multi-targeted agent against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Catechin/pharmacology , Polyphenols/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/virology , Catechin/chemistry , Catechin/therapeutic use , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Polyphenols/therapeutic use
11.
Front Immunol ; 12: 582556, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311372

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Several months ago, Chinese authorities identified an atypical pneumonia in Wuhan city, province of Hubei (China) caused by a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV or SARS-CoV-2). The WHO announced this new disease was to be known as "COVID-19". Evidence Acquisition: Several approaches are currently underway for the treatment of this disease, but a specific cure remains to be established. Evidence Synthesis: This review will describe how the use of selected nutraceuticals could be helpful, in addition to pharmacological therapy, in preventing some COVID-19-related complications in infected patients. Conclusions: Even if a specific and effective cure for COVID-19 still has some way to go, selected nutraceuticals could be helpful, in addition to pharmacological therapy, in preventing some COVID-19-related complications in infected patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dietary Supplements , SARS-CoV-2 , Berberine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/therapeutic use , Fungal Polysaccharides/therapeutic use , Humans , Lactoferrin/therapeutic use , Minerals/therapeutic use , Plant Lectins/therapeutic use , Polyphenols/therapeutic use , Soy Foods , Vitamins/therapeutic use
12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 180: 375-384, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1131357

ABSTRACT

The world is currently under the threat of COVID pandemic and has focused every dimension of research in finding a cure to this novel disease. In this current situation, people are facing mental stress, agony, fear, depression and other associated symptoms which are taking a toll on their overall mental health. Nanoencapsulation of certain brain boosting polyphenols including quercetin, caffeine, cocoa flavanols and proteins like lectins can become new area of interest in the present scenario. Besides the brain boosting benefits, we have also highlighted the anti- viral activities of these compounds which we assume can play a possible role in combating COVID-19 given to their previous history of action against certain viruses. This review outlines the nanoencapsulation approaches of such synergistic compounds as a novel strategy to take the ongoing research a step ahead and also provides a new insight in bringing the role of nanotechnology in addressing the issues related to COVID pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Mental Health , Nanocapsules , Pandemics , Polyphenols , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Nanocapsules/chemistry , Nanocapsules/therapeutic use , Polyphenols/chemistry , Polyphenols/therapeutic use
13.
Molecules ; 25(24)2020 Dec 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-972696

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 first emerged in China during late 2019 and rapidly spread all over the world. Alterations in the inflammatory cytokines pathway represent a strong signature during SARS-COV-2 infection and correlate with poor prognosis and severity of the illness. The hyper-activation of the immune system results in an acute severe systemic inflammatory response named cytokine release syndrome (CRS). No effective prophylactic or post-exposure treatments are available, although some anti-inflammatory compounds are currently in clinical trials. Studies of plant extracts and natural compounds show that polyphenols can play a beneficial role in the prevention and the progress of chronic diseases related to inflammation. The aim of this manuscript is to review the published background on the possible effectiveness of polyphenols to fight SARS-COV-2 infection, contributing to the reduction of inflammation. Here, some of the anti-inflammatory therapies are discussed and although great progress has been made though this year, there is no proven cytokine blocking agents for COVID currently used in clinical practice. In this regard, bioactive phytochemicals such as polyphenols may become promising tools to be used as adjuvants in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Such nutrients, with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, associated to classical anti-inflammatory drugs, could help in reducing the inflammation in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Pandemics , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use , Polyphenols/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/epidemiology , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/epidemiology , Polyphenols/chemistry
14.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj ; 1865(2): 129801, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-938766

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to lack of approved drugs and vaccines, the medical world has resorted to older drugs, produced for viral infections and other diseases, as a remedy to combat COVID-19. The accumulating evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies for SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV have demonstrated that several polyphenols found in plants and zinc- polyphenol clusters have been in use as herbal medicines have antiviral activities against viruses with various mechanisms. SCOPE OF REVIEW: Curcumin, zinc and zinc-ionophores have been considered as nutraceuticals and nutrients showing great antiviral activities with their medicinal like activities. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS: In this work, we discussed the potential prophylactic and/or therapeutic effects of curcumin, zinc and zinc-ionophores in treatment of viral infections including COVID-19. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: Curcuminoids and Zinc classified as nutraceuticals under GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) by FDA can provide complementary treatment for COVID 19 patients with their immunity-boosting and antiviral properties.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Dietary Supplements , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Polyphenols/therapeutic use , Zinc/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Curcumin/therapeutic use , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Food , Humans , Inflammation , Ionophores/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Trace Elements/therapeutic use , Virus Replication
15.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 476(2): 1179-1193, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-927669

ABSTRACT

The search for effective coronavirus disease (COVID-19) therapy has attracted a great deal of scientific interest due to its unprecedented health care system overload worldwide. We have carried out a study to investigate the in silico effects of the most abundant pomegranate peel extract constituents on the multi-step process of serious acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) internalization in the host cells. Binding affinities and interactions of ellagic acid, gallic acid, punicalagin and punicalin were studied on four selected protein targets with a significant and confirmed role in the process of the entry of virus into a host cell. The protein targets used in this study were: SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, furin and transmembrane serine protease 2. The results showed that the constituents of pomegranate peel extracts, namely punicalagin and punicalin had very promising potential for significant interactions with the selected protein targets and were therefore deemed good candidates for further in vitro and in vivo evaluation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Polyphenols/chemistry , Pomegranate/chemistry , COVID-19/virology , Computational Biology , Humans , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Polyphenols/therapeutic use , Protein Binding/drug effects , Protein Domains/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Virus Internalization/drug effects
16.
Scand J Immunol ; 93(1): e12972, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-744804

ABSTRACT

Mounting evidence supports the importance of mucosal immunity in the immune response to SARS-CoV-2. Active virus replication in the upper respiratory tract for the first days of infection opens a new perspective in immunological strategies to counteract viral pathogenicity. An effective mucosal innate immune response to SARS-CoV-2 paves the way to an also effective adaptive immune response. A strong local immune response seems to be crucial in the initial contention of the virus by the organism and for triggering the production of the necessary neutralizing antibodies in sera and mucosal secretions. However, if the innate immune response fails to overcome the immune evasion mechanisms displayed by the virus, the infection will progress and the lack of an adaptive immune response will take the patient to an overreactive but ineffective innate immune response. To revert this scenario, an immune strategy based on enhancement of immunity in the first days of infection would be theoretically well come. But serious concerns about cytokine response syndrome prevent us to do so. Fortunately, it is possible to enhance immune system response without causing inflammation through immunomodulation. Immunomodulation of local immune response at the oropharyngeal mucosa could hypothetically activate our mucosal immunity, which could send an early an effective warning to the adaptive immune system. There are studies on immunotherapeutic management of upper respiratory tract infections in children that can place us in the right path to design an immune strategy able to mitigate COVID-19 symptoms and reduce clinical progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunomodulation , Mouth Mucosa/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Humans , Immunity, Mucosal , Immunosenescence , Polyphenols/therapeutic use
17.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 319(4): E689-E708, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696089

ABSTRACT

Much more serious than the previous severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV) outbreaks, the novel SARS-CoV-2 infection has spread speedily, affecting 213 countries and causing ∼17,300,000 cases and ∼672,000 (∼+1,500/day) deaths globally (as of July 31, 2020). The potentially fatal coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by air droplets and airborne as the main transmission modes, clearly induces a spectrum of respiratory clinical manifestations, but it also affects the immune, gastrointestinal, hematological, nervous, and renal systems. The dramatic scale of disorders and complications arises from the inadequacy of current treatments and absence of a vaccine and specific anti-COVID-19 drugs to suppress viral replication, inflammation, and additional pathogenic conditions. This highlights the importance of understanding the SARS-CoV-2 mechanisms of actions and the urgent need of prospecting for new or alternative treatment options. The main objective of the present review is to discuss the challenging issue relative to the clinical utility of plants-derived polyphenols in fighting viral infections. Not only is the strong capacity of polyphenols highlighted in magnifying health benefits, but the underlying mechanisms are also stressed. Finally, emphasis is placed on the potential ability of polyphenols to combat SARS-CoV-2 infection via the regulation of its molecular targets of human cellular binding and replication, as well as through the resulting host inflammation, oxidative stress, and signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Phytotherapy/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Polyphenols/therapeutic use , Primary Prevention/methods , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/history , History, 21st Century , Humans , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Molecular Targeted Therapy/trends , Pandemics/history , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/history , Polyphenols/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication/drug effects
18.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 143: 111558, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-629175

ABSTRACT

Prevention and treatment of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, cancer, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, arthritis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and various infectious diseases; lately most notably COVID-19 have been in the front line of research worldwide. Although targeting different organs, these pathologies have common biochemical impairments - redox disparity and, prominently, dysregulation of the inflammatory pathways. Research data have shown that diet components like polyphenols, poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), fibres as well as lifestyle (fasting, physical exercise) are important factors influencing signalling pathways with a significant potential to improve metabolic homeostasis and immune cells' functions. In the present manuscript we have reviewed scientific data from recent publications regarding the beneficial cellular and molecular effects induced by dietary plant products, mainly polyphenolic compounds and PUFAs, and summarize the clinical outcomes expected from these types of interventions, in a search for effective long-term approaches to improve the immune system response.


Subject(s)
Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/adverse effects , Inflammation/etiology , Noncommunicable Diseases , Polyphenols/adverse effects , Animals , Diet, Mediterranean , Dietary Fiber/administration & dosage , Exercise/physiology , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/administration & dosage , Humans , Inflammation/epidemiology , Inflammation/prevention & control , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Polyphenols/therapeutic use
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