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1.
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) ; 51(3): 174-180, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315909

ABSTRACT

mRNA vaccines, particularly, have been associated with an increased risk of allergic reactions and rarely anaphylaxis. Although rare, vaccine reactions can cause significant anxiety and fear in the population, leading to indecision and vaccine refusal. This study aimed to retrospectively evaluate the role of polyethylene glycol (PEG) sensitivity in vaccination decision-making in pediatric patients at high risk of allergy or with suspected allergic reactions to the first dose of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) vaccine. Seventeen enrolled patients were found to have decreased readiness to receive the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine after developing hypersensitivity to multiple and/or injectable drugs. Skin testing was performed. A basophil activation test with PEG-2000 and 4000 was performed on three patients who were ineligible for skin prick tests. Nine patients with negative tests received the vaccine without complications. One patient had urticarial angioedema despite negative tests. Three patients with positive tests did not agree to desensitization with the mRNA vaccine, and one of them was vaccinated with the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine. Four patients recurred despite negative tests. The general recommendation for patients describing severe reactions to drugs, foods, and allergens, such as toxins that do not contain the adjuvants of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, is to be routinely vaccinated with safety precautions. Excipients such as PEG and polysorbate-80 used in COVID-19 vaccines could be potential allergens, but this hypothesis is unclear. The predictive values of these adjuvants for skin testing and in vitro testing are controversial. Further research is needed on the hypersensitivity reactions of adjuvants, the predictive values of skin tests, and etiopathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Child , Humans , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Anaphylaxis/diagnosis , Anaphylaxis/etiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Polyethylene Glycols/adverse effects , Polysorbates/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
2.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 19(1): 2182527, 2023 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286513

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccines have proved to be effective in the pandemic response but can cause adverse events such as delayed hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs). Delayed-reading intradermal tests (IDT) to vaccines are limited by false-positive results and may reflect a cell-mediated rather than IgE-mediated immune response. Lymphocyte transformation test (LTT), which has been utilized in the diagnosis of drug allergy, may be helpful in suspected COVID-19 vaccine and/or its excipient-related DHRs. To investigate the use of LTT in two suspected cases of COVID-19 vaccine-induced DHRs, two patients with suspected DHRs to COVID-19 vaccination were tested by delayed-reading IDT and LTT against vaccines and their excipients. A 47-year-old man developed acute mixed-pattern hepatitis after the second dose of ChAdOx1 vaccine. LTT performed at 2 months post-vaccination revealed reactivity to the ChAdOx1 vaccine, polysorbate 80 and mildly to PEG 2050 but not BNT162b2 vaccine. Delayed-reading IDT returned negative to both vaccines and excipients. He tolerated BNT162b2 vaccination with no adverse events. A 36-year-old woman presented with subacute morbilliform eruption and hepatitis after the first dose of BNT162b2 vaccine. LTT performed 3 months later revealed reactivity to the BNT162b2 but not PEG 2050. Repeat LTT following subsequent natural Severe Acute Respiratory Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection revealed reactivity to ChAdOx1 and NVX-CoV2373 vaccines but not polysorbate 80. Delayed-reading IDT remained negative. She proceeded with NVX-CoV2373 vaccination with no symptom recurrence. LTT may be a useful tool in suspected COVID-19 vaccine-related DHRs. Further evaluation with a larger patient cohort is required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Hypersensitivity, Delayed , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Excipients , Hypersensitivity, Delayed/chemically induced , Lymphocyte Activation , Polysorbates , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
3.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 30(1): 171-176, 2023 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2255208

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Research to date indicates that student competencies in various dimensions of social media use vary depending on, for example, the field of study or stage of education. The aim of the study was assessment of social media literacy in a group of undergraduate nursing students, based on the year of study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Respondents: 679 nursing students from 11 Polish medical universities who began or continued their education during the COVID-19 pandemic. First-year students (N = 397, 58.73%) and women (N = 589, 87.13%) constituted the largest group. The Perceived Social Media Literacy Scale was used. Statistical analysis used the Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis-of-variance-by-ranks to analyse differences in PSML scores, and Dunn's test to analyse differences in PSML scores between individual years of study (α= 0.05). RESULTS: The level of social media literacy between students differed significantly (p < 0.001). Students rated their technical competency the highest (H = 29.722, p < 0.001), social relationships (H = 20.946, p < 0.001) and informational awareness (H = 21.054, p < 0.001) the lowest. The lowest scores in the self-assessment of social media literacy were noted among first-year students (M = 55.85, Max = 70.0; p < 0.001), and the highest among second-year students (M = 60.99, Max = 70.0; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Nursing students rated their competency lowest in the sphere related to verifying the content of messages appearing on social media, which may have a significant impact on their professional competencies. Differences in the level of social media literacy among students of different years of study should be taken into account when designing training in this field.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate , Social Media , Students, Nursing , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Literacy , Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate/methods , Pandemics , Polysorbates , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Intern Med ; 62(8): 1219-1222, 2023 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2224617

ABSTRACT

Omalizumab can cause hypersensitivity reactions. We herein report the first case of an 18-year-old woman with refractory cough-predominant asthma that correlated with allergic reactions caused by omalizumab and the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine. The patient developed angioedema after taking omalizumab. She had previously experienced intense coughing immediately after receiving a COVID-19 vaccine. A skin prick test was positive for polysorbate 20, which was probably the cause of the allergic reactions to omalizumab and the COVID-19 vaccine. Clinicians should check for an allergic reaction, irrespective of its intensity, triggered by polysorbate and be careful when prescribing biologics to patients in order to avoid allergic reactions.


Subject(s)
Angioedema , Anti-Allergic Agents , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Omalizumab , Adolescent , Female , Humans , Angioedema/chemically induced , Anti-Allergic Agents/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Coronavirus , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Omalizumab/adverse effects , Polysorbates/therapeutic use
6.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 38(12): 230, 2022 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2048467

ABSTRACT

Amikacin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used in drug-resistant bacterial infections. The spread of bacterial infections has become a severe concern for the treatment system because of the simultaneous drug resistance bacteria and SARS-CoV-2 hospitalized patients. One of the most common bacteria in the development of drug resistance is Klebsiella strains, which is a severe threat due to the possibility of biofilm production. In this regard, recent nanotechnology studies have proposed using nanocarriers as a practical proposal to improve the performance of antibiotics and combat drug resistance. Among drug nanocarriers, niosomes are considered for their absorption mechanism, drug coverage, and biocompatibility. In this study, niosomal formulations were synthesized by the thin-layer method. After optimizing the synthesized niosomes, their properties were evaluated in terms of stability and drug release rate. The toxicity of the optimal formulation was then analyzed. The effect of free amikacin and amikacin encapsulated in niosome on biofilm inhibition were compared in multi-drug resistant isolated Klebsiella strains, and the mrkD gene expression was calculated. The MIC and MBC were measured for the free drug and amikacin loaded in the noisome. The particle size of synthesized amikacin-loaded niosomes ranged from 175.2 to 248.3 nm. The results showed that the amount of lipid and the molar ratio of tween 60 to span 60 has a positive effect on particle size, while the molar ratio of surfactant to cholesterol has a negative effect. The highest release rate in amikacin-loaded niosomes is visible in the first 8 h, and then a slower release occurs up to 72 h. The cytotoxicity induced by amikacin-loaded niosome is significantly less than the cytotoxicity of free amikacin in HFF cells (***p < 0.001, **p < 0.01). The mrkD mRNA expression level in the studied strains was significantly reduced after treatment with niosome-containing amikacin compared to free amikacin (***p < 0.001). It was confirmed that in the presence of the niosome, the amikacin antibacterial activity increased while the concentration of the drug used decreased, the formation of biofilm inhibited, and reduced antibiotics resistance in MDR Klebsiella strains.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Amikacin/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cholesterol , Humans , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Lipids , Liposomes/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polysorbates/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacology
8.
Allergol Int ; 71(4): 512-519, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944051

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The mechanism of allergic reactions to COVID-19 mRNA vaccines has not been clarified. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a potential antigen in the components of vaccines. However, there is little evidence that allergy after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination is related to PEG. Furthermore, the role of polysorbate (PS) as an antigen has also not been clarified. The objective of this study was to investigate whether PEG and PS allergies are reasonable causes of allergic symptoms after vaccination by detecting PEG-specific and PS-specific antibodies. METHODS: Fourteen patients who developed immediate allergic reactions to BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccines and nineteen healthy controls who did not present allergic symptoms were recruited. Serum PEG-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) and PS-specific IgE and IgG were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Skin tests using PEG-2000 and PS-80 were applied to five patients and three controls. RESULTS: Serum levels of PEG-specific IgE and IgG in patients with immediate allergic reactions to the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine were higher than those in the control group. Serum levels of PS-specific IgE in patients with allergy to the vaccine were higher than those in patients of the control group. Intradermal tests using PEG verified the results for PEG-specific IgE and IgG. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that PEG is one of the antigens in the allergy to COVID-19 mRNA vaccines. Cross-reactivity between PEG and PS might be crucial for allergy to the vaccines. PEG-specific IgE and IgG may be useful in diagnosing allergy to COVID-19 mRNA vaccines.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Hypersensitivity , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Hypersensitivity, Immediate , Immunoglobulin E/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Polyethylene Glycols , Polysorbates , RNA, Messenger , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11546, 2022 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1921709

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic motivated research on antiviral filtration used in personal protective equipment and HVAC systems. In this research, three coating compositions of NaCl, Tween 20 surfactant, and NaCl-Tween 20 were examined on polypropylene spun-bond filters. The pressure drop, coverage, and crystal size of the coating methods and compositions were measured. Also, in vitro plaque assays of the Phi6 Bacteriophage on Pseudomonas syringae as a simulation of an enveloped respiratory virus was performed to investigate the antiviral properties of the coating. NaCl and NaCl-Tween 20 increased the pressure drop in the range of 40-50 Pa for a loading of 5 mg/cm2. Tween 20 has shown an impact on the pressure drop as low as 10 Pa and made the filter surface more hydrophilic which kept the virus droplets on the surface. The NaCl-Tween 20 coated samples could inactivate 108 plaque forming units (PFU) of virus in two hours of incubation. Tween 20 coated filters with loading as low as 0.2 mg/cm2 reduced the activity of 108 PFU of virus from 109 to 102 PFU/mL after 2 h of incubation. NaCl-coated samples with a salt loading of 15 mg/cm2 could not have antiviral properties higher than reducing the viral activity from 109 to 105 PFU/mL in 4 h of incubation.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Polysorbates , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium Chloride , Surface-Active Agents , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Lipoproteins , Polysorbates/chemistry , Polysorbates/pharmacology , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacology
11.
Vaccine ; 40(23): 3098-3102, 2022 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1825027

ABSTRACT

In older adults, the serum antibody response to inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) is often lower than in adolescents and non-elderly adults which may translate into suboptimal protection against influenza. To counteract this expression of immunosenescence, the use of adjuvanted IIV formulations has been explored. Four recent studies (three meta-analyses and one clinical trial) found an antibody increase of up to 1.5-fold in older adults, when a squalene-adjuvanted (MF59™) IIV was used. The clinical relevance of this increase may well continue to be a matter of debate. We would favour a threshold of 1.5 to consider an adjuvanted vaccine formulation superior to standard aqueous IIV because it exceeds the inevitable variation of antibody responses to non-adjuvanted IIV. It is also the same as the upper FDA equivalence limit for IIV lot-to-lot consistency. A corresponding threshold for the seroresponse rate difference could then be +5%.


Subject(s)
Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Adolescent , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Middle Aged , Polysorbates , Squalene , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated
13.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 129(1): 88-94.e1, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1787993

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polysorbate reactions were initially implicated as a likely risk factor for reacting to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines and remain a source of vaccine hesitancy despite increasing evidence that they do not pose an increased risk for COVID-19 vaccine reactions. OBJECTIVE: To investigate COVID-19 vaccine safety outcomes in patients with reported reactions to PEG- and polysorbate-containing medications and vaccines. METHODS: COVID-19 vaccine safety was reviewed in patients with PEG or polysorbate reactions documented in their electronic medical records at a tertiary academic medical center (cohort 1) and patients referred to Allergy and Immunology with reported PEG or polysorbate reactions (cohort 2). COVID-19 vaccine safety was also reviewed following reported symptoms (onset ≤ 12 hours) to first-dose PEG-containing messenger RNA (mRNA) COVID-19 vaccine (cohort 3). RESULTS: Of 252 patients in cohort 1 (n = 202) and cohort 2 (n = 50), 236 (94%) received mRNA COVID-19 vaccines (106 Pfizer, 130 Moderna); 235 received both doses. Only 3 patients from cohort 2 developed mild rash following vaccination. None of the 44 patients in cohort 3 with acute symptoms following first-dose mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (27 Pfizer, 17 Moderna) had previously reported PEG or polysorbate reactions. Of these 44 patients, 43 received the second dose and all 3 who developed symptoms following the second dose (1 required epinephrine) had negative PEG skin testing. CONCLUSION: Patients with reported reactions to PEG and polysorbate safely received COVID-19 vaccines. PEG and polysorbate skin testing did not identify patients at risk for first dose or recurrent reactions to COVID-19 vaccines. Screening for PEG and polysorbate allergy may only increase vaccine hesitancy without identifying patients at risk for COVID-19 vaccine reactions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypersensitivity , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Polyethylene Glycols/adverse effects , Polysorbates/adverse effects , RNA, Messenger , Vaccines/adverse effects
15.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(1)2022 Jan 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632763

ABSTRACT

Despite its reduced sensitivity, sputum smear microscopy (SSM) remains the main diagnostic test for detecting tuberculosis in many parts of the world. A new diagnostic technique, the magnetic nanoparticle-based colorimetric biosensing assay (NCBA) was optimized by evaluating different concentrations of glycan-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (GMNP) and Tween 80 to improve the acid-fast bacilli (AFB) count. Comparative analysis was performed on 225 sputum smears: 30 with SSM, 107 with NCBA at different GMNP concentrations, and 88 with NCBA-Tween 80 at various concentrations and incubation times. AFB quantification was performed by adding the total number of AFB in all fields per smear and classified according to standard guidelines (scanty, 1+, 2+ and 3+). Smears by NCBA with low GMNP concentrations (≤1.5 mg/mL) showed higher AFB quantification compared to SSM. Cell enrichment of sputum samples by combining NCBA-GMNP, incubated with Tween 80 (5%) for three minutes, improved capture efficiency and increased AFB detection up to 445% over SSM. NCBA with Tween 80 offers the opportunity to improve TB diagnostics, mainly in paucibacillary cases. As this method provides biosafety with a simple and inexpensive methodology that obtains results in a short time, it might be considered as a point-of-care TB diagnostic method in regions where resources are limited.


Subject(s)
Magnetite Nanoparticles , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Colorimetry , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Humans , Polysorbates , Sensitivity and Specificity
16.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(10): 1383-1394, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621119

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Given the scale of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, the development of vaccines based on different platforms is essential, particularly in light of emerging viral variants, the absence of information on vaccine-induced immune durability, and potential paediatric use. We aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of an MF59-adjuvanted subunit vaccine for COVID-19 based on recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein stabilised in a pre-fusion conformation by a novel molecular clamp (spike glycoprotein-clamp [sclamp]). METHODS: We did a phase 1, double-blind, placebo-controlled, block-randomised trial of the sclamp subunit vaccine in a single clinical trial site in Brisbane, QLD, Australia. Healthy adults (aged ≥18 to ≤55 years) who had tested negative for SARS-CoV-2, reported no close contact with anyone with active or previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, and tested negative for pre-existing SARS-CoV-2 immunity were included. Participants were randomly assigned to one of five treatment groups and received two doses via intramuscular injection 28 days apart of either placebo, sclamp vaccine at 5 µg, 15 µg, or 45 µg, or one dose of sclamp vaccine at 45 µg followed by placebo. Participants and study personnel, except the dose administration personnel, were masked to treatment. The primary safety endpoints included solicited local and systemic adverse events in the 7 days after each dose and unsolicited adverse events up to 12 months after dosing. Here, data are reported up until day 57. Primary immunogenicity endpoints were antigen-specific IgG ELISA and SARS-CoV-2 microneutralisation assays assessed at 28 days after each dose. The study is ongoing and registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04495933. FINDINGS: Between June 23, 2020, and Aug 17, 2020, of 314 healthy volunteers screened, 120 were randomly assigned (n=24 per group), and 114 (95%) completed the study up to day 57 (mean age 32·5 years [SD 10·4], 65 [54%] male, 55 [46%] female). Severe solicited reactions were infrequent and occurred at similar rates in participants receiving placebo (two [8%] of 24) and the SARS-CoV-2 sclamp vaccine at any dose (three [3%] of 96). Both solicited reactions and unsolicited adverse events occurred at a similar frequency in participants receiving placebo and the SARS-CoV-2 sclamp vaccine. Solicited reactions occurred in 19 (79%) of 24 participants receiving placebo and 86 (90%) of 96 receiving the SARS-CoV-2 sclamp vaccine at any dose. Unsolicited adverse events occurred in seven (29%) of 24 participants receiving placebo and 35 (36%) of 96 participants receiving the SARS-CoV-2 sclamp vaccine at any dose. Vaccination with SARS-CoV-2 sclamp elicited a similar antigen-specific response irrespective of dose: 4 weeks after the initial dose (day 29) with 5 µg dose (geometric mean titre [GMT] 6400, 95% CI 3683-11 122), with 15 µg dose (7492, 4959-11 319), and the two 45 µg dose cohorts (8770, 5526-13 920 in the two-dose 45 µg cohort; 8793, 5570-13 881 in the single-dose 45 µg cohort); 4 weeks after the second dose (day 57) with two 5 µg doses (102 400, 64 857-161 676), with two 15 µg doses (74 725, 51 300-108 847), with two 45 µg doses (79 586, 55 430-114 268), only a single 45 µg dose (4795, 2858-8043). At day 57, 67 (99%) of 68 participants who received two doses of sclamp vaccine at any concentration produced a neutralising immune response, compared with six (25%) of 24 who received a single 45 µg dose and none of 22 who received placebo. Participants receiving two doses of sclamp vaccine elicited similar neutralisation titres, irrespective of dose: two 5 µg doses (GMT 228, 95% CI 146-356), two 15 µg doses (230, 170-312), and two 45 µg doses (239, 187-307). INTERPRETATION: This first-in-human trial shows that a subunit vaccine comprising mammalian cell culture-derived, MF59-adjuvanted, molecular clamp-stabilised recombinant spike protein elicits strong immune responses with a promising safety profile. However, the glycoprotein 41 peptide present in the clamp created HIV diagnostic assay interference, a possible barrier to widespread use highlighting the criticality of potential non-spike directed immunogenicity during vaccine development. Studies are ongoing with alternative molecular clamp trimerisation domains to ameliorate this response. FUNDING: Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations, National Health and Medical Research Council, Queensland Government, and further philanthropic sources listed in the acknowledgments.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Squalene/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Australia , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Polysorbates , Vaccination/adverse effects , Young Adult
17.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 19(2): 222-233, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607212

ABSTRACT

Although antivirals are important tools to control severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, effective vaccines are essential to control the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Plant-derived virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine candidates have previously demonstrated immunogenicity and efficacy against influenza. Here, we report the immunogenicity and protection induced in rhesus macaques by intramuscular injections of a VLP bearing a SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (CoVLP) vaccine candidate formulated with or without Adjuvant System 03 (AS03) or cytidine-phospho-guanosine (CpG) 1018. Although a single dose of the unadjuvanted CoVLP vaccine candidate stimulated humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, booster immunization (at 28 days after priming) and adjuvant administration significantly improved both responses, with higher immunogenicity and protection provided by the AS03-adjuvanted CoVLP. Fifteen micrograms of CoVLP adjuvanted with AS03 induced a polyfunctional interleukin-2 (IL-2)-driven response and IL-4 expression in CD4 T cells. Animals were challenged by multiple routes (i.e., intratracheal, intranasal, and ocular) with a total viral dose of 106 plaque-forming units of SARS-CoV-2. Lower viral replication in nasal swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) as well as fewer SARS-CoV-2-infected cells and immune cell infiltrates in the lungs concomitant with reduced levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemotactic factors in the BALF were observed in animals immunized with the CoVLP adjuvanted with AS03. No clinical, pathologic, or virologic evidence of vaccine-associated enhanced disease was observed in vaccinated animals. The CoVLP adjuvanted with AS03 was therefore selected for vaccine development and clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Polysorbates/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Squalene/adverse effects , Tobacco/metabolism , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/adverse effects , alpha-Tocopherol/adverse effects , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Combinations , Drug Compounding/methods , Immunity, Humoral , Macaca mulatta , Male , Polysorbates/administration & dosage , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Squalene/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/administration & dosage , alpha-Tocopherol/administration & dosage
18.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 52(1): 12-17, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532747

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is the excipient found in the mRNA COVID-19 vaccines. We previously demonstrated PEG allergy was a cause of severe anaphylaxis to the Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. PEG is widely used in many household products, cosmetics and medicines. However PEG allergy is rare, there have been few confirmed cases of PEG allergy. The excipient of potential concern in the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine is polysorbate 80 (PS80). Cross-reactivity between PEG and polysorbate has been suggested, based on their composition and skin-test data. The aim of this study was to determine whether PEG-allergic patients could be vaccinated with the PS80 containing AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine. METHOD: Eight patients with PEG allergy were identified by the allergy clinic at Cambridge University Hospital. Patients underwent skin prick testing to PS80 (20%) and to the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine prior to vaccination. RESULTS: All eight patients allergic to PEG tolerated the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine, even in 2 patients where the PS80 skin prick test was positive and 1 with a positive skin prick test to the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine. CONCLUSION: Patients allergic to PEG, previously denied COVID vaccination, may now be safely vaccinated with the PS80 containing AstraZeneca vaccine and need only avoid the PEG-containing mRNA COVID-19 vaccines. This opens up the possibility that these patients will also tolerate other vaccines containing PS80 such as the Janssen/Johnson and Johnson COVID-19 vaccine. Clinical cross-reactivity between PEG and PS80 did not occur in this vaccine setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/immunology , Drug Hypersensitivity/immunology , Polyethylene Glycols , Polysorbates , Adult , Aged , Drug Hypersensitivity/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Tests
19.
Reprod Toxicol ; 107: 69-80, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531737

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection resulting in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has afflicted tens of millions of people in a worldwide pandemic. A recently developed recombinant Plant-Derived Virus-Like Particle Vaccine candidate for COVID-19 (CoVLP) formulated with AS03 has been shown to be well-tolerated and highly immunogenic in healthy adults. Since the target population for the vaccine includes women of childbearing potential, the objective of the study was to evaluate any untoward prenatal and postnatal effects of AS03-adjuvanted CoVLP administered intramuscularly to Sprague-Dawley female rats before cohabitation for mating (22 and 8 days prior) and during gestation (Gestation Days [GD] 6 and 19). The embryo-fetal development (EFD) cohort was subjected to cesarean on GD 21 and the pre/post-natal (PPN) cohort was allowed to naturally deliver. Effects of AS03-adjuvanted CoVLP was evaluated on pregnant rats, embryo-fetal development (EFD), during parturition, lactation and the development of the F1 offspring up to weaning Vaccination with AS03-adjuvanted CoVLP induced an antibody response in F0 females and anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific maternal antibodies were detected in the offspring at the end of the gestation and lactation periods. Overall, there was no evidence of untoward effects of AS03-adjuvanted CoVLP on the fertility or reproductive performance of the vaccinated F0 females. There was no evidence of untoward effects on embryo-fetal development (including teratogenicity), or early (pre-weaning) development of the F1 offspring. These results support the acceptable safety profile of the AS03-adjuvanted CoVLP vaccine for administration to women of childbearing potential.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Embryonic Development/drug effects , Fertility/drug effects , Fetal Development/drug effects , Polysorbates/administration & dosage , Squalene/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/administration & dosage , alpha-Tocopherol/administration & dosage , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Drug Combinations , Female , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Maternal-Fetal Exchange , Pregnancy , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Tobacco/genetics
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