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1.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(5): e0055022, 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2068501

ABSTRACT

Iodine-containing systems show broad antiseptic properties that can be an invaluable tool in controlling infections in humans and animals. Here, we describe the first proof-of-concept studies on biocidal active polyamide- and polyurethane-iodine complexes that are produced in situ directly during the fabrication and/or polymerization process at laboratory and commercially relevant scales. These polymer-iodine materials are active against a broad range of microorganisms, including bacteria and fungi. It is suggested that the ease of manufacture and subsequent commercialization make said systems especially suited for applications as base materials for medical devices to reduce infection risks and control the spread of pathogens. IMPORTANCE Infectious diseases are of mounting medical and public concern. A major contributor to this trend is the proliferation of medical implants, which are inherently vulnerable to microbial contamination and the subsequent onset of hospital-acquired infections. Moreover, implant-associated infections in humans are often difficult to diagnose and treat and are associated with substantial health care costs. Here, we present the development of biocidal active polyamide- and polyurethane-iodine complexes that are generated in situ during fabrication. We show that the excellent antiseptic properties of water-soluble povidone-iodine can be similarly realized in water-insoluble engineering plastics, specifically polyamide- and polyurethane-iodine. These complexes have inherent biocidal activity against major pathogenic bacteria and fungi.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local , Iodine , Animals , Humans , Povidone-Iodine , Iodine/pharmacology , Polymers/pharmacology , Polyurethanes , Nylons , Bacteria , Water
2.
Chemosphere ; 309(Pt 1): 136748, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2060531

ABSTRACT

The fight against the COVID-19 epidemic significantly raises the global demand for personal protective equipment, especially disposable face masks (DFMs). The discarded DFMs may become a potential source of microplastics (MPs), which has attracted much attention. In this work, we identified the detailed source of MPs released from DFMs with laser direct infrared spectroscopy. Polypropylene (PP) and polyurethane (PU) accounted for 24.5% and 57.1% of released MPs, respectively. The melt-blown fabric was a dominant MPs source, however, previous studies underestimated the contribution of mask rope. The captured polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyamide (PA), polyethylene (PE), and polystyrene (PS) in airborne only shared 18.4% of released MPs. To deepen the understanding of MPs release from medical mask into the aquatic environment, we investigated the effects of environmental factors on MPs release. Based on regression analysis, the effects of temperature, incubation time, and wearing time significantly affect the release of MPs. Besides, acidity, alkalinity, sodium chloride, and humic acid also contributed to the MPs release through corroding, swelling, or repulsion of fibers. Based on the exposure of medical mask to simulated environments, the number of released MPs followed the order: seawater > simulated gut-fluid > freshwater > pure water. Considering the risk of MPs released from DFMs to the environment, we innovatively established a novel flotation removal system combined with cocoamidopropyl betaine, achieving 86% removal efficiency of MPs in water. This work shed the light on the MPs release from DFMs and proposed a removal strategy for the control of MPs pollution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Humans , Microplastics , Plastics , Polystyrenes/chemistry , Polypropylenes , Polyethylene Terephthalates , Humic Substances , Masks , Nylons , Polyurethanes , Sodium Chloride , Betaine , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Polyethylene/chemistry , Water
3.
J Laryngol Otol ; 136(2): 173-175, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616899

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rhino-orbital mucormycosis was seen in epidemic proportions during the second wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Many of these post-coronavirus rhino-orbital mucormycosis patients underwent maxillectomy for disease clearance. Rehabilitating such a large number of patients with surgical obturators as an emergency in a low-income setting was challenging. METHODS: High-density polyurethane foam was used to make a temporary obturator for patients who underwent maxillectomy. These obturators helped alleviate functional problems like dysphagia and nasal regurgitation, improving nutritional outcomes and shortening the hospital stay. CONCLUSION: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic gave physicians time-sensitive challenges, for which immediate alternatives to established care were required. A maxillary obturator made of high-density polyurethane foam is an innovative solution to rehabilitate maxillectomy patients in the immediate post-operative period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Maxilla/surgery , Mucormycosis/surgery , Orbital Diseases/surgery , Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures/rehabilitation , Palatal Obturators , Polyurethanes , Rhinitis/surgery , Debridement , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 21(1): 115, 2021 04 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1182027

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused unexpected pressure on medical supplies, interrupting supply chains and increasing prices. The supply of antiviral filters which form an essential part of the ventilator circuit have been affected by these issues. Three-dimensional (3D) printing may provide a solution to some of these issues. METHODS: We designed and tested 3D printed heat and moisture exchange (HME) and antiviral casing. For each casing we tested two different filter materials derived from a sediment water filter cartridge or 1.5-µm glass fiber filter paper. A polyurethane sponge was used for the HME. Each design was tested for circuit leak, circuit compliance, peak inspiratory pressure and casing integrity using methylene blue dye. RESULTS: We designed, produced, and tested two different types of antiviral filters with six different internal configurations. Overall, we tested 10 modified filter designs and compared them with the original commercial filter. Except for the combination of 1.5-µm filter paper and 5 mm sponge peak inspiratory pressure and circuit compliance of the filters produced were within the operating limits of the ventilator. All In addition, all filters passed the dye test. CONCLUSIONS: Our filter may be of particular importance to those working in low middle-income countries unable to compete with stronger economies. Our design relies on products available outside the healthcare supply chain, much of which can be purchased in grocery stores, hardware stores, or industrial and academic institutions. We hope that these HMEs and viral filters may be beneficial to clinicians who face critical supply chain issues during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Printing, Three-Dimensional , Ultrafiltration/instrumentation , Ventilators, Mechanical , Viruses , COVID-19/therapy , Coloring Agents , Equipment Design , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Paper , Peak Expiratory Flow Rate , Polyurethanes , Reproducibility of Results , Surgical Sponges
5.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241100, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-892385

ABSTRACT

Both polyester and foam nasal swabs were collected from convalescent COVID-19 patients at a single visit and stored in viral transport media (VTM), saline or dry. Sensitivity of each swab material and media combination were estimated, three by three tables were constructed to measure polyester and foam concordance, and cycle threshold (Ct) values were compared. 126 visits had polyester and foam swabs stored in viral transport media (VTM), 51 had swabs stored in saline, and 63 had a foam swab in VTM and a polyester swab stored in a dry tube. Polyester and foam swabs had an estimated sensitivity of 87.3% and 94.5% respectively in VTM, 87.5% and 93.8% respectively in saline, and 75.0% and 90.6% respectively for dry polyester and foam VTM. Polyester and foam Ct values were correlated, but polyester showed decreased performance for cases with a viral load near the detection threshold and higher Ct values on average.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Convalescence , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Nasal Cavity/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Polyesters , Polyurethanes , Specimen Handling/instrumentation , Adult , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Culture Media , Disposable Equipment/supply & distribution , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/analysis , Random Allocation , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Saline Solution , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling/methods , Viral Load
6.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e039424, 2020 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-788150

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We examined the ability of fabrics which might be used to create home-made face masks to filter out ultrafine (0.02-0.1 µm) particles at the velocity of adult human coughing. METHODS: Twenty commonly available fabrics and materials were evaluated for their ability to reduce air concentrations of ultrafine particles at coughing face velocities. Further assessment was made on the filtration ability of selected fabrics while damp and of fabric combinations which might be used to construct home-made masks. RESULTS: Single fabric layers blocked a range of ultrafine particles. When fabrics were layered, a higher percentage of ultrafine particles were filtered. The average filtration efficiency of single layer fabrics and of layered combination was found to be 35% and 45%, respectively. Non-woven fusible interfacing, when combined with other fabrics, could add up to 11% additional filtration efficiency. However, fabric and fabric combinations were more difficult to breathe through than N95 masks. CONCLUSIONS: The current coronavirus pandemic has left many communities without access to N95 face masks. Our findings suggest that face masks made from layered common fabric can help filter ultrafine particles and provide some protection for the wearer when commercial face masks are unavailable.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cough , Masks/supply & distribution , Materials Testing , Particulate Matter , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Textiles , Air Filters , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cellulose , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cotton Fiber , Humans , Nylons , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Polyesters , Polyurethanes , Respiratory Protective Devices/supply & distribution , SARS-CoV-2 , Wool Fiber
7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(31): 34723-34727, 2020 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-644208

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes the disease COVID-19, remains viable on solids for periods of up to 1 week, so one potential route for human infection is via exposure to an infectious dose from a solid. We have fabricated and tested a coating that is designed to reduce the longevity of SARS-CoV-2 on solids. The coating consists of cuprous oxide (Cu2O) particles bound with polyurethane. After 1 h on coated glass or stainless steel, the viral titer was reduced by about 99.9% on average compared to the uncoated sample. An advantage of a polyurethane-based coating is that polyurethane is already used to coat a large number of everyday objects. Our coating adheres well to glass and stainless steel as well as everyday items that people may fear to touch during a pandemic, such as a doorknob, a pen, and a credit card keypad button. The coating performs well in the cross-hatch durability test and remains intact and active after 13 days of being immersed in water or after exposure to multiple cycles of exposure to the virus and disinfection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Copper/chemistry , Copper/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Polyurethanes/chemistry , Polyurethanes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Surface Properties
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