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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21707, 2021 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504388

ABSTRACT

We investigate the connection between the choice of transportation mode used by commuters and the probability of COVID-19 transmission. This interplay might influence the choice of transportation means for years to come. We present data on commuting, socioeconomic factors, and COVID-19 disease incidence for several US metropolitan areas. The data highlights important connections between population density and mobility, public transportation use, race, and increased likelihood of transmission. We use a transportation model to highlight the effect of uncertainty about transmission on the commuters' choice of transportation means. Using multiple estimation techniques, we found strong evidence that public transit ridership in several US metro areas has been considerably impacted by COVID-19 and by the policy responses to the pandemic. Concerns about disease transmission had a negative effect on ridership, which is over and above the adverse effect from the observed reduction in employment. The COVID-19 effect is likely to reduce the demand for public transport in favor of lower density alternatives. This change relative to the status quo will have implications for fuel use, congestion, accident frequency, and air quality. More vulnerable communities might be disproportionally affected as a result. We point to the need for additional studies to further quantify these effects and to assist policy in planning for the post-COVID-19 transportation future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Transportation/economics , Transportation/statistics & numerical data , Cities , Employment/trends , Humans , Motor Vehicles/economics , Motor Vehicles/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Population Density , Population Dynamics/trends , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Socioeconomic Factors , Transportation/methods , United States/epidemiology
2.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0259037, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496524

ABSTRACT

Epidemiological simulations as a method are used to better understand and predict the spreading of infectious diseases, for example of COVID-19. This paper presents an approach that combines a well-established approach from transportation modelling that uses person-centric data-driven human mobility modelling with a mechanistic infection model and a person-centric disease progression model. The model includes the consequences of different room sizes, air exchange rates, disease import, changed activity participation rates over time (coming from mobility data), masks, indoors vs. outdoors leisure activities, and of contact tracing. It is validated against the infection dynamics in Berlin (Germany). The model can be used to understand the contributions of different activity types to the infection dynamics over time. It predicts the effects of contact reductions, school closures/vacations, masks, or the effect of moving leisure activities from outdoors to indoors in fall, and is thus able to quantitatively predict the consequences of interventions. It is shown that these effects are best given as additive changes of the reproduction number R. The model also explains why contact reductions have decreasing marginal returns, i.e. the first 50% of contact reductions have considerably more effect than the second 50%. Our work shows that is is possible to build detailed epidemiological simulations from microscopic mobility models relatively quickly. They can be used to investigate mechanical aspects of the dynamics, such as the transmission from political decisions via human behavior to infections, consequences of different lockdown measures, or consequences of wearing masks in certain situations. The results can be used to inform political decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Contact Tracing/methods , Berlin , COVID-19/metabolism , Cell Phone/trends , Computer Simulation , Germany , Hand Disinfection/trends , Humans , Masks/trends , Models, Theoretical , Physical Distancing , Population Dynamics/trends , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Systems Analysis
3.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255259, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344152

ABSTRACT

In response to the soaring needs of human mobility data, especially during disaster events such as the COVID-19 pandemic, and the associated big data challenges, we develop a scalable online platform for extracting, analyzing, and sharing multi-source multi-scale human mobility flows. Within the platform, an origin-destination-time (ODT) data model is proposed to work with scalable query engines to handle heterogenous mobility data in large volumes with extensive spatial coverage, which allows for efficient extraction, query, and aggregation of billion-level origin-destination (OD) flows in parallel at the server-side. An interactive spatial web portal, ODT Flow Explorer, is developed to allow users to explore multi-source mobility datasets with user-defined spatiotemporal scales. To promote reproducibility and replicability, we further develop ODT Flow REST APIs that provide researchers with the flexibility to access the data programmatically via workflows, codes, and programs. Demonstrations are provided to illustrate the potential of the APIs integrating with scientific workflows and with the Jupyter Notebook environment. We believe the platform coupled with the derived multi-scale mobility data can assist human mobility monitoring and analysis during disaster events such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and benefit both scientific communities and the general public in understanding human mobility dynamics.


Subject(s)
Information Dissemination/methods , Population Dynamics/trends , Big Data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Models, Statistical , Numerical Analysis, Computer-Assisted , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Population Dynamics/statistics & numerical data , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Workflow
4.
Lancet Digit Health ; 3(6): e349-e359, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240695

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Until broad vaccination coverage is reached and effective therapeutics are available, controlling population mobility (ie, changes in the spatial location of a population that affect the spread and distribution of pathogens) is one of the major interventions used to reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2. However, population mobility differs across locations, which could reduce the effectiveness of pandemic control measures. Here we assess the extent to which socioeconomic factors are associated with reductions in population mobility during the COVID-19 pandemic, at both the city level in China and at the country level worldwide. METHODS: In this retrospective, observational study, we obtained anonymised daily mobile phone location data for 358 Chinese cities from Baidu, and for 121 countries from Google COVID-19 Community Mobility Reports. We assessed the intra-city movement intensity, inflow intensity, and outflow intensity of each Chinese city between Jan 25 (when the national emergency response was implemented) and Feb 18, 2020 (when population mobility was lowest) and compared these data to the corresponding lunar calendar period from the previous year (Feb 5 to March 1, 2019). Chinese cities were classified into four socioeconomic index (SEI) groups (high SEI, high-middle SEI, middle SEI, and low SEI) and the association between socioeconomic factors and changes in population mobility were assessed using univariate and multivariable linear regression. At the country level, we compared six types of mobility (residential, transit stations, workplaces, retail and recreation, parks, and groceries and pharmacies) 35 days after the implementation of the national emergency response in each country and compared these to data from the same day of the week in the baseline period (Jan 3 to Feb 6, 2020). We assessed associations between changes in the six types of mobility and the country's sociodemographic index using univariate and multivariable linear regression. FINDINGS: The reduction in intra-city movement intensity in China was stronger in cities with a higher SEI than in those with a lower SEI (r=-0·47, p<0·0001). However, reductions in inter-city movement flow (both inflow and outflow intensity) were not associated with SEI and were only associated with government control measures. In the country-level analysis, countries with higher sociodemographic and Universal Health Coverage indexes had greater reductions in population mobility (ie, in transit stations, workplaces, and retail and recreation) following national emergency declarations than those with lower sociodemographic and Universal Health Coverage indexes. A higher sociodemographic index showed a greater reduction in mobility in transit stations (r=-0·27, p=0·0028), workplaces (r=-0·34, p=0·0002), and areas retail and recreation (rxs=-0·30, p=0·0012) than those with a lower sociodemographic index. INTERPRETATION: Although COVID-19 outbreaks are more frequently reported in larger cities, our analysis shows that future policies should prioritise the reduction of risks in areas with a low socioeconomic level-eg, by providing financial assistance and improving public health messaging. However, our study design only allows us to assess associations, and a long-term study is needed to decipher causality. FUNDING: Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology, Research Council of Norway, Beijing Municipal Science & Technology Commission, Beijing Natural Science Foundation, Beijing Advanced Innovation Program for Land Surface Science, National Natural Science Foundation of China, China Association for Science and Technology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Population Dynamics , Socioeconomic Factors , Travel , Adult , Cell Phone , China , Cities , Global Health , Humans , Physical Distancing , Population Dynamics/trends , Population Surveillance/methods , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Nat Med ; 26(12): 1919-1928, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872715

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has changed many social, economic, environmental and healthcare determinants of health. We applied an ensemble of 16 Bayesian models to vital statistics data to estimate the all-cause mortality effect of the pandemic for 21 industrialized countries. From mid-February through May 2020, 206,000 (95% credible interval, 178,100-231,000) more people died in these countries than would have had the pandemic not occurred. The number of excess deaths, excess deaths per 100,000 people and relative increase in deaths were similar between men and women in most countries. England and Wales and Spain experienced the largest effect: ~100 excess deaths per 100,000 people, equivalent to a 37% (30-44%) relative increase in England and Wales and 38% (31-45%) in Spain. Bulgaria, New Zealand, Slovakia, Australia, Czechia, Hungary, Poland, Norway, Denmark and Finland experienced mortality changes that ranged from possible small declines to increases of 5% or less in either sex. The heterogeneous mortality effects of the COVID-19 pandemic reflect differences in how well countries have managed the pandemic and the resilience and preparedness of the health and social care system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Demography , Developed Countries/statistics & numerical data , Mortality , Pandemics , Population Dynamics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cause of Death/trends , Female , Geography , Humans , Industrial Development/statistics & numerical data , Male , Mortality/trends , Population Density , Population Dynamics/statistics & numerical data , Population Dynamics/trends , Public Policy , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Time Factors
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