Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 574
Filter
1.
Lancet Digit Health ; 3(9): e577-e586, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2184865

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multiple voluntary surveillance platforms were developed across the world in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, providing a real-time understanding of population-based COVID-19 epidemiology. During this time, testing criteria broadened and health-care policies matured. We aimed to test whether there were consistent associations of symptoms with SARS-CoV-2 test status across three surveillance platforms in three countries (two platforms per country), during periods of testing and policy changes. METHODS: For this observational study, we used data of observations from three volunteer COVID-19 digital surveillance platforms (Carnegie Mellon University and University of Maryland Facebook COVID-19 Symptom Survey, ZOE COVID Symptom Study app, and the Corona Israel study) targeting communities in three countries (Israel, the UK, and the USA; two platforms per country). The study population included adult respondents (age 18-100 years at baseline) who were not health-care workers. We did logistic regression of self-reported symptoms on self-reported SARS-CoV-2 test status (positive or negative), adjusted for age and sex, in each of the study cohorts. We compared odds ratios (ORs) across platforms and countries, and we did meta-analyses assuming a random effects model. We also evaluated testing policy changes, COVID-19 incidence, and time scales of duration of symptoms and symptom-to-test time. FINDINGS: Between April 1 and July 31, 2020, 514 459 tests from over 10 million respondents were recorded in the six surveillance platform datasets. Anosmia-ageusia was the strongest, most consistent symptom associated with a positive COVID-19 test (robust aggregated rank one, meta-analysed random effects OR 16·96, 95% CI 13·13-21·92). Fever (rank two, 6·45, 4·25-9·81), shortness of breath (rank three, 4·69, 3·14-7·01), and cough (rank four, 4·29, 3·13-5·88) were also highly associated with test positivity. The association of symptoms with test status varied by duration of illness, timing of the test, and broader test criteria, as well as over time, by country, and by platform. INTERPRETATION: The strong association of anosmia-ageusia with self-reported positive SARS-CoV-2 test was consistently observed, supporting its validity as a reliable COVID-19 signal, regardless of the participatory surveillance platform, country, phase of illness, or testing policy. These findings show that associations between COVID-19 symptoms and test positivity ranked similarly in a wide range of scenarios. Anosmia, fever, and respiratory symptoms consistently had the strongest effect estimates and were the most appropriate empirical signals for symptom-based public health surveillance in areas with insufficient testing or benchmarking capacity. Collaborative syndromic surveillance could enhance real-time epidemiological investigations and public health utility globally. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health, National Institute for Health Research, Alzheimer's Society, Wellcome Trust, and Massachusetts Consortium on Pathogen Readiness.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , Anosmia , COVID-19 , Cough , Dyspnea , Fever , Population Surveillance/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ageusia/epidemiology , Ageusia/etiology , Anosmia/epidemiology , Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/etiology , Digital Technology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
2.
Bull World Health Organ ; 100(6): 366-374, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198263

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the stability of improvements in global respiratory virus surveillance in countries supported by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) after reductions in CDC funding and with the stress of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Methods: We assessed whether national influenza surveillance systems of CDC-funded countries: (i) continued to analyse as many specimens between 2013 and 2021; (ii) participated in activities of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System; (iii) tested enough specimens to detect rare events or signals of unusual activity; and (iv) demonstrated stability before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. We used CDC budget records and data from the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System. Findings: While CDC reduced per-country influenza funding by about 75% over 10 years, the number of specimens tested annually remained stable (mean 2261). Reporting varied substantially by country and transmission zone. Countries funded by CDC accounted for 71% (range 61-75%) of specimens included in WHO consultations on the composition of influenza virus vaccines. In 2019, only eight of the 17 transmission zones sent enough specimens to WHO collaborating centres before the vaccine composition meeting to reliably identify antigenic variants. Conclusion: Great progress has been made in the global understanding of influenza trends and seasonality. To optimize surveillance to identify atypical influenza viruses, and to integrate molecular testing, sequencing and reporting of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 into existing systems, funding must continue to support these efforts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Population Surveillance , United States/epidemiology
3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1053637, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123482

ABSTRACT

Surveillance of Adverse Events Following Vaccination in the Community (SAEFVIC), Victoria's vaccine safety service for reporting adverse events following immunisation (AEFI), has provided integrated spontaneous surveillance and clinical services for individuals affected by AEFI since 2007. We describe SAEFVIC's response to the COVID-19 vaccine program, and reflect on lessons learned for vaccine safety. The massive scale of the Australian COVID-19 vaccine program required rapid adaptations across all aspects of SAEFVIC's vaccine safety services. Collection of AEFI reports was streamlined and expanded, incorporating both spontaneous and active surveillance data. Dramatically increased report volumes were managed with additional staffing, and innovations to automate, filter, and triage reports for priority follow up. There were two major adverse events of special interest (AESI): thrombosis with thrombocytopaenia syndrome and myocarditis, with multiple other AESI also investigated. Rapid escalation mechanisms to respond to AESI were established, along with AESI-specific databases for enhanced monitoring. Vaccine education and training resources were developed and public-facing vaccine safety reports updated weekly. Frequent communication with local and national government and regulatory bodies, and consultation with specialist groups was essential. The COVID-19 vaccine program has highlighted the importance of vaccine safety in supporting public confidence in vaccines and informing evidence-based immunisation policy. Supporting the COVID-19 vaccine program has required flexibility in adapting to policy changes and evolving vaccine safety signals, careful triage and prioritisation, informatics innovation, and enhanced engagement with the public regarding vaccine safety. Long-term investment to continue strengthening vaccine safety systems, building on lessons learned, will be essential for the ongoing success of Australian vaccination programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Pandemics , Population Surveillance , Vaccines
5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 42(Suppl 1): 6, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110977

ABSTRACT

Introduction: South Sudan has been implementing the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy since 2006, along with Early Warning and Alert Response and Network (EWARN). The IDSR/EWARN stakeholders commissioned an independent evaluation to establish performance at national, state, county, health facility, and community levels in the first half of 2021. Methods: the evaluation was conducted between June and September 2021 (during the COVID-19 pandemic) and was based on the World Health Organization (WHO) protocols for monitoring and evaluating communicable disease surveillance and response systems and the guidelines for evaluating EWARN. Results: integrated disease surveillance and response/early warning and alert response and network indicator data showed improving timeliness and completeness from the beginning of 2021 to week 16 and then a slight depression of timeliness by week 32, while completeness remained high. Event-based surveillance was active at the beginning of 2021 and in week 32. However, there was inadequate sample collection to investigate acute watery diarrhea, bloody diarrhea, and acute jaundice syndrome alerts. Respondents in all cadres had substantial experience working in IDSR/EWARN. All respondents performed the various IDSR/EWARN tasks and duties as expected, but needed more resources and training. Conclusion: while IDSR/EWARN is performing relatively well, confirmation of priority diseases by the laboratories needs to be strengthened. Health facilities need more regular supervision from the higher levels. Community health workers need more training on IDSR/EWARN. The whole IDSR/EWARN system needs more resources, particularly for communication and transport and to confirm priority diseases. Staff at all levels requested more training in IDSR/EWARN.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Diarrhea , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pandemics , Population Surveillance/methods , South Sudan/epidemiology
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 42(Suppl 1): 13, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110976

ABSTRACT

Introduction: decades of instability continue to impact the implementation of the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy. The study reviewed the progress and outcomes of rolling out IDSR in South Sudan. Methods: this descriptive cross-sectional study used epidemiological data for 2019, 2020, and other program data to assess indicators for the five surveillance components including surveillance priorities, core and support functions, and surveillance system structure and quality. Results: South Sudan expanded the priority disease scope from 26 to 59 to align with national and regional epidemiological trends and the International Health Regulations (IHR) 2005. Completing the countrywide rollout of electronic Early Warning Alert and Response (EWARS) reporting has improved both the timeliness and completeness of weekly reporting to 78% and 90%, respectively, by week 39 of 2020 in comparison to a baseline of 54% on both timeliness and completeness of reporting in 2019. The National Public Health Laboratory confirmatory testing capacities have been expanded to include cholera, measles, HIV, tuberculosis (TB), influenza, Ebola, yellow fever, and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome 2 (SARS-COV-2). Rapid response teams have been established to respond to epidemics and pandemics. Conclusion: since 2006, South Sudan has registered progress towards using indicator and event-based surveillance and continues to strengthen IHR (2005) capacities. Following the adoption of third edition IDSR guidelines, the current emphasis entails maintaining earlier gains and strengthening community and event-based surveillance, formalizing cross-sectoral one-health engagement, optimal EWARS and District Health Information Systems (DHIS2) use, and strengthening cross-border surveillance. It is also critical that optimal government, and donors' resources are dedicated to supporting health system strengthening and disease surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Population Surveillance , SARS-CoV-2 , South Sudan/epidemiology
8.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 41(7): 820-825, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096308

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Patients with COVID-19 may present with respiratory syndromes indistinguishable from those caused by common viruses. Early isolation and containment is challenging. Although screening all patients with respiratory symptoms for COVID-19 has been recommended, the practicality of such an effort has yet to be assessed. METHODS: Over a 6-week period during a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, our institution introduced a "respiratory surveillance ward" (RSW) to segregate all patients with respiratory symptoms in designated areas, where appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) could be utilized until SARS-CoV-2 testing was done. Patients could be transferred when SARS-CoV-2 tests were negative on 2 consecutive occasions, 24 hours apart. RESULTS: Over the study period, 1,178 patients were admitted to the RSWs. The mean length-of-stay (LOS) was 1.89 days (SD, 1.23). Among confirmed cases of pneumonia admitted to the RSW, 5 of 310 patients (1.61%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. This finding was comparable to the pickup rate from our isolation ward. In total, 126 HCWs were potentially exposed to these cases; however, only 3 (2.38%) required quarantine because most used appropriate PPE. In addition, 13 inpatients overlapped with the index cases during their stay in the RSW; of these 13 exposed inpatients, 1 patient subsequently developed COVID-19 after exposure. No patient-HCW transmission was detected despite intensive surveillance. CONCLUSIONS: Our institution successfully utilized the strategy of an RSW over a 6-week period to contain a cluster of COVID-19 cases and to prevent patient-HCW transmission. However, this method was resource-intensive in terms of testing and bed capacity.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cross Infection/transmission , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Patient Isolation , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Population Surveillance/methods , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross Infection/diagnosis , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Early Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patients' Rooms/organization & administration , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore , Symptom Assessment , Tertiary Care Centers
9.
Commun Dis Intell (2018) ; 462022 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091648
11.
Lancet ; 395(10227): 871-877, 2020 03 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076860

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic has spread from China to 25 countries. Local cycles of transmission have already occurred in 12 countries after case importation. In Africa, Egypt has so far confirmed one case. The management and control of COVID-19 importations heavily rely on a country's health capacity. Here we evaluate the preparedness and vulnerability of African countries against their risk of importation of COVID-19. METHODS: We used data on the volume of air travel departing from airports in the infected provinces in China and directed to Africa to estimate the risk of importation per country. We determined the country's capacity to detect and respond to cases with two indicators: preparedness, using the WHO International Health Regulations Monitoring and Evaluation Framework; and vulnerability, using the Infectious Disease Vulnerability Index. Countries were clustered according to the Chinese regions contributing most to their risk. FINDINGS: Countries with the highest importation risk (ie, Egypt, Algeria, and South Africa) have moderate to high capacity to respond to outbreaks. Countries at moderate risk (ie, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Sudan, Angola, Tanzania, Ghana, and Kenya) have variable capacity and high vulnerability. We identified three clusters of countries that share the same exposure to the risk originating from the provinces of Guangdong, Fujian, and the city of Beijing, respectively. INTERPRETATION: Many countries in Africa are stepping up their preparedness to detect and cope with COVID-19 importations. Resources, intensified surveillance, and capacity building should be urgently prioritised in countries with moderate risk that might be ill-prepared to detect imported cases and to limit onward transmission. FUNDING: EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation Horizon 2020, Agence Nationale de la Recherche.


Subject(s)
Civil Defense , Coronavirus Infections , Epidemics/prevention & control , Health Resources , Models, Theoretical , Pneumonia, Viral , Population Surveillance , Vulnerable Populations , Africa/epidemiology , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Health Planning , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Risk Assessment , Travel
12.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(40): 1260-1264, 2022 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056548

ABSTRACT

To evaluate progress toward prevention of enteric infections in the United States, the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) conducts active population-based surveillance for laboratory-diagnosed infections caused by Campylobacter, Cyclospora, Listeria, Salmonella, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), Shigella, Vibrio, and Yersinia at 10 U.S. sites. This report summarizes preliminary 2021 data and describes changes in annual incidence compared with the average annual incidence for 2016-2018, the reference period for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' (HHS) Healthy People 2030 goals for some pathogens (1). During 2021, the incidence of infections caused by Salmonella decreased, incidence of infections caused by Cyclospora, Yersinia, and Vibrio increased, and incidence of infections caused by other pathogens did not change. As in 2020, behavioral modifications and public health interventions implemented to control the COVID-19 pandemic might have decreased transmission of enteric infections (2). Other factors (e.g., increased use of telemedicine and continued increase in use of culture-independent diagnostic tests [CIDTs]) might have altered their detection or reporting (2). Much work remains to achieve HHS Healthy People 2030 goals, particularly for Salmonella infections, which are frequently attributed to poultry products and produce, and Campylobacter infections, which are frequently attributed to chicken products (3).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Foodborne Diseases , Vibrio , Foodborne Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Population Surveillance , Salmonella , United States/epidemiology , Watchful Waiting
15.
Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique ; 70(6): 277-285, 2022 Nov.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036469

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The management measures to contain the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in 2020 has upset the organization of society, particularly the organization of the health system. We aimed to analyze the evolution of induced abortions in the Paris region in 2020 and to highlight the impact of the first confinement. METHOD: Data from the National Health Insurance plan was analyzed to study abortion during the pandemic period (2020) compared to the previous four years (2016-2019). In 2020 the indicators of induced abortion were studied monthly to highlight the impact of the confinement. The age of women, the method used to terminate the pregnancy, the gestational age at the time of the abortion and the area of residence of women were analyzed. RESULTS: After five consecutive years of increasing abortion rates, our result showed that the number of abortions declined from 53,601 in 2019 to 50,615 in 2020 (decline of 5.6%). The abortion rate was 17.3 per 1,000 women aged 15-49 in 2019 and 16.3‰ in 2020. This drop was observed within 4 weeks following the first confinement. It concerned particularly abortions carried out in the hospital context and abortions of young women (< 25 years old). In 2020 the rate of medical abortions increased compared to the 4 years preceding the pandemic. The use of local anesthesia for surgical abortions also increased in the Paris region during the first confinement. Our study showed a fewer proportion of late abortion (over 12 weeks of amenorrhea) in 2020. This analysis also showed a drop in the number of births in the eight to nine months that followed the first confinement in the Paris region. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has had health consequences not directly attributable to the virus. In terms of reproduction, the pandemic, particularly the first lockdown, has been associated to a decrease in conceptions resulting in a decrease in the number pregnancies including those ending in induced abortion or childbirth. The reduction of abortions is observed in the four weeks following the first confinement and the fall in the birth rate in the following 8 to 9 months.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Induced , COVID-19 , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Adult , Abortion, Legal , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , SARS-CoV-2 , Communicable Disease Control
16.
Prev Med ; 163: 107216, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004626

ABSTRACT

This study sought to characterize frequency and demographic characteristics of firearm injury and penetrating trauma in Maryland over the first year of the pandemic, by comparing these characteristics to those of the three years prior to stay-at-home order issuance. Patients were identified in the Maryland Health Services Cost Review Commission database using ICD-10 codes for firearm injury by all intents and assaults by penetrating trauma. Cases from July 1, 2017 to March 31, 2020 ("pre-stay-at-home") were compared to those from April 1, 2020 to March 31, 2021 ("post-stay-at-home") using descriptive statistics. There was no significant change overall in frequency or demographics of firearm injury or penetrating trauma in the year after stay-at-home orders were issued. Youth between ages 15 and 24, overwhelmingly male, comprise a disproportionately high percentage of firearm injuries and assaults, and most penetrating trauma occurs in urban environments where Black non-Hispanic youth and children of low socioeconomic status are at high risk. Our study also found unintentional firearm injury among adults was significantly increased during the pandemic. While increased unintentional firearm injury among adults was the major significant change found in our study, the persistence of firearm injury, particularly in youth, racial and ethnic minority groups, and those in urban environments, should be deeply concerning. Stay-at-home policies did not keep youth safer from firearm injury. With continued high rates of firearm injury and the national debate over how to prevent these incidents, increased education and comprehensive strategies for prevention are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Firearms , Wounds, Gunshot , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Ethnicity , Humans , Male , Maryland/epidemiology , Minority Groups , Population Surveillance , United States , Violence , Wounds, Gunshot/epidemiology , Wounds, Gunshot/prevention & control , Young Adult
17.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1607, 2022 08 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002155

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Indonesia has not optimally provided complete and reliable civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS). Death certification is one of the elements of the CRVS system. Reliable data on death rates and causes serve as the basis for building a strong evidence base for public health policy, planning, monitoring, and evaluation. This study aims to implement an approach to identifying the cause of death through verbal autopsy by empowering community health workers during the pandemic. METHOD: This study is implementation research with the empowerment of the community, in this case, health cadres and health facilitators/workers, to identify the cause of death through a mobile-based verbal autopsy. This implementation research consisted of four main activities: community-based verbal autopsy, mobile-based verbal autopsy development, data collection, and analysis of the suspected causes of death using InterVA-5. RESULT: From October to November 2020, a total of 143 respondents were willing to do a verbal autopsy interview (response rate of 58%). Of 143 respondents, most of them were women (112 or 78.3%), was the child of the deceased (61 or 42.7%) and lived with the deceased until before he/she died (120 or 83.9%). Based on the characteristics of the deceased, of 143 deceased, 78 (54.5%) were male, 134 (93.7%) were adults, 100 (69.9%) died at home, and 119 (83.2%) did not have a death certificate stating the cause of death. The cause of death of 143 deceased mainly was infectious disease (92 or 64.3%), followed by non-communicable disease (39 or 27.3%), external factors (5 or 3.5%), and unknown factors (4 or 2.8%). In sequence, the top five suspected causes of death are acute respiratory infection, including pneumonia (72 or 50.3%), other and unspecified infectious disease (18 or 12.6%), other and unspecified cardiac disease (17 or 11.9%), acute cardiac disease (4 or 2.8%), and Digestive neoplasms (4 or 2.8%). CONCLUSION: The findings showed that the mobile-based verbal autopsy using a community-based mechanism was feasible during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Heart Diseases , Noncommunicable Diseases , Adult , Autopsy , Cause of Death , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Population Surveillance
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(15)2022 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994070

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: According to the WHO, "unsafe abortion occurs when a pregnancy is terminated either by people lacking the necessary skills or in an environment that does not conform to minimal medical standards, or both". AIM: To review the legislation that ensures access to elective abortion and the main indicators of elective abortion in Spain. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted across all regions of Spain from 2011 to 2020. The regulations of each region on the creation of the clinical committee and the creation of the registry of conscientious objector professionals were identified. Data were collected on rates of elective abortions per 1000 women, type of health center where the intervention was performed, interval of weeks of gestation, and cause. RESULTS: After Law 2/2010 entered into force, the Spanish regions created a clinical committee; however, very few regions have a registry of conscientious objectors. During the study period, the average annual rate in Spain was 11.10 elective abortions per 1000 women between 15 and 44 years of age, showing a decreasing trend (annual percentage change of -1.92%). Only 10.67% of abortions were performed at public centers. In 90.18% of the cases, abortions were performed at the woman's request. CONCLUSION: Spain legislated late compared to most European Union countries. The current law is similar to that of other member states, allowing abortion at the woman's request in the first fourteen weeks and thereafter for medical reasons. Most abortions are performed at private centers, although many territorial inequalities are observed.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Induced , Abortion, Legal , Female , Humans , Incidence , Population Surveillance , Pregnancy , Spain/epidemiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL