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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(40): 1464-1468, 2020 Oct 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-842550

ABSTRACT

Wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) transmission is ongoing only in Afghanistan and Pakistan (1). Following a decline in case numbers during 2013-2016, the number of cases in Afghanistan has increased each year during 2017-2020. This report describes polio eradication activities and progress toward polio eradication in Afghanistan during January 2019-July 2020 and updates previous reports (2,3). Since April 2018, insurgent groups have imposed bans on house-to-house vaccination. In September 2019, vaccination campaigns in areas under insurgency control were restarted only at health facilities. In addition, during March-June 2020, all campaigns were paused because of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The number of WPV1 cases reported in Afghanistan increased from 21 in 2018 to 29 in 2019. During January-July 2020, 41 WPV1 cases were reported as of August 29, 2020 (compared with 15 during January-July 2019); in addition, 69 cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2), and one case of ambiguous vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (aVDPV2) (isolates with no evidence of person-to-person transmission or from persons with no known immunodeficiency) were detected. Dialogue with insurgency leaders through nongovernmental and international organizations is ongoing in an effort to recommence house-to-house campaigns, which are essential to stopping WPV1 transmission in Afghanistan. To increase community demand for polio vaccination, additional community health needs should be addressed, and polio vaccination should be integrated with humanitarian services.


Subject(s)
Disease Eradication , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Population Surveillance , Adolescent , Afghanistan/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Immunization Programs , Immunization Schedule , Infant , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology , Poliovirus/isolation & purification , Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral/administration & dosage , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
2.
ACS Nano ; 14(4): 3822-3835, 2020 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-832348

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has spread globally since its discovery in Hubei province, China in December 2019. A combination of computed tomography imaging, whole genome sequencing, and electron microscopy were initially used to screen and identify SARS-CoV-2, the viral etiology of COVID-19. The aim of this review article is to inform the audience of diagnostic and surveillance technologies for SARS-CoV-2 and their performance characteristics. We describe point-of-care diagnostics that are on the horizon and encourage academics to advance their technologies beyond conception. Developing plug-and-play diagnostics to manage the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak would be useful in preventing future epidemics.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Point-of-Care Testing , Smartphone , Humans , Mobile Applications , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Pandemics , Population Surveillance , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Viral Proteins/analysis
4.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(3): e19446, 2020 09 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-810086

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The rapid spread of COVID-19 means that government and health services providers have little time to plan and design effective response policies. It is therefore important to quickly provide accurate predictions of how vulnerable geographic regions such as counties are to the spread of this virus. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to develop county-level prediction around near future disease movement for COVID-19 occurrences using publicly available data. METHODS: We estimated county-level COVID-19 occurrences for the period March 14 to 31, 2020, based on data fused from multiple publicly available sources inclusive of health statistics, demographics, and geographical features. We developed a three-stage model using XGBoost, a machine learning algorithm, to quantify the probability of COVID-19 occurrence and estimate the number of potential occurrences for unaffected counties. Finally, these results were combined to predict the county-level risk. This risk was then used as an estimated after-five-day-vulnerability of the county. RESULTS: The model predictions showed a sensitivity over 71% and specificity over 94% for models built using data from March 14 to 31, 2020. We found that population, population density, percentage of people aged >70 years, and prevalence of comorbidities play an important role in predicting COVID-19 occurrences. We observed a positive association at the county level between urbanicity and vulnerability to COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The developed model can be used for identification of vulnerable counties and potential data discrepancies. Limited testing facilities and delayed results introduce significant variation in reported cases, which produces a bias in the model.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Models, Statistical , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Population Surveillance/methods , Aged , Algorithms , Betacoronavirus , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Machine Learning , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Population Density , Risk Assessment , United States , Urban Population
5.
Euro Surveill ; 25(38)2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-797731

ABSTRACT

Mitigation of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic in Germany included school closures in early March 2020. After reopening in April, preventive measures were taken in schools. We analysed national surveillance system data on COVID-19 school outbreaks during different time periods. After reopening, smaller outbreaks (average: 2.2/week) occurred despite low incidence in the general population. School closures might have a detrimental effect on children and should be applied only cautiously and in combination with other measures.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Population Surveillance/methods , Quarantine , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Schools , Time Factors
7.
Euro Surveill ; 25(38)2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-793083

ABSTRACT

Mitigation of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic in Germany included school closures in early March 2020. After reopening in April, preventive measures were taken in schools. We analysed national surveillance system data on COVID-19 school outbreaks during different time periods. After reopening, smaller outbreaks (average: 2.2/week) occurred despite low incidence in the general population. School closures might have a detrimental effect on children and should be applied only cautiously and in combination with other measures.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Population Surveillance/methods , Quarantine , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Schools , Time Factors
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(38): 1364-1368, 2020 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-792837

ABSTRACT

As of September 21, 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic had resulted in 6,786,352 cases and 199,024 deaths in the United States.* Health care personnel (HCP) are essential workers at risk for exposure to patients or infectious materials (1). The impact of COVID-19 on U.S. HCP was first described using national case surveillance data in April 2020 (2). Since then, the number of reported HCP with COVID-19 has increased tenfold. This update describes demographic characteristics, underlying medical conditions, hospitalizations, and intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, stratified by vital status, among 100,570 HCP with COVID-19 reported to CDC during February 12-July 16, 2020. HCP occupation type and job setting are newly reported. HCP status was available for 571,708 (22%) of 2,633,585 cases reported to CDC. Most HCP with COVID-19 were female (79%), aged 16-44 years (57%), not hospitalized (92%), and lacked all 10 underlying medical conditions specified on the case report form† (56%). Of HCP with COVID-19, 641 died. Compared with nonfatal COVID-19 HCP cases, a higher percentage of fatal cases occurred in males (38% versus 22%), persons aged ≥65 years (44% versus 4%), non-Hispanic Asians (Asians) (20% versus 9%), non-Hispanic Blacks (Blacks) (32% versus 25%), and persons with any of the 10 underlying medical conditions specified on the case report form (92% versus 41%). From a subset of jurisdictions reporting occupation type or job setting for HCP with COVID-19, nurses were the most frequently identified single occupation type (30%), and nursing and residential care facilities were the most common job setting (67%). Ensuring access to personal protective equipment (PPE) and training, and practices such as universal use of face masks at work, wearing masks in the community, and observing social distancing remain critical strategies to protect HCP and those they serve.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases/mortality , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
9.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(3): e21653, 2020 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-789092

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hospital workers have been the most frequently and severely affected professional group during the COVID-19 pandemic, and have a big impact on transmission. In this context, innovative tools are required to measure the symptoms compatible with COVID-19, the spread of infection, and testing capabilities within hospitals in real time. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to develop and test an effective and user-friendly tool to identify and track symptoms compatible with COVID-19 in hospital workers. METHODS: We developed and pilot tested Hospital Epidemics Tracker (HEpiTracker), a newly designed app to track the spread of COVID-19 among hospital workers. Hospital staff in 9 hospital centers across 5 Spanish regions (Andalusia, Balearics, Catalonia, Galicia, and Madrid) were invited to download the app on their phones and to register their daily body temperature, COVID-19-compatible symptoms, and general health score, as well as any polymerase chain reaction and serological test results. RESULTS: A total of 477 hospital staff participated in the study between April 8 and June 2, 2020. Of note, both health-related (n=329) and non-health-related (n=148) professionals participated in the study; over two-thirds of participants (68.8%) were health workers (43.4% physicians and 25.4% nurses), while the proportion of non-health-related workers by center ranged from 40% to 85%. Most participants were female (n=323, 67.5%), with a mean age of 45.4 years (SD 10.6). Regarding smoking habits, 13.0% and 34.2% of participants were current or former smokers, respectively. The daily reporting of symptoms was highly variable across participating hospitals; although we observed a decline in adherence after an initial participation peak in some hospitals, other sites were characterized by low participation rates throughout the study period. CONCLUSIONS: HEpiTracker is an already available tool to monitor COVID-19 and other infectious diseases in hospital workers. This tool has already been tested in real conditions. HEpiTracker is available in Spanish, Portuguese, and English. It has the potential to become a customized asset to be used in future COVID-19 pandemic waves and other environments. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04326400; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04326400.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Epidemics , Hospitals , Mass Screening/methods , Mobile Applications , Personnel, Hospital , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Population Surveillance/methods , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Body Temperature , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disclosure , Female , Health Status , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Spain/epidemiology , Telemedicine
10.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 73(suppl 2): e20200350, 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-788931

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to report the experience of telemonitoring Brazilian nursing homes before coronavirus and COVID-19 infections. METHODS: a descriptive experience report that occurred between March 18 and April 25, 2020 through telemonitoring nursing homes in Salvador, Bahia, following a script previously prepared for first contact and follow-up. The telemonitoring was carried out by professors from the School of Nursing of Universidade Federal da Bahia and Graduate Program students for four weeks. RESULTS: thirty-two institutions were followed for four weeks. Some facilities and difficulties appeared during the monitoring. FINAL CONSIDERATIOS: as nursing homes are collective households, their residents are vulnerable to transmission of infections. In addition, the diversity of structures and economic, social and human resources needs of these locations reveal their fragility and urgency of public policies that address such diversities.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Homes for the Aged , Nursing Homes , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Telephone , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Occupational Diseases/diagnosis , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Population Surveillance/methods , Social Skills , Telephone/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(37): 1305-1309, 2020 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-782534

ABSTRACT

After recognition of widespread community transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), by mid- to late February 2020, indicators of influenza activity began to decline in the Northern Hemisphere. These changes were attributed to both artifactual changes related to declines in routine health seeking for respiratory illness as well as real changes in influenza virus circulation because of widespread implementation of measures to mitigate transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Data from clinical laboratories in the United States indicated a 61% decrease in the number of specimens submitted (from a median of 49,696 per week during September 29, 2019-February 29, 2020, to 19,537 during March 1-May 16, 2020) and a 98% decrease in influenza activity as measured by percentage of submitted specimens testing positive (from a median of 19.34% to 0.33%). Interseasonal (i.e., summer) circulation of influenza in the United States (May 17-August 8, 2020) is currently at historical lows (median = 0.20% tests positive in 2020 versus 2.35% in 2019, 1.04% in 2018, and 2.36% in 2017). Influenza data reported to the World Health Organization's (WHO's) FluNet platform from three Southern Hemisphere countries that serve as robust sentinel sites for influenza from Oceania (Australia), South America (Chile), and Southern Africa (South Africa) showed very low influenza activity during June-August 2020, the months that constitute the typical Southern Hemisphere influenza season. In countries or jurisdictions where extensive community mitigation measures are maintained (e.g., face masks, social distancing, school closures, and teleworking), those locations might have little influenza circulation during the upcoming 2020-21 Northern Hemisphere influenza season. The use of community mitigation measures for the COVID-19 pandemic, plus influenza vaccination, are likely to be effective in reducing the incidence and impact of influenza, and some of these mitigation measures could have a role in preventing influenza in future seasons. However, given the novelty of the COVID-19 pandemic and the uncertainty of continued community mitigation measures, it is important to plan for seasonal influenza circulation in the United States this fall and winter. Influenza vaccination of all persons aged ≥6 months remains the best method for influenza prevention and is especially important this season when SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus might cocirculate (1).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Australia/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Humans , South Africa/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
12.
J Epidemiol Glob Health ; 10(3): 204-208, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-781867

ABSTRACT

Death rates due to COVID-19 pandemic vary considerably across regions and countries. Case Mortality Rates (CMR) per 100,000 population are more reliable than case-fatality rates per 100 test-positive cases, which are heavily dependent on the extent of viral case testing carried out in a country. We aimed to study the variations in CMR against population risk factors such as aging, underlying chronic diseases and social determinants such as poverty and overcrowding. Data on COVID-19 CMR in 93 countries was analyzed for associations with preexisting prevalence rates of eight diseases [asthma, lung cancer, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Alzheimer's Disease (AD), hypertension, ischemic heart disease, depression and diabetes], and six socio-demographic factors [Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita, unemployment, age over 65 years, urbanization, population density, and socio-demographic index]. These data were analyzed in three steps: correlation analysis, bivariate comparison of countries, and multivariate modelling. Bivariate analysis revealed that COVID-19 CMR were higher in countries that had high prevalence of population risk factors such as AD, lung cancer, asthma and COPD. On multivariate modeling however, AD, COPD, depression and higher GDP predicted increased death rates. Comorbid illnesses such as AD and lung diseases may be more influential than aging alone.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Mortality , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Population Surveillance , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Risk Factors
14.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 20(1): 235, 2020 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-781441

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data analysis and visualization is an essential tool for exploring and communicating findings in medical research, especially in epidemiological surveillance. RESULTS: Data on COVID-19 diagnosed cases and mortality, from January 1st, 2020, onwards is collected automatically from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). We have developed a Shiny application for data visualization and analysis of several indicators to follow the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic using ECDC data. A country-specific tool for basic epidemiological surveillance, in an interactive and user-friendly manner. The available analyses cover time trends and projections, attack rate, population fatality rate, case fatality rate, and basic reproduction number. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID19-World online web application systematically produces daily updated country-specific data visualization and analysis of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic worldwide. The application may help for a better understanding of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic worldwide.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Computational Biology/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Data Visualization , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Algorithms , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Computational Biology/methods , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Europe/epidemiology , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Internet , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Population Surveillance/methods
17.
Euro Surveill ; 25(25)2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-621605

ABSTRACT

Sentinel surveillance of acute hospitalisations in response to infectious disease emergencies such as the 2009 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic is well described, but recognition of its potential to supplement routine public health surveillance and provide scalability for emergency responses has been limited. We summarise the achievements of two national paediatric hospital surveillance networks relevant to vaccine programmes and emerging infectious diseases in Canada (Canadian Immunization Monitoring Program Active; IMPACT from 1991) and Australia (Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance; PAEDS from 2007) and discuss opportunities and challenges in applying their model to other contexts. Both networks were established to enhance capacity to measure vaccine preventable disease burden, vaccine programme impact, and safety, with their scope occasionally being increased with emerging infectious diseases' surveillance. Their active surveillance has increased data accuracy and utility for syndromic conditions (e.g. encephalitis), pathogen-specific diseases (e.g. pertussis, rotavirus, influenza), and adverse events following immunisation (e.g. febrile seizure), enabled correlation of biological specimens with clinical context and supported responses to emerging infections (e.g. pandemic influenza, parechovirus, COVID-19). The demonstrated long-term value of continuous, rather than incident-related, operation of these networks in strengthening routine surveillance, bridging research gaps, and providing scalable public health response, supports their applicability to other countries.


Subject(s)
Hospitals, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Immunization Programs/standards , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Population Surveillance/methods , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Australia/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Data Accuracy , Health Policy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , National Health Programs/standards , Public Health Surveillance , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
18.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(3): e17242, 2020 09 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760792

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A better understanding of the influenza epidemiology among primary care workers could guide future recommendations to prevent transmission in primary care practices. Therefore, we designed a pilot study to assess the feasibility of using a work-based online influenza surveillance system among primary care workers. Such an approach is of particular relevance in the context of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, as its findings could apply to other infectious diseases with similar mechanisms of transmission. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the feasibility of using a work-based online influenza surveillance system for primary care workers in Switzerland. METHODS: Physicians and staff of one walk-in clinic and two selected primary care practices were enrolled in this observational prospective pilot study during the 2017-2018 influenza season. They were invited to record symptoms of influenza-like illness in a weekly online survey sent by email and to self-collect a nasopharyngeal swab in case any symptoms were recorded. Samples were tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction for influenza A, influenza B, and a panel of respiratory pathogens. RESULTS: Among 67 eligible staff members, 58% (n=39) consented to the study and 53% (n=36) provided data. From the time all participants were included, the weekly survey response rate stayed close to 100% until the end of the study. Of 79 symptomatic episodes (mean 2.2 episodes per participant), 10 episodes in 7 participants fitted the definition of an influenza-like illness case (attack rate: 7/36, 19%). One swab tested positive for influenza A H1N1 (attack rate: 3%, 95% CI 0%-18%). Swabbing was considered relatively easy. CONCLUSIONS: A work-based online influenza surveillance system is feasible for use among primary care workers. This promising methodology could be broadly used in future studies to improve the understanding of influenza epidemiology and other diseases such as COVID-19. This could prove to be highly useful in primary care settings and guide future recommendations to prevent transmission. A larger study will also help to assess asymptomatic infections.


Subject(s)
Health Personnel , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Mass Screening/methods , Online Systems , Population Surveillance/methods , Primary Health Care , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Feasibility Studies , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Switzerland
19.
Orv Hetil ; 161(38): 1619-1622, 2020 09.
Article in Hungarian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760743

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In Hungary, SARS-CoV-2 was first detected in the swab samples of two Iranian patients on March 4, 2020. After finding the first positive cases, the question arose whether the virus had entered Hungary and caused infections before this date. Before March 4, 2020, except for the two above-mentioned samples, none of the 224 swab samples received specifically for SARS-CoV-2 tested positive. AIM: The National Reference Laboratory for Respiratory Viruses of the National Public Health Center aimed to carry out a retrospective study of the swab and other samples taken for testing respiratory virus infections between January 1, and April 19, 2020 sent by sentinel physicians within the influenza surveillance for diagnostic purposes. METHOD: For the study, we used swab samples taken weekly by sentinel physicians of the influenza surveillance service, and other samples received for diagnostic purposes. Tests were performed using real-time PCR. RESULTS: All the 465 swab samples sent by sentinel physicians were found to be SARS-CoV-2 negative. Also, of the 551 samples collected for diagnostic reasons of other respiratory viruses, no SARS-CoV-2 positive was found among those taken before March 4. CONCLUSION: Based on our data, it is very likely that prior to the first cases diagnosed on March 4, 2020, SARS-CoV-2 did not cause clinically symptomatic infections in Hungary. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(38): 1619-1622.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Population Surveillance/methods , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Hungary/epidemiology , Iran , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies
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