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2.
Commun Dis Intell (2018) ; 472023 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232443
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 72(23): 613-620, 2023 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243279

ABSTRACT

Since the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was established in 1988, the number of wild poliovirus (WPV) cases has declined by >99.9%, and WPV serotypes 2 and 3 have been declared eradicated (1). By the end of 2022, WPV type 1 (WPV1) transmission remained endemic only in Afghanistan and Pakistan (2,3). However, during 2021-2022, Malawi and Mozambique reported nine WPV1 cases that were genetically linked to Pakistan (4,5), and circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) outbreaks were detected in 42 countries (6). cVDPVs are oral poliovirus vaccine-derived viruses that can emerge after prolonged circulation in populations with low immunity allowing reversion to neurovirulence and can cause paralysis. Polioviruses are detected primarily through surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), and poliovirus is confirmed through stool specimen testing. Environmental surveillance, the systematic sampling of sewage and testing for the presence of poliovirus, supplements AFP surveillance. Both surveillance systems were affected by the COVID-19 pandemic's effects on public health activities during 2020 (7,8) but improved in 2021 (9). This report updates previous reports (7,9) to describe surveillance performance during 2021-2022 in 34 priority countries.* In 2022, a total of 26 (76.5%) priority countries met the two key AFP surveillance performance indicator targets nationally compared with 24 (70.6%) countries in 2021; however, substantial gaps remain in subnational areas. Environmental surveillance expanded to 725 sites in priority countries, a 31.1% increase from the 553 sites reported in 2021. High-quality surveillance is critical to rapidly detect poliovirus transmission and enable prompt poliovirus outbreak response to stop circulation. Frequent monitoring of surveillance guides improvements to achieve progress toward polio eradication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Enterovirus , Poliomyelitis , Poliovirus , Humans , Pandemics , alpha-Fetoproteins , Disease Eradication , Population Surveillance , Global Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Poliomyelitis/diagnosis , Poliovirus/genetics , Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Immunization Programs
4.
BMJ Open ; 13(5): e066560, 2023 05 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2321854

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: InterVA-5 is a new version of an analytical tool for cause of death (COD) analysis at the population level. This study validates the InterVA-5 against the medical review method, using mortality data in Papua New Guinea (PNG). DESIGN AND SETTING: This study used mortality data collected from January 2018 to December 2020 in eight surveillance sites of the Comprehensive Health and Epidemiological Surveillance System (CHESS), established by the PNG Institute of Medical Research in six major provinces. METHODS: The CHESS demographic team conducted verbal autopsy (VA) interviews with close relatives of the deceased, who died in communities within the catchment areas of CHESS, using the WHO 2016 VA instrument. COD of the deceased was assigned by InterVA-5 tool, and independently certified by the medical team. Consistency, difference and agreement between the InterVA-5 model and medical review were assessed. Sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of the InterVA-5 tool were calculated with reference to the medical review method. RESULTS: Specific COD of 926 deceased people was included in the validation. Agreement between the InterVA-5 tool and medical review was high (kappa test: 0.72; p<0.01). Sensitivity and PPV of the InterVA-5 were 93% and 72% for cardiovascular diseases, 84% and 86% for neoplasms, 65% and 100% for other chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs), and 78% and 64% for maternal deaths, respectively. For infectious diseases and external CODs, sensitivity and PPV of the InterVA-5 were 94% and 90%, respectively, while the sensitivity and PPV of the medical review method were both 54% for classifying neonatal CODs. CONCLUSION: The InterVA-5 tool works well in the PNG context to assign specific CODs of infectious diseases, cardiovascular diseases, neoplasms and injuries. Further improvements with respect to chronic NCDs, maternal deaths and neonatal deaths are needed.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Communicable Diseases , Maternal Death , Infant, Newborn , Female , Humans , Cause of Death , Papua New Guinea/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Mortality
5.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 7612, 2023 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318137

ABSTRACT

Epidemiologic surveillance of circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants is essential to assess impact on clinical outcomes and vaccine efficacy. Whole genome sequencing (WGS), the gold-standard to identify variants, requires significant infrastructure and expertise. We developed a digital droplet polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) assay that can rapidly identify circulating variants of concern/interest (VOC/VOI) using variant-specific mutation combinations in the Spike gene. To validate the assay, 800 saliva samples known to be SARS-CoV-2 positive by RT-PCR were used. During the study (July 2020-March 2022) the assay was easily adaptable to identify not only existing circulating VAC/VOI, but all new variants as they evolved. The assay can discriminate nine variants (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Eta, Epsilon, Lambda, Mu, and Omicron) and sub-lineages (Delta 417N, Omicron BA.1, BA.2). Sequence analyses confirmed variant type for 124/124 samples tested. This ddPCR assay is an inexpensive, sensitive, high-throughput assay that can easily be adapted as new variants are identified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Clinical Decision-Making , Population Surveillance , COVID-19 Testing
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 72(18): 493-496, 2023 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312239

ABSTRACT

The National Center for Health Statistics' (NCHS) National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) collects and reports annual mortality statistics using U.S. death certificate data. Provisional data, which are based on the current flow of death certificate data to NCHS, provide an early estimate of deaths before the release of final data.* This report summarizes provisional U.S. COVID-19 death data for 2022. In 2022, COVID-19 was the underlying (primary) or contributing cause in the chain of events leading to 244,986 deaths† that occurred in the United States. During 2021-2022, the estimated age-adjusted COVID-19-associated death rate decreased 47%, from 115.6 to 61.3 per 100,000 persons. COVID-19 death rates were highest among persons aged ≥85 years, non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations, and males. In 76% of deaths with COVID-19 listed on the death certificate, COVID-19 was listed as the underlying cause of death. In the remaining 24% of COVID-19 deaths, COVID-19 was a contributing cause. As in 2020 and 2021, during 2022, the most common location of COVID-19 deaths was a hospital inpatient setting (59%). However, an increasing percentage occurred in the decedent's home (15%), or a nursing home or long-term care facility (14%).§ Provisional COVID-19 death estimates provide an early indication of shifts in mortality trends and can help guide public health policies and interventions aimed at reducing COVID-19-associated mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Cause of Death , Population Surveillance , Nursing Homes , Mortality
8.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1040097, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2308480

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Today, we are facing increased and continued adverse sexual health outcomes in the United States, including high post-COVID-19 pandemic rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). For the past 20 years, there have been calls for a national health strategy and a more comprehensive sexual health approach to address the myriad of persistent sexual health problems in this country. Employing a sexual health approach requires shifting from a longstanding, stigmatizing focus on morbidity toward a holistic and integrated focus on health rather than disease. While strategies are being implemented by multisectoral stakeholders, it is also important to establish a core set of indicators that broadly describe the state of sexual health in the U.S. and allow for measurement across time. The development of a comprehensive scorecard with key sexual health indicators has been proposed by other entities (e.g., Public Health England, World Health Organization), but such an attempt has not been made in the U.S. Methods: A review of national U.S. surveys and surveillance systems with items related to sexual health was conducted for years 2010-2022 to develop an inventory of existing data that yield national estimates for potential indicators of sexual health. Results: We selected 23 sexual health indicators in four broad domains including: (1) knowledge; communication and attitudes (five indicators); (2) behaviors and relationships (four indicators); (3) service access and utilization (seven indicators); and (4) adverse health outcomes (seven indicators). Recent data for each indicator are provided. Discussion: A growing body of evidence shows the positive effects of moving away from a morbidity focus toward an integrated, health-promoting approach to sexual health. Yet, not much has been done in terms of how we implement this national shift. We argue that measurement and monitoring are key to future change. We envision these core sexual health indicators would be published in the form of an index that is publicly available and updated frequently. These sexual health indicators could be used for ongoing monitoring, and to guide related research, programming, and policy development to help promote sexual health in coming years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sexual Health , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Pandemics , Public Health , Population Surveillance
9.
MMWR Suppl ; 72(1): 1-12, 2023 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300464

ABSTRACT

The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) is the largest public health surveillance system in the United States, monitoring a broad range of health-related behaviors among high school students. The system includes a nationally representative Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) and separate school-based YRBSs conducted by states, tribes, territories, and local school districts. In 2021, these surveys were conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic underscored the importance of data in understanding changes in youth risk behaviors and addressing the multifaceted public health needs of youths. This overview report describes 2021 YRBSS survey methodology, including sampling, data collection procedures, response rates, data processing, weighting, and analyses. The 2021 YRBS participation map, survey response rates, and a detailed examination of student demographic characteristics are included in this report. During 2021, in addition to the national YRBS, a total of 78 surveys were administered to high school students across the United States, representing the national population, 45 states, two tribal governments, three territories, and 28 local school districts. YRBSS data from 2021 provided the first opportunity since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic to compare youth health behaviors using long-term public health surveillance. Approximately half of all student respondents represented racial and ethnic minority groups, and approximately one in four identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, questioning, or other (a sexual identity other than heterosexual) (LGBQ+). These findings reflect shifts in youth demographics, with increased percentages of racial and ethnic minority and LGBQ+ youths compared with previous YRBSS cycles. Educators, parents, local decision makers, and other partners use YRBSS data to monitor health behavior trends, guide school health programs, and develop local and state policy. These and future data can be used in developing health equity strategies to address long-term disparities so that all youths can thrive in safe and supportive environments. This overview and methods report is one of 11 featured in this MMWR supplement. Each report is based on data collected using methods presented in this overview. A full description of YRBSS results and downloadable data are available (https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/yrbs/index.htm).


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Adolescent , United States/epidemiology , Ethnicity , Pandemics , Minority Groups , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Behavior , Risk-Taking , Sexual Behavior , Surveys and Questionnaires , Population Surveillance
10.
J Food Prot ; 86(6): 100095, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297886

ABSTRACT

Foodborne illness complaint systems that collect consumer reports of illness following exposure at a food establishment or event are a primary tool for detecting outbreaks of foodborne illness. Approximately, 75% of outbreaks reported to the national Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System are detected through foodborne illness complaints. The Minnesota Department of Health added an online complaint form to their existing statewide foodborne illness complaint system in 2017. During 2018-2021, online complainants tended to be younger than those who used traditional telephone hotlines (mean age 39 vs 46 years; p value < 0.0001), reported illnesses sooner following onset of symptoms (mean interval 2.9 vs 4.2 days; p value = 0.003), and were more likely to still be ill at the time of the complaint (69% vs 44%; p value < 0.0001). However, online complainants were less likely to have called the suspected establishment to report their illness than those who used traditional telephone hotlines (18% vs 48%; p value < 0.0001). Of the 99 outbreaks identified by the complaint system, 67 (68%) were identified through telephone complaints alone, 20 (20%) through online complaints alone, 11 (11%) using a combination of both, and 1 (1%) through email alone. Norovirus was the most common outbreak etiology identified by both complaint system methods, accounting for 66% of outbreaks identified only via telephone complaints and 80% of outbreaks identified only via online complaints. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, there was a 59% reduction in telephone complaint volume compared to 2019. In contrast, online complaints experienced a 25% reduction in volume. In 2021, the online method became the most popular complaint method. Although most outbreaks detected by complaints were reported by telephone complaints alone, adding an online form for complaint reporting increased the number of outbreaks detected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Foodborne Diseases , Humans , Adult , Minnesota/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Foodborne Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Population Surveillance
12.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w20475, 2021 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2249422

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19, which emerged in China in late 2019, rapidly spread across the world with several million victims in 213 countries. Switzerland was severely hit by the virus, with 43,000 confirmed cases as of 1 September 2020. AIM: In cooperation with the Federal Office of Public Health, we set up a surveillance database in February 2020 to monitor hospitalised patients with COVID-19, in addition to their mandatory reporting system. METHODS: Patients hospitalised for more than 24 hours with a positive polymerase chain-reaction test, from 20 Swiss hospitals, are included. Data were collected in a customised case report form based on World Health Organisation recommendations and adapted to local needs. Nosocomial infections were defined as infections for which the onset of symptoms was more than 5 days after the patient’s admission date. RESULTS: As of 1 September 2020, 3645 patients were included. Most patients were male (2168, 59.5%), and aged between 50 and 89 years (2778, 76.2%), with a median age of 68 (interquartile range 54–79). Community infections dominated with 3249 (89.0%) reports. Comorbidities were frequently reported, with hypertension (1481, 61.7%), cardiovascular diseases (948, 39.5%) and diabetes (660, 27.5%) being the most frequent in adults; respiratory diseases and asthma (4, 21.1%), haematological and oncological diseases (3, 15.8%) were the most frequent in children. Complications occurred in 2679 (73.4%) episodes, mostly respiratory diseases (2470, 93.2% in adults; 16, 55.2% in children), and renal (681, 25.7%) and cardiac (631, 23.8%) complications for adults. The second and third most frequent complications in children affected the digestive system and the liver (7, 24.1%). A targeted treatment was given in 1299 (35.6%) episodes, mostly with hydroxychloroquine (989, 76.1%). Intensive care units stays were reported in 578 (15.8%) episodes. A total of 527 (14.5%) deaths were registered, all among adults. CONCLUSION: The surveillance system has been successfully initiated and provides a robust set of data for Switzerland by including about 80% (compared with official statistics) of SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 hospitalised patients, with similar age and comorbidity distributions. It adds detailed information on the epidemiology, risk factors and clinical course of these cases and, therefore, is a valuable addition to the existing mandatory reporting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Population Surveillance , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland/epidemiology , Young Adult
13.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 240: 79-98, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286095

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To summarize the current evidence on COVID-19 vaccine-associated ocular adverse events. DESIGN: Narrative literature review. METHODS: The literature search was conducted in August 2021 using 4 electronic databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Population-based pharmacovigilance surveillance data were retrieved from all governmental agencies participating in the World Health Organization (WHO) Programme for International Drug Monitoring with publicly available online adverse event databases in English. RESULTS: A small number of case reports have documented uveitis flares and acute corneal graft rejection occurring within the first 3 weeks following immunization, while isolated cases of optic neuropathies, retinal conditions, scleritis, and herpetic eye disease have also been highlighted. However, data from population-based pharmacovigilance surveillance systems suggest that the prevalence of vaccination-associated ocular adverse events are very rare. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination-associated ocular adverse events are rare, and there is currently no substantive evidence to counterweigh the overwhelming benefits of COVID-19 immunization in patients with pre-existing ophthalmic conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Population Surveillance , Vaccination/adverse effects
14.
N Engl J Med ; 388(12): 1101-1110, 2023 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2271571

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite widespread adoption of surveillance testing for coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) among staff members in skilled nursing facilities, evidence is limited regarding its relationship with outcomes among facility residents. METHODS: Using data obtained from 2020 to 2022, we performed a retrospective cohort study of testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among staff members in 13,424 skilled nursing facilities during three pandemic periods: before vaccine approval, before the B.1.1.529 (omicron) variant wave, and during the omicron wave. We assessed staff testing volumes during weeks without Covid-19 cases relative to other skilled nursing facilities in the same county, along with Covid-19 cases and deaths among residents during potential outbreaks (defined as the occurrence of a case after 2 weeks with no cases). We reported adjusted differences in outcomes between high-testing facilities (90th percentile of test volume) and low-testing facilities (10th percentile). The two primary outcomes were the weekly cumulative number of Covid-19 cases and related deaths among residents during potential outbreaks. RESULTS: During the overall study period, 519.7 cases of Covid-19 per 100 potential outbreaks were reported among residents of high-testing facilities as compared with 591.2 cases among residents of low-testing facilities (adjusted difference, -71.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], -91.3 to -51.6). During the same period, 42.7 deaths per 100 potential outbreaks occurred in high-testing facilities as compared with 49.8 deaths in low-testing facilities (adjusted difference, -7.1; 95% CI, -11.0 to -3.2). Before vaccine availability, high- and low-testing facilities had 759.9 cases and 1060.2 cases, respectively, per 100 potential outbreaks (adjusted difference, -300.3; 95% CI, -377.1 to -223.5), along with 125.2 and 166.8 deaths (adjusted difference, -41.6; 95% CI, -57.8 to -25.5). Before the omicron wave, the numbers of cases and deaths were similar in high- and low-testing facilities; during the omicron wave, high-testing facilities had fewer cases among residents, but deaths were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Greater surveillance testing of staff members at skilled nursing facilities was associated with clinically meaningful reductions in Covid-19 cases and deaths among residents, particularly before vaccine availability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Health Personnel , Population Surveillance , Skilled Nursing Facilities , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Skilled Nursing Facilities/standards , Skilled Nursing Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Health Personnel/standards , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Population Surveillance/methods , Patients/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data
15.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 261(7): 1045-1053, 2023 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270116

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To provide epidemiological information on the occurrence of animal and human rabies in the US during 2021 and summaries of 2021 rabies surveillance for Canada and Mexico. PROCEDURES: State and territorial public health departments and USDA Wildlife Services provided data on animals submitted for rabies testing in 2021. Data were analyzed temporally and geographically to assess trends in domestic animal and wildlife rabies cases. RESULTS: During 2021, 54 US jurisdictions reported 3,663 rabid animals, representing an 18.2% decrease from the 4,479 cases reported in 2020. Texas (n = 456 [12.4%]), Virginia (297 [8.1%]), Pennsylvania (287 [7.8%]), North Carolina (248 [6.8%]), New York (237 [6.5%]), California (220 [6.0%]), and New Jersey (201 [5.5%]) together accounted for > 50% of all animal rabies cases reported in 2021. Of the total reported rabid animals, 3,352 (91.5%) involved wildlife, with bats (n = 1,241 [33.9%]), raccoons (1,030 [28.1%]), skunks (691 [18.9%]), and foxes (314 [8.6%]) representing the primary hosts confirmed with rabies. Rabid cats (216 [5.9%]), cattle (40 [1.1%]), and dogs (36 [1.0%]) accounted for 94% of rabies cases involving domestic animals in 2021. Five human rabies deaths were reported in 2021. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The number of animal rabies cases reported in the US decreased significantly during 2021; this is thought to be due to factors related to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Cattle Diseases , Chiroptera , Dog Diseases , Rabies , Animals , Cats , Cattle , Dogs , Humans , Animals, Domestic , Animals, Wild , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Foxes , Mephitidae , New York , Pandemics , Population Surveillance , Rabies/epidemiology , Rabies/veterinary , Raccoons , United States/epidemiology
16.
Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz ; 66(4): 379-390, 2023 Apr.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2284002

ABSTRACT

The continuous and systematic surveillance of the health of populations is fundamental for effective public health practice. In light of the growing importance of mental health within population health, a Mental Health Surveillance for Germany is being established at the Robert Koch Institute. Its aim is to continually provide reliable information on the current state and development of the mental health of the population.Three surveillance strategies are currently being pursued: 1) Regular comprehensive assessments aim to describe the mental health status of the population using a wide range of indicators and data sources and to observe long-term developments. They build on existing work in epidemiology and health services research. 2) High-frequency monitoring of a selection of indicators is used for the early detection of trends. 3) A continuous literature review collates current findings on mental health developments in the COVID-19 pandemic on a monthly basis. The latter two strategies were implemented in response to new information needs in the pandemic.This paper describes and discusses these three strategies and their functions, limitations, and potential for development. Their results are communicated through different forms of reporting and serve to identify needs for action and research in public mental health. The further development and long-term operation of the Mental Health Surveillance as a whole has the potential to facilitate the achievement of public mental health objectives and to contribute on different levels to the improvement of population health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Germany/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Public Health Practice , Population Surveillance/methods
17.
MMWR Surveill Summ ; 72(1): 1-15, 2023 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280973

ABSTRACT

Problem/Condition: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Period Covered: 2020. Description of System: The Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network is an active surveillance program that estimates prevalence and characteristics of ASD and monitors timing of ASD identification among children aged 4 and 8 years. In 2020, a total of 11 sites (located in Arizona, Arkansas, California, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, Missouri, New Jersey, Tennessee, Utah, and Wisconsin) conducted surveillance of ASD among children aged 4 and 8 years and suspected ASD among children aged 4 years. Surveillance included children who lived in the surveillance area at any time during 2020. Children were classified as having ASD if they ever received 1) an ASD diagnostic statement in an evaluation, 2) a special education classification of autism (eligibility), or 3) an ASD International Classification of Diseases (ICD) code (revisions 9 or 10). Children aged 4 years were classified as having suspected ASD if they did not meet the case definition for ASD but had a documented qualified professional's statement indicating a suspicion of ASD. This report focuses on children aged 4 years in 2020 compared with children aged 8 years in 2020. Results: For 2020, ASD prevalence among children aged 4 years varied across sites, from 12.7 per 1,000 children in Utah to 46.4 in California. The overall prevalence was 21.5 and was higher among boys than girls at every site. Compared with non-Hispanic White children, ASD prevalence was 1.8 times as high among Hispanic, 1.6 times as high among non-Hispanic Black, 1.4 times as high among Asian or Pacific Islander, and 1.2 times as high among multiracial children. Among the 58.3% of children aged 4 years with ASD and information on intellectual ability, 48.5% had an IQ score of ≤70 on their most recent IQ test or an examiner's statement of intellectual disability. Among children with a documented developmental evaluation, 78.0% were evaluated by age 36 months. Children aged 4 years had a higher cumulative incidence of ASD diagnosis or eligibility by age 48 months compared with children aged 8 years at all sites; risk ratios ranged from 1.3 in New Jersey and Utah to 2.0 in Tennessee. In the 6 months before the March 2020 COVID-19 pandemic declaration by the World Health Organization, there were 1,593 more evaluations and 1.89 more ASD identifications per 1,000 children aged 4 years than children aged 8 years received 4 years earlier. After the COVID-19 pandemic declaration, this pattern reversed: in the 6 months after pandemic onset, there were 217 fewer evaluations and 0.26 fewer identifications per 1,000 children aged 4 years than children aged 8 years received 4 years earlier. Patterns of evaluation and identification varied among sites, but there was not recovery to pre-COVID-19 pandemic levels by the end of 2020 at most sites or overall. For 2020, prevalence of suspected ASD ranged from 0.5 (California) to 10.4 (Arkansas) per 1,000 children aged 4 years, with an increase from 2018 at five sites (Arizona, Arkansas, Maryland, New Jersey, and Utah). Demographic and cognitive characteristics of children aged 4 years with suspected ASD were similar to children aged 4 years with ASD. Interpretation: A wide range of prevalence of ASD by age 4 years was observed, suggesting differences in early ASD identification practices among communities. At all sites, cumulative incidence of ASD by age 48 months among children aged 4 years was higher compared with children aged 8 years in 2020, indicating improvements in early identification of ASD. Higher numbers of evaluations and rates of identification were evident among children aged 4 years until the COVID-19 pandemic onset in 2020. Sustained lower levels of ASD evaluations and identification seen at a majority of sites after the pandemic onset could indicate disruptions in typical practices in evaluations and identification for health service providers and schools through the end of 2020. Sites with more recovery could indicate successful strategies to mitigate service interruption, such as pivoting to telehealth approaches for evaluation. Public Health Action: From 2016 through February of 2020, ASD evaluation and identification among the cohort of children aged 4 years was outpacing ASD evaluation and identification 4 years earlier (from 2012 until March 2016) among the cohort of children aged 8 years in 2020 . From 2016 to March 2020, ASD evaluation and identification among the cohort of children aged 4 years was outpacing that among children aged 8 years in 2020 from 2012 until March 2016. The disruptions in evaluation that coincided with the start of the COVID-19 pandemic and the increase in prevalence of suspected ASD in 2020 could have led to delays in ASD identification and interventions. Communities could evaluate the impact of these disruptions as children in affected cohorts age and consider strategies to mitigate service disruptions caused by future public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Autistic Disorder , COVID-19 , Male , Female , Humans , Child , United States/epidemiology , Autism Spectrum Disorder/diagnosis , Autism Spectrum Disorder/epidemiology , Autistic Disorder/diagnosis , Autistic Disorder/epidemiology , Developmental Disabilities/epidemiology , Pandemics , Population Surveillance , COVID-19/epidemiology , Utah , Prevalence
19.
Commun Dis Intell (2018) ; 472023 03 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2249914
20.
Commun Dis Intell (2018) ; 472023 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2249822
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