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1.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1576965

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), an enteric coronavirus, causes neonatal pig acute gastrointestinal infection with a characterization of severe diarrhea, vomiting, high morbidity, and high mortality, resulting in tremendous damages to the swine industry. Neither specific antiviral drugs nor effective vaccines are available, posing a high priority to screen antiviral drugs. The aim of this study is to investigate anti-PEDV effects of carbazole alkaloid derivatives. Eighteen carbazole derivatives (No.1 to No.18) were synthesized, and No.5, No.7, and No.18 were identified to markedly reduce the replication of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) inserted-PEDV, and the mRNA level of PEDV N. Flow cytometry assay, coupled with CCK8 assay, confirmed No.7 and No.18 carbazole derivatives displayed high inhibition effects with low cell toxicity. Furthermore, time course analysis indicated No.7 and No.18 carbazole derivatives exerted inhibition at the early stage of the viral life cycle. Collectively, the analysis underlines the benefit of carbazole derivatives as potential inhibitors of PEDV, and provides candidates for the development of novel therapeutic agents.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Carbazoles/pharmacology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Carbazoles/chemistry , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Molecular Structure , Vero Cells , Virus Attachment/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
2.
J Virol ; 95(16): e0018721, 2021 07 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486048

ABSTRACT

Subversion of the host cell cycle to facilitate viral replication is a common feature of coronavirus infections. Coronavirus nucleocapsid (N) protein can modulate the host cell cycle, but the mechanistic details remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of manipulation of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) N protein on the cell cycle and the influence on viral replication. Results indicated that PEDV N induced Vero E6 cell cycle arrest at S-phase, which promoted viral replication (P < 0.05). S-phase arrest was dependent on the N protein nuclear localization signal S71NWHFYYLGTGPHADLRYRT90 and the interaction between N protein and p53. In the nucleus, the binding of N protein to p53 maintained consistently high-level expression of p53, which activated the p53-DREAM pathway. The key domain of the N protein interacting with p53 was revealed to be S171RGNSQNRGNNQGRGASQNRGGNN194 (NS171-N194), in which G183RG185 are core residues. NS171-N194 and G183RG185 were essential for N-induced S-phase arrest. Moreover, small molecular drugs targeting the NS171-N194 domain of the PEDV N protein were screened through molecular docking. Hyperoside could antagonize N protein-induced S-phase arrest by interfering with interaction between N protein and p53 and inhibit viral replication (P < 0.05). The above-described experiments were also validated in porcine intestinal cells, and data were in line with results in Vero E6 cells. Therefore, these results reveal the PEDV N protein interacts with p53 to activate the p53-DREAM pathway, and subsequently induces S-phase arrest to create a favorable environment for virus replication. These findings provide new insight into the PEDV-host interaction and the design of novel antiviral strategies against PEDV. IMPORTANCE Many viruses subvert the host cell cycle to create a cellular environment that promotes viral growth. PEDV, an emerging and reemerging coronavirus, has led to substantial economic loss in the global swine industry. Our study is the first to demonstrate that PEDV N-induced cell cycle arrest during the S-phase promotes viral replication. We identified a novel mechanism of PEDV N-induced S-phase arrest, where the binding of PEDV N protein to p53 maintains consistently high levels of p53 expression in the nucleus to mediate S-phase arrest by activating the p53-DREAM pathway. Furthermore, a small molecular compound, hyperoside, targeted the PEDV N protein, interfering with the interaction between the N protein and p53 and, importantly, inhibited PEDV replication by antagonizing cell cycle arrest. This study reveals a new mechanism of PEDV-host interaction and also provides a novel antiviral strategy for PEDV. These data provide a foundation for further research into coronavirus-host interactions.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/drug effects , Quercetin/analogs & derivatives , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/chemistry , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Binding Sites , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/virology , Gene Expression Regulation , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nuclear Localization Signals , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Quercetin/chemistry , Quercetin/pharmacology , S Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints/drug effects , S Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints/genetics , Signal Transduction , Swine , Swine Diseases/drug therapy , Swine Diseases/genetics , Swine Diseases/metabolism , Swine Diseases/virology , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/antagonists & inhibitors , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
3.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411090

ABSTRACT

The porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is an Alphacoronavirus (α-CoV) that causes high mortality in infected piglets, resulting in serious economic losses in the farming industry. Hypericin is a dianthrone compound that has been shown as an antiviral activity on several viruses. Here, we first evaluated the antiviral effect of hypericin in PEDV and found the viral replication and egression were significantly reduced with hypericin post-treatment. As hypericin has been shown in SARS-CoV-2 that it is bound to viral 3CLpro, we thus established a molecular docking between hypericin and PEDV 3CLpro using different software and found hypericin bound to 3CLpro through two pockets. These binding pockets were further verified by another docking between hypericin and PEDV 3CLpro pocket mutants, and the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay confirmed that hypericin inhibits the PEDV 3CLpro activity. Moreover, the alignments of α-CoV 3CLpro sequences or crystal structure revealed that the pockets mediating hypericin and PEDV 3CLpro binding were highly conserved, especially in transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV). We then validated the anti-TGEV effect of hypericin through viral replication and egression. Overall, our results push forward that hypericin was for the first time shown to have an inhibitory effect on PEDV and TGEV by targeting 3CLpro, and it deserves further attention as not only a pan-anti-α-CoV compound but potentially also as a compound of other coronaviral infections.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus/drug effects , Alphacoronavirus/physiology , Anthracenes/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Perylene/analogs & derivatives , Virus Replication/drug effects , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , Models, Molecular , Perylene/pharmacology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/drug effects , Recombinant Proteins , Structure-Activity Relationship , Swine , Swine Diseases/virology , Vero Cells
4.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 23(4): 647-650, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1041011

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses present a considerable concern for humans and animals. The current world- wide pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 virus showed many gaps in understanding of coronaviruses spread and transmission. Because of lack of effective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 the only preventive measures are represented by wearing protective masks and gloves thus limiting potential risk of contact with the airborne virus. Inversely, the limited time of protective function of the masks presents another drawback of their use. Therefore, the application of disinfection agent dispersed on the surface of protective masks may enhance their effectivity and safety of their application. The aim of the study was to examine the virucidal efficacy of low-concentra- ted sodium hypochlorite dispersed using ultrasonic humidifier on the surface of surgery masks. The study was conducted using SARS-CoV-2 surrogate virus, namely porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) representing a model with similar biophysical properties and genomic structure to human coronaviruses. Five different concentrations of the disinfectant with different content of sodium hypochlorite were selected for the study. A final concentration of 0.228 g/L sodium hypochlorite effectively inactivated the PED virus and may support the biosafety of masks usage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfectants/administration & dosage , Masks/virology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium Hypochlorite/administration & dosage , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Humans , Humidifiers , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/isolation & purification , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology , Ultrasonics , Vero Cells
5.
Vet Res ; 51(1): 136, 2020 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-937135

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes lethal diarrhea in suckling piglets, leading to severe economic losses worldwide. There is an urgent need to find new therapeutic methods to prevent and control PEDV. Not only is there a shortage of commercial anti-PEDV drugs, but available commercial vaccines fail to protect against highly virulent PEDV variants. We screened an FDA-approved library of 911 natural products and found that tomatidine, a steroidal alkaloid extracted from the skin and leaves of tomatoes, demonstrates significant inhibition of PEDV replication in Vero and IPEC-J2 cells in vitro. Molecular docking and molecular dynamics analysis predicted interactions between tomatidine and the active pocket of PEDV 3CL protease, which were confirmed by fluorescence spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The inhibiting effect of tomatidine on 3CL protease was determined using cleavage visualization and FRET assay. Tomatidine-mediated blocking of 3CL protease activity in PEDV-infected cells was examined by western blot detection of the viral polyprotein in PEDV-infected cells. It indicates that tomatidine inhibits PEDV replication mainly by targeting 3CL protease. In addition, tomatidine also has antiviral activity against transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), encephalo myocarditis virus (EMCV) and seneca virus A (SVA) in vitro. These results may be helpful in developing a new prophylactic and therapeutic strategy against PEDV and other swine disease infections.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , Tomatine/analogs & derivatives , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/drug effects , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/enzymology , Tomatine/chemistry , Tomatine/pharmacology , Virus Replication/physiology
6.
Bioconjug Chem ; 31(11): 2553-2563, 2020 11 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872629

ABSTRACT

As a large enveloped RNA virus, coronavirus is of considerable medical and veterinary significance, and anticoronavirus treatment is challenging due to its biodiversity and rapid variability. In this study, Au@Ag nanorods (Au@AgNRs) were successfully synthesized by coating AuNRs with silver and were shown for the first time to have activity against the replication of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). Viral titer analysis demonstrated that Au@AgNRs could inhibit PEDV infection by 4 orders of magnitude at 12 h post-infection, which was verified by viral protein expression analysis. The potential mechanism of action showed that Au@AgNRs could inhibit the entry of PEDV and decrease the mitochondrial membrane potential and caspase-3 activity. Additionally, we demonstrated that a large amount of virus proliferation can cause the generation of reactive oxygen species in cells, and the released Ag+ and exposed AuNRs by Au@AgNRs after the stimulation of reactive oxygen species has superior antiviral activity to ensure long-term inhibition of the PEDV replication cycle. The integrated results support that Au@AgNRs can serve as a potential therapeutic strategy to prevent the replication of coronavirus.


Subject(s)
Gold/chemistry , Gold/pharmacology , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/drug effects , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , Silver/chemistry , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/toxicity , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Gold/toxicity , Nanotubes/chemistry , Vero Cells
7.
J Anim Sci ; 98(1)2020 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-825369

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) addition on nursery pig growth performance, fecal microbial composition, and mitigation of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) following storage. A total of 360 pigs (DNA 400 × 200, Columbus, NE; initially 6.7 ± 0.07 kg) were randomized to pens (5 pigs per pen) on the day of weaning (approximately 20 d of age), allowed a 6-d acclimation, blocked by BW, and randomized to dietary treatment (9 pens per treatment). All MCFA (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) were guaranteed ≥98% purity, including hexanoic (C6:0), octanoic (C8:0), and decanoic (C10:0) acids. Treatment diets were formulated in 2 phases (7 to 11 and 11 to 23 kg BW) and formulated to meet or exceed NRC requirement estimates. Treatments (n = 8) were a dose response including 0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% added MCFA blend (1:1:1 ratio C6:0, C8:0, and C10:0), as well as treatments with individual additions of 0.5% C6:0, C8:0, or C10:0. Fecal samples were collected from pigs fed control and 1.5% MCFA blend diets on days 0 and 14 and analyzed using 16s rDNA sequencing. Following feed manufacture, feed was stored in bags at barn temperature and humidity for 40 d before laboratory inoculation with PEDV. Subsamples of retained feed were inoculated with PEDV to achieve a titer of 104 TCID50/g and separate sample bottles were analyzed on 0 and 3 d post-inoculation (dpi). Overall, ADG and ADFI were increased (linear, P ≤ 0.010) and feed efficiency (G:F) improved (linear, P = 0.004) with increasing MCFA blend. Pigs fed 0.5% C8:0 had greater (P = 0.038) ADG compared with pigs fed the control diet, and G:F was improved (P ≤ 0.024) when pigs were fed 0.5% C6:0, 0.5% C8:0, or 0.5% C10:0 compared with control. An inclusion level × day interaction was observed (quadratic, P = 0.023), where PEDV Ct values increased (quadratic, P = 0.001) on 0 dpi with increasing levels of MCFA blend inclusion and also increased on 3 dpi (linear, P < 0.001). Fecal microbial diversity and composition were similar between control and 1.5% MCFA blend. In summary, the use of MCFA in nursery pig diets improves growth performance, provides residual mitigation activity against PEDV, and does not significantly alter fecal microbial composition.


Subject(s)
Animal Feed/analysis , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Fatty Acids/pharmacology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/drug effects , Swine Diseases/prevention & control , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diet/veterinary , Feces/microbiology , Female , Male , Swine , Swine Diseases/virology , Weaning
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(8)2020 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-825269

ABSTRACT

Our previous study showed that glycyrrhizin (GLY) inhibited porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection, but the mechanisms of GLY anti-PEDV action remain unclear. In this study, we focused on the anti-PEDV and anti-proinflammatory cytokine secretion mechanisms of GLY. We found that PEDV infection had no effect on toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) protein and mRNA levels, but that TLR4 regulated PEDV infection and the mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines. In addition, we demonstrated that TLR4 regulated p38 phosphorylation but not extracellular regulated protein kinases1/2 (Erk1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) phosphorylation, and that GLY inhibited p38 phosphorylation but not Erk1/2 and JNK phosphorylation. Therefore, we further explored the relationship between high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) and p38. We demonstrated that inhibition of HMGB1 using an antibody, mutation, or knockdown decreased p38 phosphorylation. Thus, HMGB1 participated in activation of p38 through TLR4. Collectively, our data indicated that GLY inhibited PEDV infection and decreased proinflammatory cytokine secretion via the HMGB1/TLR4-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 pathway.


Subject(s)
Glycyrrhizic Acid/pharmacology , HMGB1 Protein/metabolism , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/drug effects , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Animals , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Swine , Swine Diseases/metabolism , Swine Diseases/virology , Vero Cells
9.
Viruses ; 12(2)2020 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-833229

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), being highly virulent and contagious in piglets, has caused significant damage to the pork industries of many countries worldwide. There are no commercial drugs targeting coronaviruses (CoVs), and few studies on anti-PEDV inhibitors. The coronavirus 3C-like protease (3CLpro) has a conserved structure and catalytic mechanism and plays a key role during viral polyprotein processing, thus serving as an appealing antiviral drug target. Here, we report the anti-PEDV effect of the broad-spectrum inhibitor GC376 (targeting 3Cpro or 3CLpro of viruses in the picornavirus-like supercluster). GC376 was highly effective against the PEDV 3CLpro and exerted similar inhibitory effects on two PEDV strains. Furthermore, the structure of the PEDV 3CLpro in complex with GC376 was determined at 1.65 Å. We elucidated structural details and analyzed the differences between GC376 binding with the PEDV 3CLpro and GC376 binding with the transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) 3CLpro. Finally, we explored the substrate specificity of PEDV 3CLpro at the P2 site and analyzed the effects of Leu group modification in GC376 on inhibiting PEDV infection. This study helps us to understand better the PEDV 3CLpro substrate specificity, providing information on the optimization of GC376 for development as an antiviral therapeutic against coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Peptide Hydrolases/chemistry , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/drug effects , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Catalytic Domain , Chlorocebus aethiops , Crystallography, X-Ray , Models, Molecular , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/enzymology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/metabolism , Pyrrolidines/chemistry , Pyrrolidines/metabolism , Substrate Specificity , Sulfonic Acids , Transmissible gastroenteritis virus/enzymology , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
10.
Virol J ; 17(1): 71, 2020 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-505653

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) of the family Coronaviridae has caused substantial economic losses in the swine husbandry industry. There's currently no specific drug available for treatment of coronaviruses or PEDV. METHOD: In the current study, we use coronavirus PEDV as a model to study antiviral agents. Briefly, a fusion inhibitor tHR2, recombinant lentivirus-delivered shRNAs targeted to conserved M and N sequences, homoharringtonine (HHT), and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) were surveyed for their antiviral effects. RESULTS: Treatment with HCQ at 50 µM and HHT at 150 nM reduced virus titer in TCID50 by 30 and 3.5 fold respectively, and the combination reduced virus titer in TCID50 by 200 fold. CONCLUSION: Our report demonstrates that the combination of HHT and HCQ exhibited higher antiviral activity than either HHT or HCQ exhibited. The information may contribute to the development of antiviral strategies effective in controlling PEDV infection.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Homoharringtonine/pharmacology , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/drug effects , RNA, Small Interfering/pharmacology , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus M Proteins , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , Drug Synergism , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Peptides/pharmacology , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Vero Cells , Viral Load/drug effects , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics
11.
J Anim Sci ; 98(6)2020 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-478332

ABSTRACT

Feed has been shown to be a vector for viral transmission. Four experiments were conducted to: 1) determine if medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) are effective mitigants when applied to feed both pre- and post-porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) inoculation measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), 2) evaluate varying levels and combinations of MCFA measured by qRT-PCR, and 3) evaluate selected treatments in bioassay to determine infectivity. In exp. 1, treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial with main effects of treatment (0.3% commercial formaldehyde [CF] product, Sal CURB [Kemin Industries, Inc.; Des Moines, IA], or 1% MCFA blend (Blend) of 1:1:1 C6:C8:C10 [PMI, Arden Hills, MN]) and timing of application (pre- or post-inoculation with PEDV) plus a positive control (PC; feed inoculated with PEDV and no treatment). All combinations of treatment and timing decreased detectable PEDV compared with the PC (P < 0.05). Pre-inoculation treatment elicited decreased magnitude of PEDV detection (cycle threshold value) compared with post-inoculation (P = 0.009). Magnitude of PEDV detection was decreased for CF compared with Blend (P < 0.0001). In exp. 2, pre-inoculation treatments consisted of: 1) PC, 2) 0.3% CF, 3 to 5) 0.125% to 0.33% C6:0, 6 to 8) 0.125% to 0.33% C8:0, 9 to 11) 0.125% to 0.33% C10:0, and 12 to 15) 0.125% to 0.66% C5:0. Treating feed with 0.33% C8:0 resulted in decreased (P < 0.05) PEDV detection compared with all other treatments. Increasing concentration of each individual MCFA decreased PEDV detectability (P < 0.042). In exp. 3, pre-inoculation treatments consisted of: 1) PC, 2) 0.3% CF, 3 to 7) 0.25% to 1% Blend, 8 to 10) 0.125% to 0.33% C6:0 + C8:0, 11 to 13) 0.125% to 0.33% C6:0 + C10:0, and 14 to 16) 0.125% to 0.33% C8:0 + C10:0. Treating feed with CF, 0.5% Blend, 0.75% Blend, 1% Blend, all levels of C6:0+C8:0, 0.25% C6:0 + 0.25% C10:0, 0.33% C6:0 + 0.33% C10:0, 0.25% C8:0 + 0.25% C10:0, or 0.33% C8:0 + 0.33% C10:0 elicited decreased detection of PEDV compared with PC (P < 0.05). Increasing concentration of each MCFA combination decreased PEDV detectability (linear, P < 0.012). In exp. 4, feed was treated pre-inoculation with: 1) no treatment (PC), 2) 0.3% CF, 3) 0.5% Blend, or 4) 0.3% C8:0 and analyzed via qRT-PCR and bioassay. Adding 0.5% Blend or 0.3% C8:0 resulted in decreased PEDV compared with PC and only PC resulted in a positive bioassay. Therefore, MCFA can decrease detection of PEDV in feed. Further, inclusion of lower levels of MCFA than previously evaluated are effective against PEDV.


Subject(s)
Animal Feed/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Fatty Acids/analysis , Fatty Acids/pharmacology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/drug effects , Swine Diseases/prevention & control , Animal Feed/analysis , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Food Contamination/analysis , Swine , Swine Diseases/virology
13.
Virus Res ; 284: 197989, 2020 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-141651

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses are responsible for a growing economic, social and mortality burden, as the causative agent of diseases such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and COVID-19. However, there is a lack of effective antiviral agents for many coronavirus strains. Naturally existing compounds provide a wealth of chemical diversity, including antiviral activity, and thus may have utility as therapeutic agents against coronaviral infections. The PubMed database was searched for papers including the keywords coronavirus, SARS or MERS, as well as traditional medicine, herbal, remedy or plants, with 55 primary research articles identified. The overwhelming majority of publications focussed on polar compounds. Compounds that show promise for the inhibition of coronavirus in humans include scutellarein, silvestrol, tryptanthrin, saikosaponin B2, quercetin, myricetin, caffeic acid, psoralidin, isobavachalcone, and lectins such as griffithsin. Other compounds such as lycorine may be suitable if a therapeutic level of antiviral activity can be achieved without exceeding toxic plasma concentrations. It was noted that the most promising small molecules identified as coronavirus inhibitors contained a conjugated fused ring structure with the majority being classified as being polyphenols.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Animals , COVID-19 , Coronavirus, Feline/drug effects , Humans , Infectious bronchitis virus/drug effects , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Pandemics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/drug effects , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2
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