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1.
J Virol Methods ; 318: 114755, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240515

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a highly contagious intestinal virus. However, the current PEDV vaccine, which is produced from classical strain G1, offers low protection against recently emerged strain G2. This study aims to develop a better vaccine strain by propagating the PS6 strain, a G2b subgroup originating from Vietnam, on Vero cells until the 100th passage. As the virus was propagated, its titer increased, and its harvest time decreased. Analysis of the nucleotide and amino acid variation of the PS6 strain showed that the P100PS6 had 11, 4, and 2 amino acid variations in the 0 domain, B domain, and ORF3 protein, respectively, compared to the P7PS6 strain. Notably, the ORF3 gene was truncated due to a 16-nucleotide deletion mutation, resulting in a stop codon. The PS6 strain's virulence was evaluated in 5-day-old piglets, with P7PS6 and P100PS6 chosen for comparison. The results showed that P100PS6-inoculated piglets exhibited mild clinical symptoms and histopathological lesions, with a 100% survival rate. In contrast, P7PS6-inoculated piglets showed rapid and typical clinical symptoms of PEDV infection, and the survival rate was 0%. Additionally, the antibodies (IgG and IgA) produced from inoculated piglets with P100PS6 bound to both the P7PS6 and P100PS6 antigens. This finding suggested that the P100PS6 strain was attenuated and could be used to develop a live-attenuated vaccine against highly pathogenic and prevalent G2b-PEDV strains.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Chlorocebus aethiops , Swine , Animals , Vero Cells , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Virulence , Serial Passage , Vaccines, Attenuated/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diarrhea/veterinary
2.
Microb Pathog ; 181: 106185, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231019

ABSTRACT

Porcine Epidemic Diarrhoea (PED) is an acute, extremely infectious intestinal disease of pigs caused by the Porcine Epidemic Diarrhoea Virus (PEDV). The virus can affect pigs of all breeds and age groups and shows varying degrees of symptoms, with piglets, in particular, being infected with mortality rates of up to 100%. PEDV was first identified in China in the 1980s and in October 2010 a large-scale PED outbreak caused by a variant of PEDV occurred in China, resulting in huge economic losses. Initially, vaccination can effectively prevent the classical strain, but since December 2010, the PEDV variant has caused "persistent diarrhoea" with severe vomiting, watery diarrhoea, and high morbidity and mortality in newborn piglets as the dominant clinical features, with a significant increase in morbidity and mortality. This indicates that PEDV strains have mutated during evolution and that traditional vaccines no longer provide effective cross-immune protection, so it is necessary to optimize immunization programs and find effective treatments through epidemiological surveys of PEDV to reduce the economic losses caused by infections with mutated strains. This article reviews the progress of research on the aetiology, epidemiological characteristics, genotyping, pathogenesis, transmission routes, and comprehensive control of PEDV infection in China.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Dysentery , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Swine , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Genotype , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Diarrhea , China/epidemiology , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Swine Diseases/prevention & control
3.
Arch Virol ; 168(5): 152, 2023 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317672

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) virus (PEDV) is a highly contagious virus. PED was first identified in 2008 and has greatly affected the Vietnamese pig production economy. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiological and genetic characteristics of PEDV in piglet herds in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Diarrheal stool and intestinal samples from 2262 piglets from 191 herds in five provinces were collected to test for the presence of PEDV. Ten PEDV strains were randomly selected for sequencing, and four genes encoding PEDV structural proteins were analyzed. The rates of herds and samples positive for PEDV were 27.23% and 27.72%, respectively. In positive herds, the morbidity and mortality of PEDV-positive piglets were 97.97% and 79.06%, respectively, with most of the infected piglets under 7 days of age. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 10 PEDV strains from this study clustered with genotype G2 strains from Vietnam and neighboring countries. Many amino acid substitutions were identified in important antigenic regions in the spike protein of the 10 strains when compared to four PEDV vaccine strains. This study provides novel insights into the epidemiology and genetic diversity of circulating PEDV strains, which could facilitate the development of an appropriate and proactive strategy for controlling PED.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Swine , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Phylogeny , Vietnam/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Molecular Epidemiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/veterinary , Swine Diseases/epidemiology
4.
Virology ; 584: 9-23, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317224

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a porcine enteropathogenic coronavirus causing severe watery diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, and death in piglets. However, most commercial vaccines are developed based on the GI genotype strains, and have poor immune protection against the currently dominant GII genotype strains. Therefore, four novel replication-deficient human adenovirus 5-vectored vaccines expressing codon-optimized forms of the GIIa and GIIb strain spike and S1 glycoproteins were constructed, and their immunogenicity was evaluated in mice by intramuscular (IM) injection. All the recombinant adenoviruses generated robust immune responses, and the immunogenicity of recombinant adenoviruses against the GIIa strain was stronger than that of recombinant adenoviruses against the GIIb strain. Moreover, Ad-XT-tPA-Sopt-vaccinated mice elicited optimal immune effects. In contrast, mice immunized with Ad-XT-tPA-Sopt by oral gavage did not induce strong immune responses. Overall, IM administration of Ad-XT-tPA-Sopt is a promising strategy against PEDV, and this study provides useful information for developing viral vector-based vaccines.


Subject(s)
Adenoviruses, Human , Coronavirus Infections , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Swine , Mice , Humans , Antibodies, Viral , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Viral Vaccines/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Genotype , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
5.
Res Vet Sci ; 159: 146-159, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311847

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is an entero-pathogenic coronavirus, which belongs to the genus Alphacoronavirus in the family Coronaviridae, causing lethal watery diarrhea in piglets. Previous studies have shown that PEDV has developed an antagonistic mechanism by which it evades the antiviral activities of interferon (IFN), such as the sole accessory protein open reading frame 3 (ORF3) being found to inhibit IFN-ß promoter activities, but how this mechanism used by PEDV ORF3 inhibits activation of the type I signaling pathway remains not fully understood. Thus, in this present study, we showed that PEDV ORF3 inhibited both polyinosine-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C))- and IFNα2b-stimulated transcription of IFN-ß and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) mRNAs. The expression levels of antiviral proteins in the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs)-mediated pathway was down-regulated in cells with over-expression of PEDV ORF3 protein, but global protein translation remained unchanged and the association of ORF3 with RLRs-related antiviral proteins was not detected, implying that ORF3 only specifically suppressed the expression of these signaling molecules. At the same time, we also found that the PEDV ORF3 protein inhibited interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) phosphorylation and poly(I:C)-induced nuclear translocation of IRF3, which further supported the evidence that type I IFN production was abrogated by PEDV ORF3 through interfering with RLRs signaling. Furthermore, PEDV ORF3 counteracted transcription of IFN-ß and ISGs mRNAs, which were triggered by over-expression of signal proteins in the RLRs-mediated pathway. However, to our surprise, PEDV ORF3 initially induced, but subsequently reduced the transcription of IFN-ß and ISGs mRNAs to normal levels. Additionally, mRNA transcriptional levels of signaling molecules located at IFN-ß upstream were not inhibited, but elevated by PEDV ORF3 protein. Collectively, these results demonstrate that inhibition of type I interferon signaling by PEDV ORF3 can be realized through down-regulating the expression of signal molecules in the RLRs-mediated pathway, but not via inhibiting their mRNAs transcription. This study points to a new mechanism evolved by PEDV through blockage of the RLRs-mediated pathway by ORF3 protein to circumvent the host's antiviral immunity.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Interferon Type I , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Swine , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Open Reading Frames , Signal Transduction , Antiviral Agents , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Interferon Type I/metabolism
6.
Viruses ; 15(4)2023 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306063

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is a severe contagious intestinal disease caused by the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), which leads to high mortality in piglets. In this study, by analyzing a total of 53 full-length spike genes and COE domain regions of PEDVs, the conserved COE fragment of the spike protein from the dominant strain SC1402 was chosen as the target protein and expressed successfully in Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris). Furthermore, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) based on the recombinant COE protein was developed for the detection of anti-PEDV antibodies in pig sera. The results showed that under the optimized conditions, the cut-off value of COE-based indirect ELISA (COE-iELISA) was determined to be 0.12. Taking the serum neutralization test as standard, the relative sensitivity of the COE-iELISA was 94.4% and specificity 92.6%. Meanwhile, no cross-reactivity to other porcine pathogens was noted with this assay. The intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation were less than 7%. Moreover, 164 vaccinated serum samples test showed that overall agreement between COE-iELISA and the actual diagnosis result was up to 99.4%. More importantly, the developed iELISA exhibited a 95.08% agreement rate with the commercial ELISA kit (Kappa value = 0.88), which suggested that the expressed COE protein was an effective antigen in serologic tests and the established COE-iELISA is reliable for monitoring PEDV infection in pigs or vaccine effectiveness.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Swine , Epitopes , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Antibodies, Viral , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control
7.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1165606, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298752

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a re-emerging enteropathogenic coronavirus that causes high mortality in neonatal piglets. The addition of trypsin plays a crucial role in the propagation of PEDV, but also increases the complexity of vaccine production and increases its cost. Previous studies have suggested that the S2' site and Y976/977 of the PEDV spike (S) protein might be the determinants of PEDV trypsin independence. In this study, to achieve a recombinant trypsin-independent PEDV strain, we used trypsin-dependent genotype 2 (G2) PEDV variant AJ1102 to generate three recombinant PEDVs with mutations in S (S2' site R894G and/or Y976H). The three recombinant PEDVs were still trypsin dependent, suggesting that the S2' site R894 and Y976 of AJ1102 S are not key sites for PEDV trypsin dependence. Therefore, we used AJ1102 and the classical trypsin-independent genotype 1 (G1) PEDV strain JS2008 to generate a recombinant PEDV carrying a chimeric S protein, and successfully obtained trypsin-independent PEDV strain rAJ1102-S2'JS2008, in which the S2 (amino acids 894-1386) domain was replaced with the corresponding JS2008 sequence. Importantly, immunization with rAJ1102-S2'JS2008 induced neutralizing antibodies against both AJ1102 and JS2008. Collectively, these results suggest that rAJ1102-S2'JS2008 is a novel vaccine candidate with significant advantages, including no trypsin requirement for viral propagation to high titers and the potential provision of protection for pigs against G1 and G2 PEDV infections.


Subject(s)
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Swine , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Viral Vaccines/genetics , Swine Diseases/prevention & control , Mutation , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics
8.
Viruses ; 15(4)2023 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300977

ABSTRACT

Various coronaviruses have emerged as a result of cross-species transmission among humans and domestic animals. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV; family Coronaviridae, genus Alphacoronavirus) causes acute diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, and high mortality in neonatal piglets. Porcine small intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2 cells) can be used as target cells for PEDV infection. However, the origin of PEDV in pigs, the host range, and cross-species infection of PEDV remain unclear. To determine whether PEDV has the ability to infect human cells in vitro, human small intestinal epithelial cells (FHs 74 Int cells) were inoculated with PEDV LJX and PEDV CV777 strains. The results indicated that PEDV LJX, but not PEDV CV777, could infect FHs 74 Int cells. Furthermore, we observed M gene mRNA transcripts and N protein expression in infected FHs 74 Int cells. A one-step growth curve showed that the highest viral titer of PEDV occurred at 12 h post infection. Viral particles in vacuoles were observed in FHs 74 Int cells at 24 h post infection. The results proved that human small intestinal epithelial cells are susceptible to PEDV infection, suggesting the possibility of cross-species transmission of PEDV.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Humans , Animals , Swine , Cell Line , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Intestines , Epithelial Cells , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Diarrhea
9.
PLoS Biol ; 21(3): e3002039, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2289032

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) comprise a group of important human and animal pathogens. Despite extensive research in the past 3 years, the host innate immune defense mechanisms against CoVs remain incompletely understood, limiting the development of effective antivirals and non-antibody-based therapeutics. Here, we performed an integrated transcriptomic analysis of porcine jejunal epithelial cells infected with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and identified cytidine/uridine monophosphate kinase 2 (CMPK2) as a potential host restriction factor. CMPK2 exhibited modest antiviral activity against PEDV infection in multiple cell types. CMPK2 transcription was regulated by interferon-dependent and interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1)-dependent pathways post-PEDV infection. We demonstrated that 3'-deoxy-3',4'-didehydro-cytidine triphosphate (ddhCTP) catalysis by Viperin, another interferon-stimulated protein, was essential for CMPK2's antiviral activity. Both the classical catalytic domain and the newly identified antiviral key domain of CMPK2 played crucial roles in this process. Together, CMPK2, viperin, and ddhCTP suppressed the replication of several other CoVs of different genera through inhibition of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activities. Our results revealed a previously unknown function of CMPK2 as a restriction factor for CoVs, implying that CMPK2 might be an alternative target of interfering with the viral polymerase activity.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Humans , Animals , Swine , Interferons , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Proteins/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics
10.
Mol Biol Evol ; 40(3)2023 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288520

ABSTRACT

With a possible origin from bats, the alphacoronavirus Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes significant hazards and widespread epidemics in the swine population. However, the ecology, evolution, and spread of PEDV are still unclear. Here, from 149,869 fecal and intestinal tissue samples of pigs collected in an 11-year survey, we identified PEDV as the most dominant virus in diarrheal animals. Global whole genomic and evolutionary analyses of 672 PEDV strains revealed the fast-evolving PEDV genotype 2 (G2) strains as the main epidemic viruses worldwide, which seems to correlate with the use of G2-targeting vaccines. The evolving pattern of the G2 viruses presents geographic bias as they evolve tachytely in South Korea but undergo the highest recombination in China. Therefore, we clustered six PEDV haplotypes in China, whereas South Korea held five haplotypes, including a unique haplotype G. In addition, an assessment of the spatiotemporal spread route of PEDV indicates Germany and Japan as the primary hubs for PEDV dissemination in Europe and Asia, respectively. Overall, our findings provide novel insights into the epidemiology, evolution, and transmission of PEDV, and thus may lay a foundation for the prevention and control of PEDV and other coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Animals , Swine , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Phylogeny , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary
11.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 13: 1142173, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288509

ABSTRACT

Background: Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), an intestinal pathogenic coronavirus, has caused significant economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. At present, there are several treatment methods, but there is still a lack of clinically effective targeted drugs, new antiviral mechanisms and drugs need to be explored. Methods: In this study, we established a model of erastin versus ferrostatin-1 treatment of Vero cells, and then detected virus proliferation and gene expression by RT-qPCR through PEDV infection experiments. Results: We demonstrated for the first time that erastin significantly inhibited the replication of PEDV upon entry into cells; Vero treated with erastin significantly regulated the expression of three genes, NRF2, ACSL4 and GPX4, notably erastin regulated the expression of these three genes negatively correlated with the expression induced by PEDV virus infection. Conclusions: Since NRF2, ACSL4 and GPX4 are classical Ferroptosis genes, this study speculates that erastin may inhibit the replication of PEDV in Vero cells in part through the regulation of ferroptosis pathway, and erastin may be a potential drug for the treatment of PEDV infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Chlorocebus aethiops , Animals , Swine , Vero Cells , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Piperazines/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Virus Replication
12.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 13: 1123650, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286056

ABSTRACT

The high mortality rate of weaned piglets infected with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) poses a serious threat to the pig industry worldwide, demanding urgent research efforts related to developing effective antiviral drugs to prevent and treat PEDV infection. Small molecules can possibly prevent the spread of infection by targeting specific vital components of the pathogen's genome. Main protease (Mpro, also named 3CL protease) plays essential roles in PEDV replication and has emerged as a promising target for the inhibition of PEDV. In this study, wogonin exhibited antiviral activity against a PEDV variant isolate, interacting with the PEDV particles and inhibiting the internalization, replication and release of PEDV. The molecular docking model indicated that wogonin was firmly embedded in the groove of the active pocket of Mpro. Furthermore, the interaction between wogonin and Mpro was validated in silico via microscale thermophoresis and surface plasmon resonance analyses. In addition, the results of a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay indicated that wogonin exerted an inhibitory effect on Mpro. These findings provide useful insights into the antiviral activities of wogonin, which could support future research into anti-PEDV drugs.`.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Swine , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Molecular Docking Simulation , Peptide Hydrolases , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/genetics
13.
Antiviral Res ; 212: 105579, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268977

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), a member of the genus Alphacoronavirus in the family Coronaviridae, causes acute diarrhea and/or vomiting, dehydration, and high mortality in neonatal piglets. It has caused huge economic losses to animal husbandry worldwide. Current commercial PEDV vaccines do not provide enough protection against variant and evolved virus strains. No specific drugs are available to treat PEDV infection. The development of more effective therapeutic anti-PEDV agents is urgently needed. Our previous study suggested that porcine milk small extracellular vesicles (sEV) facilitate intestinal tract development and prevent lipopolysaccharide-induced intestinal injury. However, the effects of milk sEV during viral infection remain unclear. Our study found that porcine milk sEV, which was isolated and purified by differential ultracentrifugation, could inhibit PEDV replication in IPEC-J2 and Vero cells. Simultaneously, we constructed a PEDV infection model for piglet intestinal organoids and found that milk sEV also inhibited PEDV infection. Subsequently, in vivo experiments showed that milk sEV pre-feeding exerted robust protection of piglets from PEDV-induced diarrhea and mortality. Strikingly, we found that the miRNAs extracted from milk sEV inhibited PEDV infection. miRNA-seq, bioinformatics analysis, and experimental verification demonstrated that miR-let-7e and miR-27b, which were identified in milk sEV targeted PEDV N and host HMGB1, suppressed viral replication. Taken together, we revealed the biological function of milk sEV in resisting PEDV infection and proved its cargo miRNAs, miR-let-7e and miR-27b, possess antiviral functions. This study is the first description of the novel function of porcine milk sEV in regulating PEDV infection. It provides a better understanding of milk sEV resistance to coronavirus infection, warranting further studies to develop sEV as an attractive antiviral.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , MicroRNAs , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Chlorocebus aethiops , Animals , Swine , Vero Cells , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Milk , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Diarrhea/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Swine Diseases/prevention & control
14.
Microbiol Spectr ; 11(1): e0387222, 2023 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2239688

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), a continuously evolving pathogen, causes severe diarrhea in piglets, with high mortality rates. To prevent or mitigate the disease, it is common practice to develop live or inactivated PEDV vaccines based on cell-adapted viral variants. Propagating wild-type PEDV in cultured cells is, however, often challenging due to the lack of knowledge about the requirements for the cell adaptation of PEDV. In the present study, by using the RNA-targeted reverse genetic system for PEDV to apply S protein swapping followed by the rescue of the recombinant viruses, three key amino acid mutations in the S protein, A605E, E633Q, and R891G, were identified, which enable attenuated PEDV strain DR13 (DR13att) to efficiently and productively infect Vero cells, in contrast to the parental DR13 strain (DR13par). The former two key mutations reside inside and in the vicinity of the receptor binding domain (RBD), respectively, while the latter occurs at the N-terminal end of the fusion peptide (FP). Besides the three key mutations, other mutations in the S protein further enhanced the infection efficiency of the recombinant viruses. We hypothesize that the three mutations changed PEDV tropism by altering the S2' cleavage site and the RBD structure. This study provides basic molecular insight into cell adaptation by PEDV, which is also relevant for vaccine design. IMPORTANCE Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a lethal pathogen for newborn piglets, and an efficient vaccine is needed urgently. However, propagating wild-type PEDV in cultured cells for vaccine development is still challenging due to the lack of knowledge about the mechanism of the cell adaptation of PEDV. In this study, we found that three amino acid mutations, A605E, E633Q, and R891G, in the spike protein of the Vero cell-adapted PEDV strain DR13att were critical for its cell adaptation. After analyzing the mutation sites in the spike protein, we hypothesize that the cell adaptation of DR13att was achieved by altering the S2' cleavage site and the RBD structure. This study provides new molecular insight into the mechanism of PEDV culture adaptation and new strategies for PEDV vaccine design.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Chlorocebus aethiops , Animals , Swine , Vero Cells , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Amino Acid Substitution , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Swine Diseases/prevention & control
15.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 231: 123282, 2023 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2237653

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), an enteropathogenic coronavirus, has catastrophic impacts on the global pig industry. However, there are still no anti-PEDV drugs with accurate targets. G-quadruplexes (G4s) are non-canonical secondary structures formed within guanine-rich regions of DNA or RNA, and have attracted great attention as potential targets for antiviral strategy. In this study, we reported two putative G4-forming sequences (PQS) in S and Nsp5 genes of PEDV genome based on bioinformatic analysis, and identified that S-PQS and Nsp5-PQS were enabled to fold into G4 structure by using circular dichroism spectroscopy and fluorescence turn-on assay. Furthermore, we verified that both S-PQS and Nsp5-PQS PQS could form G4 structure in live cells by immunofluorescence microscopy. In addition, G4-specific compounds, such as TMPyP4 and PDS, could significantly inhibit transcription, translation and proliferation of PEDV in vitro. Importantly, these compounds exert antiviral activity at the post-entry step of PEDV infection cycle, by inhibiting viral genome replication and protein expression. Lastly, we demonstrated that TMPyP4 can inhibit reporter gene expression by targeting G4 structure in Nsp5. Taken together, these findings not only reinforce the presence of viral G-quadruplex sequences in PEDV genome but also provide new insights into developing novel antiviral drugs targeting PEDV RNA G-quadruplexes.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus , G-Quadruplexes , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Animals , Swine , Antiviral Agents , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Coronavirus/genetics , Virus Replication
16.
Virology ; 579: 1-8, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2237231

ABSTRACT

Since the emergence of the highly pathogenic porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) strain in 2010, the prevention of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) in pig farms remains problematic. To find the reasons behind the high mortality in young piglets, the relative mRNA expression of inflammation-related factors in infected pigs of different ages as well as uninfected pigs were detected by RT-qPCR. The results showed that the mRNA expression of these factors including IL-6 and TNF-α was more increased in infected younger piglets than infected older pigs. To clarify the relationship between these inflammation related factors, the pairwise linear correlation between the relative expression of these factors were analyzed and showed as network mapping with different correlation coefficients. A strong positive correlation was observed between the expression of various factors in 1-week-old piglets. Combined with the difference in mortality of PEDV infection in pigs of different ages, we hypothesized that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) could inhibit PEDV infection in newborn piglets, and an in vivo experiment was carried out. The results of survival rate and wet/dry ratio showed that LAB alleviated PEDV indued mortality and diarrhea. The detection of viral copies and tissue section staining showed less observed viruses in LAB treated pig. RT-qPCR results of gene expression in intestines showed that LAB modulated the gene expression of various host barrier genes, indicating that LAB is potential to inhibit PEDV infection by regulating the host intestinal barrier. However, to use LAB as therapy, how to improve the efficiency on inhibiting PEDV infection needs further studies.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Lactobacillales , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Swine , Animals , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Lactobacillales/genetics , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Diarrhea/veterinary , Diarrhea/pathology , RNA, Messenger , Inflammation , Administration, Oral , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/pathology
17.
J Immunol ; 210(4): 475-485, 2023 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2201459

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a highly pathogenic porcine enteric coronavirus that causes severe watery diarrhea and even death in piglets. The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is the only transport receptor for IgG. FcRn expressed by intestinal epithelial cells can transport IgG from breast milk to piglets to provide immune protection. Previous studies have shown that viral infection affects FcRn expression. In this study, we showed for the first time, to our knowledge, that FcRn expression can be influenced by methyltransferases. In addition, we found that PEDV inhibited FcRn protein synthesis in porcine small intestinal epithelial cells postinfection. Then, we found that PEDV interfered with the transcription of genes through aberrant methylation modification of the FcRn promoter. DNA methyltransferase 3b (DNMT3b) has been implicated in this process. Using a series of PEDV structural and nonstructural protein (nsp) expression plasmids, we showed that nsp13 plays an important role in this aberrant methylation modification. PEDV nsp13 can affect the NF-κB canonical pathway and promote DNMT3b protein expression by facilitating p65 protein binding to chromatin. PEDV caused aberrant methylation of the FcRn promoter via DNMT3b. The same phenomenon was found in animal experiments with large white piglets. IgG transcytosis demonstrated that PEDV nsp13 can inhibit bidirectional IgG transport by FcRn. In addition, the core region of nsp13 (230-597 aa) is critical for FcRn inhibition. Taken together, to our knowledge, our findings revealed a novel immune escape mechanism of PEDV and shed new light on the design and development of vaccines and drugs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Animals , Swine , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Signal Transduction , Immunoglobulin G
18.
J Immunol ; 210(3): 271-282, 2023 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2201457

ABSTRACT

Swine coronavirus-porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) with specific susceptibility to pigs has existed for decades, and recurrent epidemics caused by mutant strains have swept the world again since 2010. In this study, single-cell RNA sequencing was used to perform for the first time, to our knowledge, a systematic analysis of pig jejunum infected with PEDV. Pig intestinal cell types were identified by representative markers and identified a new tuft cell marker, DNAH11. Excepting enterocyte cells, the goblet and tuft cells confirmed susceptibility to PEDV. Enrichment analyses showed that PEDV infection resulted in upregulation of cell apoptosis, junctions, and the MAPK signaling pathway and downregulation of oxidative phosphorylation in intestinal epithelial cell types. The T cell differentiation and IgA production were decreased in T and B cells, respectively. Cytokine gene analyses revealed that PEDV infection downregulated CXCL8, CXCL16, and IL34 in tuft cells and upregulated IL22 in Th17 cells. Further studies found that infection of goblet cells with PEDV decreased the expression of MUC2, as well as other mucin components. Moreover, the antimicrobial peptide REG3G was obviously upregulated through the IL33-STAT3 signaling pathway in enterocyte cells in the PEDV-infected group, and REG3G inhibited the PEDV replication. Finally, enterocyte cells expressed almost all coronavirus entry factors, and PEDV infection caused significant upregulation of the coronavirus receptor ACE2 in enterocyte cells. In summary, this study systematically investigated the responses of different cell types in the jejunum of piglets after PEDV infection, which deepened the understanding of viral pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine , Animals , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Transcriptome , Intestine, Small/pathology , Intestines/pathology , Sequence Analysis, RNA
19.
Viruses ; 14(12)2022 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2200867

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), a member of Coronaviridae, causes high mortality in newborn piglets, and has caused significant economic losses in the pig industry. PEDV infection can induce apoptosis, both caspase-dependent and caspase-independent, but the details of apoptosis remain clarified. This study investigated the effect of death receptor DR5 on PEDV infection and its relationship with PEDV-induced apoptosis. We found that DR5 knockdown reduced viral mRNA and protein levels of PEDV, and the viral titer decreased from 104.5 TCID50 to 103.4 TCID50 at 12 hpi. Overexpression of DR5 significantly increased the viral titer. Further studies showed that DR5 facilitates viral replication by regulating caspase-8-dependent apoptosis, and the knockdown of DR5 significantly reduced PEDV-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, we detected a biphasic upregulation expression of DR5 in both Vero cells and piglets in response to PEDV infection. We found that DR5 also facilitates viral entry of PEDV, especially, incubation with DR5 antibody can reduce the PEDV binding to Vero cells. Our study improves the understanding of the mechanism by which PEDV induces apoptosis and provides new insights into the biological function of DR5 in PEDV infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Chlorocebus aethiops , Animals , Swine , Vero Cells , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Proviruses , Virus Internalization , Caspases , Receptors, Death Domain
20.
Viruses ; 14(12)2022 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2155317

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), a member of the genera alphacoronavirus, causes acute watery diarrhea and dehydration in suckling piglets and results in enormous economic losses in the swine industry worldwide. Identification and characterization of different cell lines are not only invaluable for PEDV entry and replication studies but also important for the development of various types of biological pharmaceuticals against PEDV. In this study, we present an approach to identify suitable permissive cell lines for PEDV research. Human cell lines were screened for a high correlation coefficient with the established PEDV infection model Huh7 based on RNA-seq data from the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE). Experimentally testing permissiveness towards PEDV infection, three highly permissive human cell lines, HepG2, Hep3B217, and SNU387 were identified. The replication kinetics of PEDV in HepG2, Hep3B217, and SNU387 cells were similar to that in Vero and Huh7 cells. Additionally, the transcriptomes analysis showed robust induction of transcripts associated with the innate immune in response to PEDV infection in all three cell lines, including hundreds of inflammatory cytokine and interferon genes. Moreover, the expression of inflammatory cytokines and interferons were confirmed by qPCR assay. Our findings indicate that HepG2, Hep3B217, and SNU387 are suitable cell lines for PEDV replication and innate immune response studies.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Dysentery , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Humans , Cell Line , Cytokines/metabolism , Diarrhea , Immunity, Innate , Interferons , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Swine , Hep G2 Cells
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