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1.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 Apr 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875796

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED), characterized by diarrhea, vomiting, and dehydration, is an acute enteric infectious disease of pigs. The disease is caused by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), which infects the intestinal mucosal surface. Therefore, mucosal immunization through the oral route is an effective method of immunization. Lactic acid bacteria, which are acid resistant and bile-salt resistant and improve mucosal immunity, are ideal carriers for oral vaccines. The S1 glycoprotein of PEDV mediates binding of the virus with cell receptors and induces neutralizing antibodies against the virus. Therefore, we reversely screened the recombinant strain pPG-SD-S1/Δupp ATCC 393 expressing PEDV S1 glycoprotein by Lactobacillus casei deficient in upp genotype (Δupp ATCC 393). Mice were orally immunized three times with the recombinant bacteria that had been identified for expression, and the changes of anti-PEDV IgG and secreted immunoglobulin A levels were observed over 70 days. The results indicated that the antibody levels notably increased after oral administration of recombinant bacteria. The detection of extracellular cytokines on the 42nd day after immunization indicated high levels of humoral and cellular immune responses in mice. The above results demonstrate that pPG-SD-S1/Δupp ATCC 393 has great potential as an oral vaccine against PEDV.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Lactobacillus casei , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Diarrhea , Mice , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Swine
2.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875782

ABSTRACT

Exosomes are nanoscale vesicles actively secreted by a variety of cells. They contain regulated microRNA (miRNA), allowing them to function in intercellular communication. In the present study, the role of exosomal miRNAs in porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection was investigated using exosomes isolated from Vero cells infected with PEDV. The results of transmission electron microscopy observation showed that the exosomes are spherical in shape, uniform in size, and negatively stained in the membrane. Nanoparticle tracking analysis showed that the average exosome particle size is 130.5 nm. The results of miRNA sequencing showed that, compared with the control group, a total of 115 miRNAs are abnormally expressed in the exosomes of infected cells. Of these, 80 miRNAs are significantly upregulated and 35 miRNAs are significantly downregulated. Functional annotation analysis showed that the differentially expressed miRNAs are associated with PEDV infection through interaction with the cAMP, Hippo, TGF-beta, HIF-1, FoxO, MAPK, and Ras signaling pathways. Thus, our findings provide important information about the effects of PEDV infection on exosomal miRNA expression and will aid the search for potential anti-PEDV drug candidates.


Subject(s)
Exosomes , MicroRNAs , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , MicroRNAs/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Signal Transduction , Swine , Vero Cells
3.
J Virol ; 96(10): e0007022, 2022 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832352

ABSTRACT

In global infection and serious morbidity and mortality, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has been regarded as a dreadful porcine pathogen, but the existing commercial vaccines are not enough to fully protect against the epidemic strains. Therefore, it is of great necessity to feature the PEDV-host interaction and develop efficient countermeasures against viral infection. As an RNA/DNA protein, the trans-active response DNA binding protein (TARDBP) plays a variety of functions in generating and processing RNA, including transcription, splicing, transport, and mRNA stability, which have been reported to regulate viral replication. The current work aimed to detect whether and how TARDBP influences PEDV replication. Our data demonstrated that PEDV replication was significantly suppressed by TARDBP, regulated by KLF16, which targeted its promoter. We observed that through the proteasomal and autophagic degradation pathway, TARDBP inhibited PEDV replication via the binding as well as degradation of PEDV-encoded nucleocapsid (N) protein. Moreover, we found that TARDBP promoted autophagic degradation of N protein via interacting with MARCHF8, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, as well as NDP52, a cargo receptor. We also showed that TARDBP promoted host antiviral innate immune response by inducing interferon (IFN) expression through the MyD88-TRAF3-IRF3 pathway during PEDV infection. In conclusion, these data revealed a new antiviral role of TARDBP, effectively suppressing PEDV replication through degrading virus N protein via the proteasomal and autophagic degradation pathway and activating type I IFN signaling via upregulating the expression of MyD88. IMPORTANCE PEDV refers to the highly contagious enteric coronavirus that has quickly spread globally and generated substantial financial damage to the global swine industry. During virus infection, the host regulates the innate immunity and autophagy process to inhibit virus infection. However, the virus has evolved plenty of strategies with the purpose of limiting IFN-I production and autophagy processes. Here, we identified that TARDBP expression was downregulated via the transcription factor KLF16 during PEDV infection. TARDBP could inhibit PEDV replication through the combination as well as degradation of PEDV-encoded nucleocapsid (N) protein via proteasomal and autophagic degradation pathways and promoted host antiviral innate immune response by inducing IFN expression through the MyD88-TRAF3-IRF3 pathway. In sum, our data identify a novel antiviral function of TARDBP and provide a better grasp of the innate immune response and protein degradation pathway against PEDV infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , DNA-Binding Proteins , Interferon Type I , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Virus Replication , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Immunity, Innate , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/metabolism , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/metabolism , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , RNA/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Swine , TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 3/metabolism
4.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 140, 2022 Apr 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808371

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is one of the most important enteric viruses causing diarrhea in pigs. The establishment of a rapid detection method applicable in field conditions will be conducive to early detection of pathogen and implementation of relevant treatment. A novel nucleic acid amplification method, recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), has been widely used for infectious disease diagnosis. RESULTS: In the present study, a reverse transcription (RT)-RPA assay combined with lateral flow dipstrip (LFD) was established for the visual detection of PEDV by targeting the N gene. The RT-RPA-LFD assay detected as low as 102 copies/µL of PEDV genomic RNA standard. Moreover, the novel RT-RPA-LFD assay did not show cross-reactivity with common swine pathogens, demonstrating high specificity. The performance of the assay for detection of clinical samples was also evaluated. A total number of 86 clinical samples were tested by RT-RPA-LFD and RT-PCR. The detection results of RT-RPA-LFD were compared with those of RT-PCR, with a coincidence rate of 96.5%. CONCLUSION: The newly established RT-RPA-LFD assay in our study had high sensitivity and specificity, with a potential to use in resource-limited areas and countries.


Subject(s)
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Animals , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/veterinary , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Recombinases/genetics , Reverse Transcription , Sensitivity and Specificity , Swine
5.
J Virol ; 96(9): e0040022, 2022 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807320

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a highly pathogenic enteric coronavirus that causes high mortality in piglets. Interferon (IFN) responses are the primary defense mechanism against viral infection; however, viruses always evolve elaborate strategies to antagonize the antiviral action of IFN. Previous study showed that PEDV nonstructural protein 7 (nsp7), a component of the viral replicase polyprotein, can antagonize ploy(I:C)-induced type I IFN production. Here, we found that PEDV nsp7 also antagonized IFN-α-induced JAK-STAT signaling and the production of IFN-stimulated genes. PEDV nsp7 did not affect the protein and phosphorylation levels of JAK1, Tyk2, STAT1, and STAT2 or the formation of the interferon-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) complex. However, PEDV nsp7 prevented the nuclear translocation of STAT1 and STAT2. Mechanistically, PEDV nsp7 interacted with the DNA binding domain of STAT1/STAT2, which sequestered the interaction between karyopherin α1 (KPNA1) and STAT1, thereby blocking the nuclear transport of ISGF3. Collectively, these data reveal a new mechanism developed by PEDV to inhibit type I IFN signaling pathway. IMPORTANCE In recent years, an emerging porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) variant has gained attention because of serious outbreaks of piglet diarrhea in China and the United States. Coronavirus nonstructural protein 7 (nsp7) has been proposed to act with nsp8 as part of an RNA primase to generate RNA primers for viral RNA synthesis. However, accumulating evidence indicates that coronavirus nsp7 can also antagonize type I IFN production. Our present study extends previous findings and demonstrates that PEDV nsp7 also antagonizes IFN-α-induced IFN signaling by competing with KPNA1 for binding to STAT1, thereby enriching the immune regulation function of coronavirus nsp7.


Subject(s)
Janus Kinase 1 , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , STAT1 Transcription Factor , Signal Transduction , Viral Nonstructural Proteins , alpha Karyopherins , Animals , Cell Line , Interferons/metabolism , Janus Kinase 1/metabolism , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , STAT1 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Swine , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , alpha Karyopherins/metabolism
6.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 04 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792412

ABSTRACT

Porcine enteric coronaviruses have caused immense economic losses to the global pig industry, and pose a potential risk for cross-species transmission. The clinical symptoms of the porcine enteric coronaviruses (CoVs) are similar, making it difficult to distinguish between the specific pathogens by symptoms alone. Here, a multiplex nucleic acid detection platform based on CRISPR/Cas12a and multiplex reverse transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) was developed for the detection of four diarrhea CoVs: porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), and swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV). With this strategy, we realized a visual colorimetric readout visible to the naked eye without specialized instrumentation by using a ROX-labeled single-stranded DNA-fluorescence-quenched (ssDNA-FQ) reporter. Our method achieved single-copy sensitivity with no cross-reactivity in the identification and detection of the target viruses. In addition, we successfully detected these four enteric CoVs from RNA of clinical samples. Thus, we established a rapid, sensitive, and on-site multiplex molecular differential diagnosis technology for porcine enteric CoVs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Alphacoronavirus , Animals , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Swine
7.
Mol Biol Evol ; 39(2)2022 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594013

ABSTRACT

The ongoing SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome)-CoV (coronavirus)-2 pandemic has exposed major gaps in our knowledge on the origin, ecology, evolution, and spread of animal coronaviruses. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a member of the genus Alphacoronavirus in the family Coronaviridae that may have originated from bats and leads to significant hazards and widespread epidemics in the swine population. The role of local and global trade of live swine and swine-related products in disseminating PEDV remains unclear, especially in developing countries with complex swine production systems. Here, we undertake an in-depth phylogeographic analysis of PEDV sequence data (including 247 newly sequenced samples) and employ an extension of this inference framework that enables formally testing the contribution of a range of predictor variables to the geographic spread of PEDV. Within China, the provinces of Guangdong and Henan were identified as primary hubs for the spread of PEDV, for which we estimate live swine trade to play a very important role. On a global scale, the United States and China maintain the highest number of PEDV lineages. We estimate that, after an initial introduction out of China, the United States acted as an important source of PEDV introductions into Japan, Korea, China, and Mexico. Live swine trade also explains the dispersal of PEDV on a global scale. Given the increasingly global trade of live swine, our findings have important implications for designing prevention and containment measures to combat a wide range of livestock coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , China , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Phylogeography , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Swine , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , United States
8.
J Virol ; 95(16): e0018721, 2021 07 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486048

ABSTRACT

Subversion of the host cell cycle to facilitate viral replication is a common feature of coronavirus infections. Coronavirus nucleocapsid (N) protein can modulate the host cell cycle, but the mechanistic details remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of manipulation of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) N protein on the cell cycle and the influence on viral replication. Results indicated that PEDV N induced Vero E6 cell cycle arrest at S-phase, which promoted viral replication (P < 0.05). S-phase arrest was dependent on the N protein nuclear localization signal S71NWHFYYLGTGPHADLRYRT90 and the interaction between N protein and p53. In the nucleus, the binding of N protein to p53 maintained consistently high-level expression of p53, which activated the p53-DREAM pathway. The key domain of the N protein interacting with p53 was revealed to be S171RGNSQNRGNNQGRGASQNRGGNN194 (NS171-N194), in which G183RG185 are core residues. NS171-N194 and G183RG185 were essential for N-induced S-phase arrest. Moreover, small molecular drugs targeting the NS171-N194 domain of the PEDV N protein were screened through molecular docking. Hyperoside could antagonize N protein-induced S-phase arrest by interfering with interaction between N protein and p53 and inhibit viral replication (P < 0.05). The above-described experiments were also validated in porcine intestinal cells, and data were in line with results in Vero E6 cells. Therefore, these results reveal the PEDV N protein interacts with p53 to activate the p53-DREAM pathway, and subsequently induces S-phase arrest to create a favorable environment for virus replication. These findings provide new insight into the PEDV-host interaction and the design of novel antiviral strategies against PEDV. IMPORTANCE Many viruses subvert the host cell cycle to create a cellular environment that promotes viral growth. PEDV, an emerging and reemerging coronavirus, has led to substantial economic loss in the global swine industry. Our study is the first to demonstrate that PEDV N-induced cell cycle arrest during the S-phase promotes viral replication. We identified a novel mechanism of PEDV N-induced S-phase arrest, where the binding of PEDV N protein to p53 maintains consistently high levels of p53 expression in the nucleus to mediate S-phase arrest by activating the p53-DREAM pathway. Furthermore, a small molecular compound, hyperoside, targeted the PEDV N protein, interfering with the interaction between the N protein and p53 and, importantly, inhibited PEDV replication by antagonizing cell cycle arrest. This study reveals a new mechanism of PEDV-host interaction and also provides a novel antiviral strategy for PEDV. These data provide a foundation for further research into coronavirus-host interactions.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/drug effects , Quercetin/analogs & derivatives , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/chemistry , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Binding Sites , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/virology , Gene Expression Regulation , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nuclear Localization Signals , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Quercetin/chemistry , Quercetin/pharmacology , S Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints/drug effects , S Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints/genetics , Signal Transduction , Swine , Swine Diseases/drug therapy , Swine Diseases/genetics , Swine Diseases/metabolism , Swine Diseases/virology , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/antagonists & inhibitors , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 688758, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304592

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a known global threat, and most recently the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has claimed more than 2 million human lives. Delays and interference with IFN responses are closely associated with the severity of disease caused by CoV infection. As the most abundant viral protein in infected cells just after the entry step, the CoV nucleocapsid (N) protein likely plays a key role in IFN interruption. We have conducted a comprehensive comparative analysis and report herein that the N proteins of representative human and animal CoVs from four different genera [swine acute diarrhea syndrome CoV (SADS-CoV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV), SARS-CoV-2, Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV)] suppress IFN responses by multiple strategies. In particular, we found that the N protein of SADS-CoV interacted with RIG-I independent of its RNA binding activity, mediating K27-, K48- and K63-linked ubiquitination of RIG-I and its subsequent proteasome-dependent degradation, thus inhibiting the host IFN response. These data provide insight into the interaction between CoVs and host, and offer new clues for the development of therapies against these important viruses.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , DEAD Box Protein 58/metabolism , Interferons/antagonists & inhibitors , Interferons/immunology , Receptors, Immunologic/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , DEAD Box Protein 58/immunology , Deltacoronavirus/genetics , Deltacoronavirus/immunology , Humans , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Infectious bronchitis virus/immunology , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/metabolism , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Phosphorylation , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/immunology , Receptors, Immunologic/immunology , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Swine , Ubiquitination/physiology
10.
Front Immunol ; 12: 688758, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295641

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a known global threat, and most recently the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has claimed more than 2 million human lives. Delays and interference with IFN responses are closely associated with the severity of disease caused by CoV infection. As the most abundant viral protein in infected cells just after the entry step, the CoV nucleocapsid (N) protein likely plays a key role in IFN interruption. We have conducted a comprehensive comparative analysis and report herein that the N proteins of representative human and animal CoVs from four different genera [swine acute diarrhea syndrome CoV (SADS-CoV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV), SARS-CoV-2, Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV)] suppress IFN responses by multiple strategies. In particular, we found that the N protein of SADS-CoV interacted with RIG-I independent of its RNA binding activity, mediating K27-, K48- and K63-linked ubiquitination of RIG-I and its subsequent proteasome-dependent degradation, thus inhibiting the host IFN response. These data provide insight into the interaction between CoVs and host, and offer new clues for the development of therapies against these important viruses.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , DEAD Box Protein 58/metabolism , Interferons/antagonists & inhibitors , Interferons/immunology , Receptors, Immunologic/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , DEAD Box Protein 58/immunology , Deltacoronavirus/genetics , Deltacoronavirus/immunology , Humans , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Infectious bronchitis virus/immunology , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/metabolism , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Phosphorylation , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/immunology , Receptors, Immunologic/immunology , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Swine , Ubiquitination/physiology
11.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253622, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286870

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), a leading cause of piglet diarrhea outbreaks, poses a significant danger to the swine industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemic characteristics of PEDV that was circulating in Guangdong province, one of China's major pig producing provinces. Clinical samples were collected from eight pig farms in Guangdong province between 2018 and 2019 and tested for the major porcine enteric pathogens, including PEDV, transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), Swine enteric coronavirus (SeCoV), Swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV), porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), and porcine rotavirus (RV). As a result, only PEDV and RV were detected at a rate of 47.0% (16/34) and 18.6% (8/34), respectively. Coinfectoin with PEDV and RV occurred at a rate of PEDV 12.5% (2/16). Subsequently, the full-length S gene sequences of 13 PEDV strains were obtained, and phylogenetic analysis suggested the presence of GII-c group PEDV strains in this region (non-S-INDEL). Two novel common amino acid insertions (55T/IG56 and 551L) and one novel glycosylation site (1199G+) were detected when the CV777 and ZJ08 vaccine strains were compared. Furthermore, intragroup recombination events in the S gene regions 51-548 and 2478-4208 were observed in the PEDV strains studied. In summary, the observations provide current information on the incidence of viral agents causing swine diarrhea in southern China and detailed the genetic characteristics and evolutionary history of the dominant PEDV field strains. Our findings will aid in the development of an updated vaccine for the prevention and control of PEDV variant strains.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Disease Outbreaks , Phylogeny , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Swine Diseases/genetics , Alphacoronavirus/genetics , Animals , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Swine , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Transmissible gastroenteritis virus/genetics
12.
J Virol ; 94(16)2020 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1214962

ABSTRACT

The 5' cap methylation of viral RNA plays important roles in RNA stability, efficient translation, and immune evasion. Thus, RNA cap methylation is an attractive target for antiviral discovery and development of new live attenuated vaccines. For coronaviruses, RNA cap structure is first methylated at the guanine-N-7 (G-N-7) position by nonstructural protein 14 (nsp14), which facilitates and precedes the subsequent ribose 2'-O methylation by the nsp16-nsp10 complex. Using porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), an Alphacoronavirus, as a model, we showed that G-N-7 methyltransferase (G-N-7 MTase) of PEDV nsp14 methylated RNA substrates in a sequence-unspecific manner. PEDV nsp14 can efficiently methylate RNA substrates with various lengths in both neutral and alkaline pH environments and can methylate cap analogs (GpppA and GpppG) and single-nucleotide GTP but not ATP, CTP, or UTP. Mutations to the S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) binding motif in the nsp14 abolished the G-N-7 MTase activity and were lethal to PEDV. However, recombinant rPEDV-D350A with a single mutation (D350A) in nsp14, which retained 29.0% of G-N-7 MTase activity, was viable. Recombinant rPEDV-D350A formed a significantly smaller plaque and had significant defects in viral protein synthesis and viral replication in Vero CCL-81 cells and intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-DQ). Notably, rPEDV-D350A induced significantly higher expression of both type I and III interferons in IPEC-DQ cells than the parental rPEDV. Collectively, our results demonstrate that G-N-7 MTase activity of PEDV modulates viral replication, gene expression, and innate immune responses.IMPORTANCE Coronaviruses (CoVs) include a wide range of important human and animal pathogens. Examples of human CoVs include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-1), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and the most recently emerged SARS-CoV-2. Examples of pig CoVs include porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), and swine enteric alphacoronavirus (SeACoV). There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs for most of these viruses. All known CoVs encode a bifunctional nsp14 protein which possesses ExoN and guanine-N-7 methyltransferase (G-N-7 MTase) activities, responsible for replication fidelity and RNA cap G-N-7 methylation, respectively. Here, we biochemically characterized G-N-7 MTase of PEDV nsp14 and found that G-N-7 MTase-deficient PEDV was defective in replication and induced greater responses of type I and III interferons. These findings highlight that CoV G-N-7 MTase may be a novel target for rational design of live attenuated vaccines and antiviral drugs.


Subject(s)
Exoribonucleases/metabolism , Interferon Type I/biosynthesis , Interferons/biosynthesis , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , RNA Caps/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Animals , Binding Sites , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Exoribonucleases/genetics , Gene Expression , Guanine/metabolism , Immunity, Innate , Methylation , Mutation , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/enzymology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/pathogenicity , RNA, Viral/metabolism , S-Adenosylmethionine/metabolism , Swine , Vero Cells , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Virus Replication
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3040, 2021 02 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1107304

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) cause an enteric disease characterized by diarrhea clinically indistinguishable. Both viruses are simultaneously detected in clinical cases, but a study involving the co-infection has not been reported. The study was therefore conducted to investigate the disease severity following a co-infection with PEDV and PDCoV. In the study, 4-day-old pigs were orally inoculated with PEDV and PDCoV, either alone or in combination. Following challenge, fecal score was monitored on a daily basis. Fecal swabs were collected and assayed for the presence of viruses. Three pigs per group were necropsied at 3 and 5 days post inoculation (dpi). Microscopic lesions and villous height to crypt depth (VH:CD) ratio, together with the presence of PEDV and PDCoV antigens, were evaluated in small intestinal tissues. Expressions of interferon alpha (IFN-α) and interleukin 12 (IL12) were investigated in small intestinal mucosa. The findings indicated that coinoculation increased the disease severity, demonstrated by significantly prolonged fecal score and virus shedding and decreasing VH:CD ratio in the jejunum compared with pigs inoculated with either PEDV or PDCoV alone. Notably, in single-inoculated groups, PEDV and PDCoV antigens were detected only in villous enterocytes wile in the coinoculated group, PDCoV antigen was detected in both villous enterocytes and crypts. IFN-α and IL12 were significantly up-regulated in coinoculated groups in comparison with single-inoculated groups. In conclusion, co-infection with PEDV and PDCoV exacerbate clinical signs and have a synergetic on the regulatory effect inflammatory cytokines compared to a single infection with either virus.


Subject(s)
Deltacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Diarrhea/genetics , Interferon-alpha/genetics , Interleukin-12/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/pathogenicity , Animals , Coinfection/genetics , Coinfection/veterinary , Coinfection/virology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Deltacoronavirus/genetics , Deltacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Diarrhea/veterinary , Diarrhea/virology , Feces/virology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Swine , Swine Diseases/genetics , Swine Diseases/virology
14.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(4): 2465-2476, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-913651

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a significant global, enteric coronavirus in pigs and was first reported in Colombia in 2014. However, the epidemiology, genetic and antigenic characteristics of the virus have yet to be investigated. In this study, we investigated the dissemination of PEDV by testing 536 samples by RT-PCR over a 33-month period. The 35.8% of positive samples (n = 192) was significantly different (p < .01) between months over time, with a higher number of positives samples occurring at the beginning of the epidemic and during the second epidemic wave within the main pork producing region. The complete PEDV genomes were generated for 21 strains, which shared a high nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity, except for the spike (S) gene. Recombinant regions were identified within the Colombian strains and between Colombian and Asian PEDV strains. Phylogenetic analysis of the 21 Colombian strains demonstrated the presence of 7 lineages that shared common ancestors with PEDV strains from the United States. Moreover, the antigenic analysis demonstrated residue differences in the neutralizing epitopes in the spike and nucleocapsid proteins. Our results illustrated the simultaneous introduction of the two PEDV genotypes (GIIa American pandemic and S-INDEL) into the Colombian swine industry during the 2014 PEDV epidemic and enhanced our understanding of the epidemiology and molecular diversity of PEDV in Colombia.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Colombia/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Epidemics/veterinary , Phylogeny , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Swine , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , United States
15.
Vet Microbiol ; 251: 108892, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-899645

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is an enveloped, single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus that belongs to a porcine entero-pathogenic alphacoronavirus, causing lethal watery diarrhea in piglets. Despite existing study reports the sole accessory protein ORF3 identified as NF-κB antagonist, the contribution of PEDV ORF3 to production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines mediated by NF-κB signaling remains largely unknown. Thus in this present study, we showed that PEDV ORF3 protein significantly inhibited the productions of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8. The phosphorylation of IκBα was inhibited by ORF3 protein, but no degradation of IκBα was induced in ORF3-expressing cells. Furthermore, PEDV ORF3 inhibited NF-κB activation through preventing nuclear factor p65 phosphorylation and down-regulating p65 expression level, as well as interfering nuclear translocation of p65, eventually resulting into the inhibition of IL-6 and IL-8 production. Our study definitely links PEDV ORF3 to inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines production, which will provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms of NF-κB activity inhibited by PEDV proteins to facilitate virus evasion of host innate immune.


Subject(s)
Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-8/antagonists & inhibitors , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Transcription Factor RelA/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/immunology , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , Interleukin-6/immunology , Interleukin-8/immunology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/immunology , Signal Transduction , Swine , Transcription Factor RelA/immunology , Vero Cells , Virus Replication
16.
Arch Virol ; 166(1): 157-165, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893285

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is an enteric pathogen belonging to the family Coronaviridae that causes the porcine epidemic diarrhea, a highly contagious disease with high mortality in piglets and symptoms that include dehydration and severe diarrhea. Considering the high frequency of genetic mutations in PEDV and its potential for interspecies transmission, as it can infect and replicate in bat and human cells, a comprehensive analysis of its codon usage bias was performed. The effective number of codons (ENC) and the relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) were determined, revealing codon usage bias in the PEDV genome. Principal component analysis (PCA), an ENC plot, and a parity rule 2 (PR2) plot showed that mutation pressure and natural selection have influenced the codon usage bias of the PEDV genomes. Correlation analysis with GRAVY and aromaticity values and neutrality plot analysis indicated that natural selection was the main force influencing the codon usage pattern, while mutation pressure played a minor role. This study provides valuable basic data for further fundamental research on evolution of PEDV.


Subject(s)
Codon Usage/genetics , Codon/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Animals , Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Viral/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Principal Component Analysis/methods , Selection, Genetic/genetics , Swine
17.
Microb Pathog ; 140: 103922, 2020 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-863896

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Highly virulent variants of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) have been closely associated with recent outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) in China, which have resulted in severe economic losses to the pork industry. METHODS: In the current study, the variant PEDV strain HM2017 was isolated and purified and a viral growth curve was constructed according to the median tissue culture infective dose (TCID50). HM2017 were amplify with RT-PCR and analyzed by phylogeny analysis. Animal pathogenicity experiment was carried to evaluate the HM2017 clinical assessment. RESULTS: Genome-based phylogenetic analysis revealed that PEDV strain HM2017 was clustered into the variant subgroup GII-a that is currently circulating in pig populations in China. The highest median tissue culture infectious dose of strain HM2017 after 15 passages in Vero cells was 1.33 × 107 viral particles/mL. Strain HM2017 was highly virulent to suckling piglets, which exhibited clinical symptoms at 12 h post-infection (hpi) (i.e., weight loss at 12-84 hpi, increased body temperatures at 24-48 hpi, high viral loads in the jejunum and ileum, and 100% mortality by 84 hpi). CONCLUSION: The present study reports a variant subgroup GII-a PEDV HM2017 strain in China and characterize its pathogenicity. PEDV strain HM2017 of subgroup GII-a presents a promising vaccine candidate for the control of PED outbreaks in China.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/isolation & purification , Animals , China/epidemiology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Genome, Viral , Phylogeny , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/immunology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/pathogenicity , Swine , Swine Diseases/virology , Vero Cells , Viral Vaccines/immunology
18.
Vet Med Sci ; 6(3): 535-542, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-832113

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is a highly contagious swine disease caused by the PED virus (PEDV), which is a member of the family Coronaviridae. Since the first outbreaks in Belgium and the United Kingdom were reported in 1971, PED has spread throughout many countries around the world and causing significant economic loss. This study was conducted to investigate the recent distribution of PEDV strains in Vietnam during the 2015-2016 seasons. METHODS: A total of 30 PED-specific PCR-positive intestinal and faecal samples were collected from unvaccinated piglets in Vietnam during the 2015-2016 seasons. The full length of the spike (S) gene of these PEDV strains were analysed to determine their phylogeny and genetic relationship with other available PEDV strains globally. RESULTS: Phylogenetic analysis of the complete S gene sequences revealed that the 28 Vietnamese PEDV strains collected in the northern and central regions clustered in the G2 group (both G2a and G2b sub-groups), while the other 2 PEDV strains (HUA-PED176 and HUA-PED254) collected in the southern region were clustered in the G1/G1b group/sub-group. The nucleotide (nt) and deduced amino acid (aa) analyses based on the complete S gene sequences showed that the Vietnamese PEDV strains were closely related to each other, sharing nt and aa homology of 93.2%-99.9% and 92.6%-99.9%, respectively. The N-glycosylation patterns and mutations in the antigenic region were observed in Vietnamese PEDV strains. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides, for the first time, up-to-date information on viral circulation and genetic distribution, as well as evidence to assist in the development of effective PEDV vaccines in Vietnam.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Swine Diseases/virology , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Phylogeny , Sequence Alignment , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Swine , Vietnam
19.
J Virol Methods ; 279: 113842, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-832023

ABSTRACT

Infectious bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) cDNA clones have been used for the expression of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) genes for immune prevention and control. However, can it be used for the expression of an allogenetic fragment? To answer this question, a BVDV chimeric virus expressing the spike (S) antigen fragment of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was constructed. Antigen S499-602 was inserted into pig-derived BVDV-2 infectious cDNA clone pASH28 in tandem by overlapping PCR, located between the seventh and eighth amino acids at the N-terminus of the capsid (C) protein of BVDV. Indirect immunofluorescence assay confirmed that the chimeric virus vASH-dS312 containing double S499-602 sequences was successfully assembled, which could react with the monoclonal antibody (MAb) against BVDV E2 and PEDV S proteins. Further western blot analysis confirmed that the exogenous S499-602 double protein could be stably expressed. Next, the chimeric virus vASH-dS312 was administered to BALB/C mice either orally or by intramuscular injection. The immunized mice were healthy and showed no signs of toxicity. IgG against BVDV and PEDV antibodies could be detected in the mice administered vASH-dS312 by intramuscular injection, which had neutralization activity against BVDV and PEDV. Thus, this study reported a new insertion site in the BVDV infectious cDNA clone that could successfully express an allogenetic antigen.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/genetics , Capsid Proteins/genetics , Diarrhea Virus 2, Bovine Viral/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Diarrhea Virus 2, Bovine Viral/growth & development , Genetic Vectors , Homologous Recombination , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Swine , Viral Vaccines/genetics
20.
Viruses ; 12(2)2020 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-831427

ABSTRACT

The genomes of coronaviruses carry accessory genes known to be associated with viral virulence. The single accessory gene of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), ORF3, is dispensable for virus replication in vitro, while viral mutants carrying ORF3 truncations exhibit an attenuated phenotype of which the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here, we studied the effect of ORF3 deletion on the proliferation of PEDV in Vero cells. To this end, four recombinant porcine epidemic diarrhea viruses (PEDVs) were rescued using targeted RNA recombination, three carrying the full-length ORF3 gene from different PEDV strains, and one from which the ORF3 gene had been deleted entirely. Our results showed that PEDVs with intact or naturally truncated ORF3 replicated to significantly higher titers than PEDV without an ORF3. Further characterization revealed that the extent of apoptosis induced by PEDV infection was significantly lower with the viruses carrying an intact or C-terminally truncated ORF3 than with the virus lacking ORF3, indicating that the ORF3 protein as well as its truncated form interfered with the apoptosis process. Collectively, we conclude that PEDV ORF3 protein promotes virus proliferation by inhibiting cell apoptosis caused by virus infection. Our findings provide important insight into the role of ORF3 protein in the pathogenicity of PEDV.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Open Reading Frames/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/pathogenicity , Viral Proteins/genetics , Virus Replication , Animals , Cell Proliferation , Chlorocebus aethiops , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , Vero Cells , Virulence
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